CD45RO(+) Memory T Lymphocytes--a Candidate Marker for TNM-Immunoscore in Squamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are vital in limiting cancer progression and may supplement the TNM classification. CD45RO(+) memory TILs show major prognostic impact in various malignancies but have not been extensively explored in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we aimed to evaluate their potential in a NSCLC TNM-Immunoscore. Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumor tissue samples from two cohorts including in total 536 patients (University Hospital of North Norway, n = 285; Nordland Hospital, n = 251) with primary resected stage I to IIIA NSCLC. The density of CD45RO(+) and CD8(+) TILs in tumor epithelial and stromal compartments of the tumors was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. In univariate analyses, intraepithelial CD45RO(+) TIL density (T-CD45RO) was a significant prognostic factor for disease-specific survival (P = .007), limited to the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) histology subgroup (P < .001), where it was significant in both cohorts (University Hospital of North Norway, P = .003; Nordland Hospital, P = .022). Combining T-CD45RO and stromal CD8(+) TIL density (S-CD8) increased the prognostic impact in SCC (P < .001) and showed a significant impact within all pathological stages (I, P = .025; II, P < .001; III, P = .001). In the multivariate analysis, T-CD45RO was an independent positive prognostic factor for SCC (hazard ratio 2.65, 95% confidence interval 1.64-4.28, P < .001), and in combination with S-CD8, the prognostic impact increased vastly (high + high versus low + low: hazard ratio 6.50, 95% confidence interval 3.54-11.91, P < .001). In conclusion, T-CD45RO was an independent prognostic factor for SCC NSCLC. When combined with S-CD8, the prognostic impact increased and was significant within each pathological stage. We propose CD45RO as a candidate marker for TNM-Immunoscore in SCC NSCLC.
Project description:Operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients whose tumours have spread to regional or central lymph nodes at the time of diagnosis have dismal prognoses compared with those who have limited disease. The current TNM staging system for NSCLC poorly distinguishes patients with lymph-node metastases who will succumb to, and those who will eventually be cured from, their disease. This novel study: (1) evaluates the presence of different subsets of intraepithelial tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in lymph nodes with metastases from NSCLC patients; (2) explores the impact of intraepithelial TILs in lymph nodes on survival; (3) correlates their presence with both intraepithelial and stromal TILs in their corresponding primary tumours.Metastatic lymph-node tissue from 143N+ NSCLC patients was collected and tissue microarrays were constructed. Immunohistochemistry was used to evaluate the presence of intraepithelial CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and CD45RO+ TILs and their impact on survival.A high level of intraepithelial CD45RO+ TILs in lymph-node metastases from N+ NSCLC patients was an independent positive prognostic factor for disease-specific survival in all patients (HR=0.58, P=0.029) and in squamous cell carcinoma (HR=0.31, P=0.006), but not in adenocarcinoma patients.The presence of intraepithelial CD45RO+ cells in lymph-node metastases from N+ NSCLC patients predicts favourable disease-specific survival and outperforms the established TNM staging system in the SCC subgroup.
Project description:The immune microenvironment of the brain differs from that of other organs and the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in brain metastases (BM), one of the most common and devastating complication of cancer, is unclear. We investigated TIL subsets and their prognostic impact in 116 BM specimens using immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD8, CD45RO, FOXP3, PD1 and PD-L1. The Immunoscore was calculated as published previously. Overall, we found TIL infiltration in 115/116 (99.1%) BM specimens. PD-L1 expression was evident in 19/67 (28.4%) BM specimens and showed no correlation with TIL density (p > 0.05). TIL density was not associated with corticosteroid administration (p > 0.05). A significant difference in infiltration density according to TIL subtype was present (p < 0.001; Chi Square); high infiltration was most frequently observed for CD3+ TILs (95/116; 81.9%) and least frequently for PD1+ TILs (18/116; 15.5%; p < 0.001). Highest TIL density was observed in melanoma, followed by renal cell cancer and lung cancer BM (p < 0.001). The density of CD8(+) TILs correlated positively with the extent of peritumoral edema seen on pre-operative magnetic resonance imaging (p = 0.031). The density of CD3+ (15 vs. 6 mo; p = 0.015), CD8(+) (15 vs. 11 mo; p = 0.030) and CD45RO+ TILs (18 vs. 8 mo; p = 0.006) showed a positive correlation with favorable median OS times. Immunoscore showed significant correlation with survival prognosis (27 vs. 10 mo; p < 0.001). The prognostic impact of Immunoscore was independent from established prognostic parameters at multivariable analysis (HR 0.612, p < 0.001). In conclusion, our data indicate that dense TILs infiltrates are common in BM and correlate with the amount of peritumoral brain edema and survival prognosis, thus identifying the immune system as potential biomarker for cancer patients with CNS affection. Further studies are needed to substantiate our findings.
