PLK1 regulation of PCNT cleavage ensures fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.
ABSTRACT: Centrioles are duplicated and segregated in close link to the cell cycle. During mitosis, daughter centrioles are disengaged and eventually separated from mother centrioles. New daughter centrioles may be generated only after centriole separation. Therefore, centriole separation is considered a licensing step for centriole duplication. It was previously known that separase specifically cleaves pericentrin (PCNT) during mitotic exit. Here we report that PCNT has to be phosphorylated by PLK1 to be a suitable substrate of separase. Phospho-resistant mutants of PCNT are not cleaved by separase and eventually inhibit centriole separation. Furthermore, phospho-mimetic PCNT mutants rescue centriole separation even in the presence of a PLK1 inhibitor. On the basis on these results, we propose that PLK1 phosphorylation is a priming step for separase-mediated cleavage of PCNT and eventually for centriole separation. PLK1 phosphorylation of PCNT provides an additional layer of regulatory mechanism to ensure the fidelity of centriole separation during mitotic exit.
Project description:It has been proposed that separase-dependent centriole disengagement at anaphase licenses centrosomes for duplication in the next cell cycle. Here we test whether such a mechanism exists in intact human cells. Loss of separase blocked centriole disengagement during mitotic exit and delayed assembly of new centrioles during the following S phase; however, most engagements were eventually dissolved. We identified Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as a parallel activator of centriole disengagement. Timed inhibition of Plk1 mapped its critical period of action to late G2 or early M phase, i.e., prior to securin destruction and separase activation at anaphase onset. Crucially, when cells exited mitosis after downregulation of both separase and Plk1, centriole disengagement failed completely, and subsequent centriole duplication in interphase was also blocked. Our results indicate that Plk1 and separase act at different times during M phase to license centrosome duplication, reminiscent of their roles in removing cohesin from chromosomes.
Project description:An intercentrosomal linker keeps a cell's two centrosomes joined together until it is dissolved at the onset of mitosis. A second connection keeps daughter centrioles engaged to their mothers until they lose their orthogonal arrangement at the end of mitosis. Centriole disengagement is required to license centrioles for duplication. We show that the intercentrosomal linker protein Cep68 is degraded in prometaphase through the SCF(?TrCP) (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex. Cep68 degradation is initiated by PLK1 phosphorylation of Cep68 on Ser 332, allowing recognition by ?TrCP. We also found that Cep68 forms a complex with Cep215 (also known as Cdk5Rap2) and PCNT (also known as pericentrin), two PCM (pericentriolar material) proteins involved in centriole engagement. Cep68 and PCNT bind to different pools of Cep215. We propose that Cep68 degradation allows Cep215 removal from the peripheral PCM preventing centriole separation following disengagement, whereas PCNT cleavage mediates Cep215 removal from the core of the PCM to inhibit centriole disengagement and duplication.
Project description:Mother-daughter centriole disengagement, the necessary first step in centriole duplication, involves Plk1 activity in early mitosis and separase activity after APC/C activity mediates securin degradation. Plk1 activity is thought to be essential and sufficient for centriole disengagement with separase activity playing a supporting but non-essential role. In separase null cells, however, centriole disengagement is substantially delayed. The ability of APC/C activity alone to mediate centriole disengagement has not been directly tested. We investigate the interrelationship between Plk1 and APC/C activities in disengaging centrioles in S or G2 HeLa and RPE1 cells, cell types that do not reduplicate centrioles when arrested in S phase. Knockdown of the interphase APC/C inhibitor Emi1 leads to centriole disengagement and reduplication of the mother centrioles, though this is slow. Strong inhibition of Plk1 activity, if any, during S does not block centriole disengagement and mother centriole reduplication in Emi1 depleted cells. Centriole disengagement depends on APC/C-Cdh1 activity, not APC/C-Cdc20 activity. Also, Plk1 and APC/C-Cdh1 activities can independently promote centriole disengagement in G2 arrested cells. Thus, Plk1 and APC/C-Cdh1 activities are independent but slow pathways for centriole disengagement. By having two slow mechanisms for disengagement working together, the cell ensures that centrioles will not prematurely separate in late G2 or early mitosis, thereby risking multipolar spindle assembly, but rather disengage in a timely fashion only late in mitosis.
