PERK regulated miR-424(322)-503 cluster fine-tunes activation of IRE1 and ATF6 during Unfolded Protein Response.
ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) responds to changes in intracellular homeostasis through activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR can facilitate the restoration of cellular homeostasis, via the concerted activation of three ER stress sensors, namely IRE1, PERK and ATF6. Global approaches in several cellular contexts have revealed that UPR regulates the expression of many miRNAs that play an important role in the regulation of life and death decisions during UPR. Here we show that expression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster is downregulated during UPR. IRE1 inhibitor (4 μ8C) and deficiency of XBP1 had no effect on downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 during UPR. Treatment of cells with CCT030312, a selective activator of EIF2AK3/PERK signalling, leads to the downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 expression. The repression of miR-424(322)-503 cluster during conditions of ER stress is compromised in PERK-deficient MEFs. miR-424 regulates the expression of ATF6 via a miR-424 binding site in its 3' UTR and attenuates the ATF6 transcriptional activity during UPR. Further miR-424 had no effect on IRE1-XBP1 axis but enhanced the regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD). Our results suggest that miR-424 constitutes an obligatory fine-tuning mechanism where PERK-mediated downregulation of miR-424(322)-503 cluster regulates optimal activation of IRE1 and ATF6 during conditions of ER stress.
Project description:B lymphocytes, like all mammalian cells, are equipped with the unfolded protein response (UPR), a complex signaling system allowing for both pro- and mal-adaptive responses to increased demands on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The UPR is comprised of three signaling pathways initiated by the ER transmembrane stress sensors, IRE1?/?, PERK and ATF6?/?. Activation of IRE1 yields XBP1(S), a transcription factor that directs expansion of the ER and enhances protein biosynthetic and secretory machinery. XBP1(S) is essential for the differentiation of B lymphocytes into antibody-secreting cells. In contrast, the PERK pathway, a regulator of translation and transcription, is dispensable for the generation of antibody-secreting cells. Functioning as a transcription factor, ATF6? can augment ER quality control processes and drive ER expansion, but the potential role of this UPR pathway in activated B cells has not been investigated. Here, we report studies of ATF6?-deficient B cells demonstrating that ATF6? is not required for the development of antibody-secreting cells. Thus, when B cells are stimulated to secrete antibody, a specialized UPR relies exclusively on the IRE1-XBP1 pathway to remodel the ER and expand cellular secretory capacity.
Project description:The UPR (Unfolded Protein Response) is a well-orchestrated response to ER protein folding and processing overload, integrating both transcriptional and translational outputs. Its three arms in mammalian cells, the PERK translational response arm, together with the ATF6 and IRE1-XBP1-mediated transcriptional arms, have been thoroughly investigated. Using ribosome footprint profiling, we performed a deep characterization of gene expression programs involved in the early and late ER stress responses, within WT or PERK -/- Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts (MEFs). We found that both repression and activation gene expression programs, affecting hundreds of genes, are significantly hampered in the absence of PERK. Specifically, PERK -/- cells do not show global translational inhibition, nor do they specifically activate early gene expression programs upon short exposure to ER stress. Furthermore, while PERK -/- cells do activate/repress late ER-stress response genes, the response is substantially weaker. Importantly, we highlight a widespread PERK-dependent repression program, consisting of ER targeted proteins, including transmembrane proteins, glycoproteins, and proteins with disulfide bonds. This phenomenon occurs in various different cell types, and has a major translational regulatory component. Moreover, we revealed a novel interplay between PERK and the XBP1-ATF6 arms of the UPR, whereby PERK attenuates the expression of a specific subset of XBP1-ATF6 targets, further illuminating the complexity of the integrated ER stress response.
Project description:The disruption of the energy or nutrient balance triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, a process that mobilizes various strategies, collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR), which reestablish homeostasis of the ER and cell. Activation of the UPR stress sensor IRE1? (inositol-requiring enzyme 1?) stimulates its endoribonuclease activity, leading to the generation of the mRNA encoding the transcription factor XBP1 (X-box binding protein 1), which regulates the transcription of genes encoding factors involved in controlling the quality and folding of proteins. We found that the activity of IRE1? was regulated by the ER oxidoreductase PDIA6 (protein disulfide isomerase A6) and the microRNA miR-322 in response to disruption of ER Ca2+ homeostasis. PDIA6 interacted with IRE1? and enhanced IRE1? activity as monitored by phosphorylation of IRE1? and XBP1 mRNA splicing, but PDIA6 did not substantially affect the activity of other pathways that mediate responses to ER stress. ER Ca2+ depletion and activation of store-operated Ca2+ entry reduced the abundance of the microRNA miR-322, which increased PDIA6 mRNA stability and, consequently, IRE1? activity during the ER stress response. In vivo experiments with mice and worms showed that the induction of ER stress correlated with decreased miR-322 abundance, increased PDIA6 mRNA abundance, or both. Together, these findings demonstrated that ER Ca2+, PDIA6, IRE1?, and miR-322 function in a dynamic feedback loop modulating the UPR under conditions of disrupted ER Ca2+ homeostasis.