Project description:Background:To date, no combined immunoscore has been evaluated for prognostic stratification of early stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The main goal of this study was to investigate the prognostic impact of programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and different immune cell components (CD4+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and CD68+ macrophages) in early stage NSCLC patients, distinguishing peritumoral (PT) and intratumoral (IT) localizations. The secondary aim was to identify a combined immunoscore to optimize the prognostic stratification of NSCLC patients. Methods:This retrospective study included surgical specimens from consecutive chemo-naive stage II-III radically resected NSCLC patients. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to evaluate PD-L1 expression and to quantify IT and PT CD4+, CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and CD68+ macrophages. The impact of a single marker and of a combination of multiple markers on overall survival (OS) was investigated. Results:Seventy-nine patients were included in the study. PD-L1 expression was associated with worse prognosis (3 years OS: 58% in high- compared with 67% in low-expressing tumors), even though without statistical significance. When integrating PT CD8+, CD4+, and CD68 into a combined PT immunoscore, a significant prognostic stratification of patients was obtained and confirmed at multivariate analysis (3 years OS: 86% in patients with low PT immunoscore vs. 59% in patients with high PT immunoscore, p = 0.018). The integration of derived neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (dNLR) with combined PT immunoscore improved prognostic stratification, with longer OS in patients with low PT immunoscore and low dNLR (p = 0.002). Conclusion:The combined PT immunoscore (CD8+, CD4+, and CD68) integrated with dNLR may be a promising marker for the development of an integrated Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM) immunoscore.
Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy arising from the biliary tract epithelial cells with poor prognosis. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s and programmed cell death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) have a prognostic impact in various solid tumors. We aimed to investigate TILs and PD-L1 expression and their clinical relevance in cholangiocarcinoma. Tumor samples from 44 patients with resected and histologically verified extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma were evaluated for CD8, CD45RO and PD-L1 expression, and their correlations with clinicopathological data and survival data were analyzed. Total 44 extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma tissues were evaluated. CD8+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL)s were observed in 30 (68%) tumors. Among them, 14 had CD8+CD45RO+ TILs. PD-L1 was expressed on cancer cells in 10 (22.7%) tumors in 34 evaluable extrahepatic cholangiocarciniomas. The presence of CD8+ TILs or CD8+CD45RO+ TILs was not associated with clinical staging or tumor differentiation. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with CD8+CD45RO+ TILs had longer overall survival (OS) on univariate (P = 0.013) and multivariate (P = 0.012) analysis. Neither CD8+TIL nor PD-L1 expression on cancer cells correlated significantly with OS. These results add to the understanding of the clinical features associated with CD8 TILs and PD-L1 expression in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and they support the potential rationale of using PD-1 blockade immunotherapy in cholangiocarcinoma.