Project description:Centrosome overduplication promotes mitotic abnormalities, invasion and tumorigenesis. Cells regulate the number of centrosomes by limiting centriole duplication to once per cell cycle. The orthogonal orientation between a mother and a daughter centriole, established at the time of centriole duplication, is thought to block further duplication of the mother centriole. Loss of orthogonal orientation (disengagement) between two centrioles during anaphase is considered a licensing event for the next round of centriole duplication. Disengagement requires the activity of Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), but how Plk1 drives this process is not clear. Here we employ correlative live/electron microscopy and demonstrate that Plk1 induces maturation and distancing of the daughter centriole, allowing reduplication of the mother centriole even if the original daughter centriole is still orthogonal to it. We find that mother centrioles can undergo reduplication when original daughter centrioles are only ?80?nm apart, which is the distance centrioles normally reach during prophase.
Project description:Centrosome function in cell division requires their duplication, once, and only once, per cell cycle. Underlying centrosome duplication are alternating cycles of centriole assembly and separation. Work in vertebrates has implicated the cysteine protease separase in anaphase-coupled centriole separation (or disengagement) and identified this as a key step in licensing another round of assembly. Current models have separase cleaving a physical link between centrioles, potentially cohesin, that prevents reinitiation of centriole assembly unless disengaged. Here, we examine separase function in the C. elegans early embryo. We find that depletion impairs separation and consequently duplication of sperm-derived centrioles at the meiosis-mitosis transition. However, subsequent cycles proceed normally. Whereas mitotic centrioles separate in the context of cortical forces acting on a disassembling pericentriolar material, sperm centrioles are not associated with significant pericentriolar material or subject to strong forces. Increasing centrosomal microtubule nucleation restores sperm centriole separation and duplication in separase-depleted embryos, while forced pericentriolar material disassembly drives premature separation in mitosis. These results emphasize the critical role of cytoskeletal forces and the pericentriolar material in centriole separation. Separase contributes to separation where forces are limited, offering a potential explanation for results obtained in different experimental models.
Project description:Centrosomes and cilia are organized by a centriole pair comprising an older mother and a younger daughter. Centriole numbers are tightly regulated, and daughter centrioles (which assemble in S phase) cannot themselves duplicate or organize centrosomes until they have passed through mitosis. It is unclear how this mitotic "centriole conversion" is regulated, but it requires Plk1/Polo kinase. Here we show that in flies, Cdk1 phosphorylates the conserved centriole protein Sas-4 during mitosis. This creates a Polo-docking site that helps recruit Polo to daughter centrioles and is required for the subsequent recruitment of Asterless (Asl), a protein essential for centriole duplication and mitotic centrosome assembly. Point mutations in Sas-4 that prevent Cdk1 phosphorylation or Polo docking do not block centriole disengagement during mitosis, but block efficient centriole conversion and lead to embryonic lethality. These observations can explain why daughter centrioles have to pass through mitosis before they can duplicate and organize a centrosome.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays mitotic progression until all sister chromatid pairs achieve bi-orientation, and while the SAC can maintain mitotic arrest for extended periods, moderate delays in mitotic progression have significant effects on the resulting daughter cells. Here we show that when retinal-pigmented epithelial (RPE1) cells experience mitotic delay, there is a time-dependent increase in centrosome fragmentation and centriole disengagement. While most cells with disengaged centrioles maintain spindle bipolarity, clustering of disengaged centrioles requires the kinesin-14, HSET. Centrosome fragmentation and precocious centriole disengagement depend on separase and anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) activity, which also triggers the acquisition of distal appendage markers on daughter centrioles and the loss of procentriolar markers. Together, these results suggest that moderate delays in mitotic progression trigger the initiation of centriole licensing through centriole disengagement, at which point the ability to maintain spindle bipolarity becomes a function of HSET-mediated spindle pole clustering.