Project description:Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress leads to activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling cascade and induction of an apoptotic cell death, autophagy, oncogenesis, metastasis, and/or resistance to cancer therapies. Mechanisms underlying regulation of ER transmembrane proteins PERK, IRE1?, and ATF6?/?, and how the balance of these activities determines outcome of the activated UPR, remain largely unclear. Here, we report a novel molecule transmembrane protein 33 (TMEM33) and its actions in UPR signaling. Immunoblotting and northern blot hybridization assays were used to determine the effects of ER stress on TMEM33 expression levels in various cell lines. Transient transfections, immunofluorescence, subcellular fractionation, immunoprecipitation, and immunoblotting were used to study the subcellular localization of TMEM33, the binding partners of TMEM33, and the expression of downstream effectors of PERK and IRE1?. Our data demonstrate that TMEM33 is a unique ER stress-inducible and ER transmembrane molecule, and a new binding partner of PERK. Exogenous expression of TMEM33 led to increased expression of p-eIF2? and p-IRE1? and their known downstream effectors, ATF4-CHOP and XBP1-S, respectively, in breast cancer cells. TMEM33 overexpression also correlated with increased expression of apoptotic signals including cleaved caspase-7 and cleaved PARP, and an autophagosome protein LC3II, and reduced expression of the autophagy marker p62. TMEM33 is a novel regulator of the PERK-eIE2?-ATF4 and IRE1-XBP1 axes of the UPR signaling. Therefore, TMEM33 may function as a determinant of the ER stress-responsive events in cancer cells.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) acts through its downstream branches, PERK-eIF2? signaling, IRE1?-XBP1 signaling and ATF6 signaling. In the intestine, activation of the UPR through the kinase PERK results in differentiation of intestinal epithelial stem cells and colon cancer stem cells, whereas deletion of XBP1 results in increased stemness and adenomagenesis. How downstream activation of XBP1 and ATF6 influences intestinal stemness and proliferation remains largely unknown. We generated colorectal cancer cells (LS174T) that harbor doxycycline inducible expression of the active forms of either XBP1(s) or ATF6<sup>1-373</sup>. Activation of either XBP1 or ATF6 resulted in reduced cellular proliferation and reduced expression of markers of intestinal epithelial stemness. Moreover, XBP1 and ATF6 activation reduced global protein synthesis and lowered the threshold for UPR activation. XBP1-mediated loss of stemness and proliferation resulted from crossactivation of PERK-eIF2? signaling and could be rescued by constitutive expression of eIF2? phosphatase GADD34. We thus find that enforced activation of XBP1 and ATF6 results in reduction of stemness and proliferation. We expose a novel interaction between XBP1 and PERK-eIF2? signaling.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that has the potential for cross-species infection. Many viruses have been reported to induce endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). To date, little is known about whether and, if so, how the UPR is activated by PDCoV infection. Here, we investigated the activation state of UPR pathways and their effects on viral replication during PDCoV infection. We found that PDCoV infection induced ERS and activated all three known UPR pathways (inositol-requiring enzyme 1 [IRE1], activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], and PKR-like ER kinase [PERK]), as demonstrated by IRE1-mediated XBP1 mRNA cleavage and increased mRNA expression of XBP1s, ATF4, CHOP, GADD34, GRP78, and GRP94, as well as phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Through pharmacologic treatment, RNA interference, and overexpression experiments, we confirmed the negative role of the PERK-eIF2α pathway and the positive regulatory role of the ATF6 pathway, but found no obvious effect of IRE1 pathway, on PDCoV replication. Taken together, our results characterize, for the first time, the state of the ERS response during PDCoV infection and identify the PERK and ATF6 pathways as potential antiviral targets.
Project description:It has been known that overexposure to Ni can induce nephrotoxicity. However, the mechanisms of underlying Ni nephrotoxicity are still elusive, and also Ni- and Ni compound-induced ER stress has been not reported in vivo at present. Our aim was to use broiler chickens as animal model to test whether the ER stress was induced and UPR was activated by NiCl2 in the kidney using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR. Two hundred and eighty one-day-old broiler chickens were divided into 4 groups and fed on a control diet and the same basal diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg, 600mg/kg and 900mg/kg of NiCl2 for 42 days. We found that dietary NiCl2 in excess of 300 mg/kg induced ER stress, which was characterized by increasing protein and mRNA expression of ER stress markers, e.g., GRP78 and GRP94. Concurrently, all the three UPR pathways were activated by dietary NiCl2. Firstly, the PERK pathway was activated by increasing eIF2a and ATF4 mRNA expression. Secondly, the IRE1 pathway was activated duo to increase in IRE1 and XBP1 mRNA expression. And thirdly, the increase of ATF6 mRNA expression suggested that ATF6 pathway was activated. The findings clearly demonstrate that NiCl2 induces the ER stress through activating PERK, IRE1 and ATF6 UPR pathways, which is proved to be a kind of molecular mechanism of Ni- or/and Ni compound-induced nephrotoxicity.