Project description:AIMS:The aim of this study was to investigate the tumor microenvironment immune types (TMIT) based on tumor cell programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) distribution and whether distinct TMIT subtypes (TMIT I, PD-L1high /TILhigh ; TMIT II, PD-L1low /TILlow ; TMIT III, PD-L1high /TILlow ; and TMIT IV, PD-L1low /TILhigh ) differentially affect clinical outcomes of patients with lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS AND RESULTS:Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to evaluate the expression of PD-L1 and the spatial distribution of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and CD8 TILs on the surgically resected specimens from 205 cases of LAC and 149 cases of SCC. PD-1 and CD8 TILs were more frequently distributed in SCC than those in LAC, regardless of their infiltrating in the tumor islets or stroma. The density of TILs was a poor prognostic factor in LAC but a favorable one in SCC. PD-L1 levels and its clinical prognostic significance differed in LAC vs SCC. LAC patients with TMIT III and SCC patients with TMIT I had the longest survival, respectively (P = .0197 and .0049). Moreover, TMIT stratification based on tumor cell PD-L1 expression and stromal CD8+ TILs could be considered as an independent prognostic factor of SCC patients' survival as determined by both univariate and multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION:Our study indicates that different type of TMIT provides its specific microenvironment with diverse impact on survival of LAC and SCC patients and highlights the importance of the integrative assessment of PD-L1 status and TILs' spatial distribution to predict patients' prognosis.
Project description:TNM stage is not enough to accurately predict the prognosis of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to establish the Immunoscore (IS) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), separately, and propose a new staging system in NSCLC. We used the multiplex fluorescent immunohistochemistry (mIHC) technology to detect 17 immune biomarkers of 304 patients with NSCLC. The LASSO-COX regression model was used to establish the ISNSCLC in the training cohorts. The ISNSCLC was then validated in the validation cohort. The constructed ISLUAD contained three immune features: CD4+CD73+ core of tumor (CT), PD-L1+ CT, and IDO+ invasive margin (IM). ISLUSC also contained two immune features: CD8+CD39-CD73- CT, CD8+Tim-3+ IM. In the training cohort, significant prognostic differences were found upon comparing low-ISNSCLC patients with high-ISNSCLC patients. For LUAD, the 5-y disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 54.7% vs. 8.1% and the 5-y overall survival (OS) rates were 82.4% vs. 36% (all P< .0001). For LUSC, the 5-y DFS rates were 74.0% vs. 14.7% and the 5-y OS rates were 78.2% vs. 17.6% (all P< .0001). Multivariate analyses indicated that ISNSCLC was an independent indicator for prognosis. Finally, we combined ISNSCLC with clinicopathological factors to establish a TN-I staging system and two nomogram models for clinical use. The TN-I stage had better prediction accuracy than TNM stage. The newly established ISLUAD and ISLUSC were completely different, and both were excellent indicators for the prognostic prediction. The TN-I stage could effectively improve prognostic accuracy and facilitate clinical application. Abbreviations NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; IS, Immunoscore; mIHC, multiplex fluorescent immunohistochemistry; LUAD, lung adenocarcinoma; LUSC, lung squamous cell carcinoma; CT, core of tumor; IM, invasive margin; DFS, disease-free survival; OS, overall survival; SITC, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer; FFPE, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded; MWT, microwave treatment; DCA, decision curve analysis; ROC, receiver operating characteristic; AUC, area under the curve; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor.
Project description:Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are usually measured using subjective methods. Studies suggest that TIL subtypes have independent roles in cancer and that they could support the use of novel immunostimulatory therapies. We simultaneously measured TIL subtypes in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples using objective methods and determined their relationship with clinico-pathologic characteristics and survival.Using multiplexed quantitative fluorescence (QIF), we measured the levels of CD3, CD8, and CD20 in 552 NSCLC from two independent collections represented in tissue microarrays (YTMA79, n = 202 and YTMA140, n = 350). The level of TILs was obtained in different tumor compartments using cytokeratin stain to define tumor cells and 4',6-Diamidino-2-Phenylindole. Association of TILs with clinical parameters was determined using univariate and multivariable analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided.In both NSCLC collections there was a low correlation between the three TIL markers (linear regression coefficients (R(2)) = 0.19-0.22, P < .001 for YTMA79 and R(2) = 0.23-0.32, P < .001 for YTMA140). No consistent association between the level of TIL subtypes and age, sex, smoking history, tumor size, stage, and histology type was found. In univariate analysis, an elevated CD3 or CD8 signal was statistically significantly associated with longer survival in both collections. However, only CD8 was independent from age, tumor size, histology, and stage in multivariable analysis. High CD20 was associated with longer survival in the YTMA79 cohort.Increased levels of CD3 and CD8 + TILs are associated with better outcome in NSCLC, but only CD8 is independent from other prognostic variables. Objective measurement of TIL subpopulations could be useful to predict response or evaluate the local immune effect of anticancer immune checkpoint inhibitors.