Project description:Centrioles duplicate in interphase only once per cell cycle. Newly formed centrioles remain associated with their mother centrioles. The two centrioles disengage at the end of mitosis, which licenses centriole duplication in the next cell cycle. Therefore, timely centriole disengagement is critical for the proper centriole duplication cycle. However, the mechanisms underlying centriole engagement during interphase are poorly understood. Here, we show that Cep57 and Cep57L1 cooperatively maintain centriole engagement during interphase. Codepletion of Cep57 and Cep57L1 induces precocious centriole disengagement in interphase without compromising cell cycle progression. The disengaged daughter centrioles convert into centrosomes during interphase in a Plk1-dependent manner. Furthermore, the centrioles reduplicate and the centriole number increases, which results in chromosome segregation errors. Overall, these findings demonstrate that the maintenance of centriole engagement by Cep57 and Cep57L1 during interphase is crucial for the tight control of centriole copy number and thus for proper chromosome segregation.
Project description:Centrioles are essential for the assembly of both centrosomes and cilia. Centriole biogenesis occurs once and only once per cell cycle and is temporally coordinated with cell-cycle progression, ensuring the formation of the right number of centrioles at the right time. The formation of new daughter centrioles is guided by a pre-existing, mother centriole. The proximity between mother and daughter centrioles was proposed to restrict new centriole formation until they separate beyond a critical distance. Paradoxically, mother and daughter centrioles overcome this distance in early mitosis, at a time when triggers for centriole biogenesis Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) and its substrate STIL are abundant. Here we show that in mitosis, the mitotic kinase CDK1-CyclinB binds STIL and prevents formation of the PLK4-STIL complex and STIL phosphorylation by PLK4, thus inhibiting untimely onset of centriole biogenesis. After CDK1-CyclinB inactivation upon mitotic exit, PLK4 can bind and phosphorylate STIL in G1, allowing pro-centriole assembly in the subsequent S phase. Our work shows that complementary mechanisms, such as mother-daughter centriole proximity and CDK1-CyclinB interaction with centriolar components, ensure that centriole biogenesis occurs once and only once per cell cycle, raising parallels to the cell-cycle regulation of DNA replication and centromere formation.
Project description:In many species where oocytes lack centrosomes, sperm contribute both genetic material and centriole(s) to the zygote. Correct centriole organization during male meiosis is critical to guarantee a normal bipolar mitotic spindle in the zygote. During Caenorhabditis elegans male meiosis, centrioles normally undergo two rounds of duplication, resulting in haploid sperm each containing a single tightly engaged centriole pair. Here we identify an unanticipated role for C. elegans HORMA (Hop1/Rev7/Mad2) domain proteins HTP-1/2 and HIM-3 in regulating centriole disengagement during spermatocyte meiosis. In him-3 and htp-1 htp-2 mutants, centrioles separate inappropriately during meiosis II, resulting in spermatids with disengaged centrioles. Moreover, extra centrosomes are detected in a subset of zygotes. Together, these data implicate HIM-3 and HTP-1/2 in preventing centriole disengagement during meiosis II. We showed previously that HTP-1/2 prevents premature loss of sister chromatid cohesion during the meiotic divisions by inhibiting removal of meiotic cohesin complexes containing the REC-8 subunit. Worms lacking REC-8, or expressing a mutant separase protein with elevated local concentration at centrosomes and in sperm, likewise exhibit inappropriate centriole separation during spermatocyte meiosis. These observations are consistent with HIM-3 and HTP-1/2 preventing centriole disengagement by inhibiting separase-dependent cohesin removal. Our data suggest that the same specialized meiotic mechanisms that function to prevent premature release of sister chromatid cohesion during meiosis I in C. elegans also function to inhibit centriole separation at meiosis II, thereby ensuring that the zygote inherits the appropriate complement of chromosomes and centrioles.