Project description:Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe infectious disease in poultry and selectively kills tumor cells, by inducing apoptosis and cytokines secretion. In this report, we study the mechanisms underlying NDV-induced apoptosis by investigating the unfolded protein response (UPR). We found that NDV infection activated all three branches of the UPR signaling (PERK-eIF2?, ATF6, and IRE1?) and triggered apoptosis, in avian cells (DF-1 and CEF) and in various human cancer cell types (HeLa, Cal27, HN13, A549, H1299, Huh7, and HepG2). Interestingly, the suppression of either apoptosis or UPR led to impaired NDV proliferation. Meanwhile, the inhibition of UPR by 4-PBA protected cells from NDV-induced apoptosis. Further study revealed that activation of PERK-eIF2? induced the expression of transcription factor CHOP, which subsequently promoted apoptosis by downregulating BCL-2/MCL-1, promoting JNK signaling and suppressing AKT signaling. In parallel, IRE1? mediated the splicing of XBP1 mRNA and resulted in the translation and nuclear translocation of XBP1s, thereby promoting the transcription of ER chaperones and components of ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Furthermore, IRE1? promoted apoptosis and cytokines secretion via the activation of JNK signaling. Knock down and overexpression studies showed that CHOP, IRE1?, XBP1, and JNK supported efficient virus proliferation. Our study demonstrates that the induction of eIF2?-CHOP-BCL-2/JNK and IRE1?-XBP1/JNK signaling cascades promote apoptosis and cytokines secretion, and these signaling cascades support NDV proliferation.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localized unfolded protein response (UPR) sensors, IRE1?, PERK, and ATF6?, are activated by the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. It is unclear how the endogenous UPR sensors are regulated by both ER stress and the ER luminal chaperone BiP, which is a negative regulator of UPR sensors. Here we simultaneously examined the changes in the endogenous complexes of UPR sensors by blue native PAGE immunoblotting in unstressed and stressed cells. We found that all three UPR sensors exist as preformed complexes even in unstressed cells. While PERK complexes shift to large complexes, ATF6? complexes are reduced to smaller complexes on ER stress. In contrast, IRE1? complexes were not significantly increased in size on ER stress, unless IRE1? is overexpressed. Surprisingly, depletion of BiP had little impact on the endogenous complexes of UPR sensors. In addition, overexpression of BiP did not significantly affect UPR complexes, but suppressed ER stress mediated activation of IRE1?, ATF6? and, to a lesser extent, PERK. Furthermore, we captured the interaction between IRE1? and misfolded secretory proteins in cells, which suggests that the binding of unfolded proteins to preformed complexes of UPR sensors may be crucial for activation.
Project description:Herpesviruses usurp host cell protein synthesis machinery to convert viral mRNAs into proteins, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to ensure proper folding, post-translational modification and trafficking of secreted and transmembrane viral proteins. Overloading ER folding capacity activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), whereby sensor proteins ATF6, PERK and IRE1 initiate a stress-mitigating transcription program that accelerates catabolism of misfolded proteins while increasing ER folding capacity. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) can be reactivated from latency by chemical induction of ER stress, which causes accumulation of the XBP1s transcription factor that transactivates the viral RTA lytic switch gene. The presence of XBP1s-responsive elements in the RTA promoter suggests that KSHV evolved a mechanism to respond to ER stress. Here, we report that ATF6, PERK and IRE1 were activated upon reactivation from latency and required for efficient KSHV lytic replication; genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of each UPR sensor diminished virion production. Despite UPR sensor activation during KSHV lytic replication, downstream UPR transcriptional responses were restricted; 1) ATF6 was cleaved to activate the ATF6(N) transcription factor but ATF6(N)-responsive genes were not transcribed; 2) PERK phosphorylated eIF2? but ATF4 did not accumulate; 3) IRE1 caused XBP1 mRNA splicing, but XBP1s protein did not accumulate and XBP1s-responsive genes were not transcribed. Ectopic expression of the KSHV host shutoff protein SOX did not affect UPR gene expression, suggesting that alternative viral mechanisms likely mediate UPR suppression during lytic replication. Complementation of XBP1s deficiency during KSHV lytic replication inhibited virion production in a dose-dependent manner in iSLK.219 cells but not in TREx-BCBL1-RTA cells. However, genetically distinct KSHV virions harvested from these two cell lines were equally susceptible to XBP1s restriction following infection of naïve iSLK cells. This suggests that cell-intrinsic properties of BCBL1 cells may circumvent the antiviral effect of ectopic XBP1s expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that while XBP1s plays an important role in reactivation from latency, it can inhibit virus replication at a later step, which the virus overcomes by preventing its synthesis. These findings suggest that KSHV hijacks UPR sensors to promote efficient viral replication while sustaining ER stress.