Project description:BackgroundT cell infiltration in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is essential for the immunological response to malignant tissue, especially in the era of immune-checkpoint inhibition. To investigate the prognostic impact of CD4+ T helper cells (Th), CD8+ cytotoxic (Tc) and FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in NSCLC, we performed this analysis.MethodsBy counterstaining of CD4, CD8 and FOXP3 we used immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays (TMA) to evaluate peritumoral Th cells, Treg cells and Tc cells in n=294 NSCLC patients with pTNM stage I–III disease.ResultsStrong CD4+ infiltration was associated with higher tumor stages and lymphonodal spread. However, strong CD4+ infiltration yielded improved overall survival (OS) (P=0.014) in adenocarcinoma (ADC) and large cell carcinoma (LCC) but not in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). A CD4/CD8 ratio <1 was associated with high grade NSCLC tumors (P=0.020). High CD8+ T cell infiltration was an independent prognostic factor for OS (P=0.040) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P=0.012) in the entire study collective. The OS benefit of high CD8+ infiltration was especially prominent in PD-L1 negative NSCLC (P=0.001) but not in PD-L1 positive tissue (P=0.335). Moreover, positive FOXP3+ expression in tumor infiltrating lymphocytes was associated with increased OS (P=0.007) and PFS (P=0.014) in SCC but not in ADC and LCC (all P>0.05). Here, prognostic effects were prominent in PD-L1 positive SCC (P=0.023) but not in PD-L1 negative SCC (P=0.236).ConclusionsHigh proportion of CD8+ Tc cells correlated with improved prognostic outcome in stage I–III NSCLC. Th cells and Treg cells have implications on outcome with respect to tumor histology and biology.
Project description:To date, the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) tumor, nodes, metastasis (TNM) classification represents the standard system for evaluation of prognosis in solid tumors. However, the clinical outcome can be significantly different in patients with the same TNM stage. Therefore, many efforts have been made aiming to define new prognostic parameters. Indeed, analyses conducted in large cohorts of colorectal cancer patients emphasized the prognostic value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, leading to the development of a prognostic score referred to as "Immunoscore". In this commentary, we recapitulate the study by Gabrielson and colleagues, recently published in Cancer Immunology Research, addressing the role of intratumoral CD3+ and CD8+ T cells as well as as prognostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma. The authors demonstrate that Immunoscore represents a valuable prognostic marker in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who have undergone primary tumor resection, supporting its application in a tumor setting other than colorectal cancer.
Project description:The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) reflects an active inflammatory tumor microenvironment. High density of TILs as well as presence of TLS is associated with improved survival in various solid cancer types. We aimed to describe the density and distribution of TILs and TLS in pulmonary metastases (PMs) from primary colorectal cancer (CRC) and its correlation with clinicopathological variables. Fifty-seven CRC pulmonary metastasectomy specimen (PM) and 31 matched primary CRC specimen were included. Cluster of differentiation (CD)3+, CD8+, CD45RO+ and FoxP3+ TILs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and density was scored semiquantitatively. TLS were evaluated based on morphological criteria. Survival time was defined from pulmonary metastasectomy to death or last follow up. A marked infiltration with CD3+, CD8+, CD45RO+ and FoxP3+ TILs was evident in CRC PM and matched primary CRC. Further assessment of the immune infiltrate in PM showed that a high density of FOXP3+ TILs at the invasive margin [HR 2.40 (1.11-6.96); P = 0.031] and low density of CD8+ cells in TLS [HR 0.30 (0.14-0.79); P = 0.016] were associated with a worse prognosis in univariate analysis. Moreover, a low CD8/FoxP3-ratio of TILs at the invasive margin (P = 0.042) and in TLS (P = 0.027) conferred an impaired prognosis after pulmonary metastasectomy. Our findings suggest that CRC PM harbor an immune active microenvironment. The balance of CD8+ and FoxP3+ T-cells at the tumor border and in TLS provides prognostic information in patients with CRC PM.