The pan-class I phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinase inhibitor NVP-BKM120 demonstrates anti-leukemic activity in acute myeloid leukemia.
ABSTRACT: Aberrant activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is a common feature of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients contributing to chemoresistance, disease progression and unfavourable outcome. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway may represent a potential therapeutic approach in AML. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pre-clinical activity of NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), a selective pan-class I PI3K inhibitor, on AML cell lines and primary samples. Our results demonstrate that BKM120 abrogates the activity of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling, promoting cell growth arrest and significant apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner in AML cells but not in the normal counterpart. BKM120-induced cytotoxicity is associated with a profound modulation of metabolic behaviour in both cell lines and primary samples. In addition, BKM120 synergizes with the glycolitic inhibitor dichloroacetate enhancing apoptosis induction at lower doses. Finally, in vivo administration of BKM120 to a xenotransplant mouse model of AML significantly inhibited leukemia progression and improved the overall survival of treated mice. Taken together, our findings indicate that BKM120, alone or in combination with other drugs, has a significant anti-leukemic activity supporting its clinical development as a novel therapeutic agent in AML.
Project description:The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype often accompanies activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway, which renders a survival signal to withstand cytotoxic anticancer drugs and enhances cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics. As a result, PI3K/AKT-blocking approaches have been proposed as antineoplastic strategies, and inhibitors of PI3K/AKT are currently being trailed clinically in breast cancer patients. However, the effects of PI3K inhibitors on MDR breast cancers have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the tumorigenic properties of three MDR breast cancer cell lines to a selective inhibitor of PI3K, NVP-BKM120 (BKM120), were assessed. We found that BKM120 showed a significant cytotoxic activity on MDR breast cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. When doxorubicin (DOX) was combined with BKM120, strong synergistic antiproliferative effect was observed. BKM120 activity induced the blockage of PI3K/AKT signaling and NF-?B expression, which in turn led to activate caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 and changed the expression of several apoptosis-related gene expression. Furthermore, BKM120 effectively eliminated CSC subpopulation and reduced sphere formation of these drug-resistant cells. Our findings indicate that BKM120 partially overcomes the MDR phenotype in chemoresistant breast cancer through cell apoptosis induction and CSC abolishing, which appears to be mediated by the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/NF-?B axis. This offers a strong rationale to explore the therapeutic strategy of using BKM120 alone or in combination for chemotherapy-nonresponsive breast cancer patients.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathway is constitutively activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia mainly due to microenvironment signals, including stromal cell interaction and CXCR4 and B-cell receptor activation. Because of the importance of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, we investigated the activity of the NVP-BKM120, an orally available pan class I phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor. Sensitivity to NVP-BKM120 was analyzed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia primary samples in the context of B-cell receptor and microenvironment stimulation. NVP-BKM120 promoted mitochondrial apoptosis in most primary cells independently of common prognostic markers. NVP-BKM120 activity induced the blockage of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling, decreased Akt and FoxO3a phosphorylation leading to concomitant Mcl-1 downregulation and Bim induction. Accordingly, selective knockdown of BIM rescued cells from NVP-BKM120-induced apoptosis, while the kinase inhibitor synergistically enhanced the apoptosis induced by the BH3-mimetic ABT-263. We also found NVP-BKM120 to inhibit B-cell receptor- and stroma-dependent Akt pathway activation, thus sensitizing chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to bendamustine and fludarabine. Furthermore, NVP-BKM120 down-regulated secretion of chemokines after B-cell receptor stimulation and inhibited cell chemotaxis and actin polymerization upon CXCR4 triggering by CXCL12. Our findings establish that NVP-BKM120 effectively inhibits the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling pathway and disturbs the protective effect of the tumor microenvironment with the subsequent apoptosis induction through the Akt/FoxO3a/Bim axis. We provide here a strong rationale for undertaking clinical trials of NVP-BKM120 in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients alone or in combination therapies.
Project description:Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive type of malignancy caused by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). In ATL, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is constitutively active, promoting cell proliferation, survival and chemoresistance. Thus, the PI3K signaling pathway is an attractive therapeutic target for ATL. In the present study, the effects of RAD001 (an mTOR inhibitor), NVP-BKM120 (a pan-PI3K inhibitor) and NVP-BEZ235 (a novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) on cultured HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines were compared. The results demonstrated that NVP-BEZ235 was more efficacious compared with RAD001 and NVP-BKM120 at inhibiting cell growth. NVP-BEZ235 exhibited cytostatic rather than cytotoxic effects on various HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines, where it induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. NVP-BEZ235 downregulated cyclin D1, cyclin D2, cyclin E, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)2 and CDK4 expression, and the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. In C.B-17/Icr-severe combined immune deficiency mice implanted with HTLV-1-infected HUT-102 cells, oral NVP-BEZ235 caused marked retardation of tumor growth compared with the control. The present in vitro and in vivo studies highlight the efficacious dual inhibition of PI3K, and mTOR following NVP-BEZ235 treatment. Thus, the results of the current study provide preclinical rationale for phase I clinical studies to examine the effects of NVP-BEZ235 in patients with ATL.
Project description:BKM120, a pan class I PI3K inhibitor, was cytotoxic in the majority of primary B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lymphocytes, including samples from patients who have a high-risk for poor response to treatment (patient with del11 and del17) at clinically obtainable concentrations. The PI3K? inhibitor Cal-101 is cytotoxic in B-CLL lymphocytes in vitro and is active in the treatment of CLL in vivo. Interestingly, we demonstrated that BKM120 is 3.6 fold more toxic than Cal-101 in malignant B-CLL lymphocytes in vitro. BKM120 cytotoxicity correlated with the basal expression of proteins involved in the PI3K/Akt pathway. A protein signature of PI3K pathway proteins predicts the response to BKM120 treatment. In the primary B-CLL lymphocytes tested in vitro, BKM120 decreased the phosphorylation status of molecular biomarkers used as indicators of PI3K pathway inhibition in vivo. Also, BKM120 induced apoptosis in primary B-CLL cells culture in the presence and absence of stromal cell support. Our findings suggest that BKM120 should be tested clinically in CLL.
Project description:The aim of this study was to show preclinical efficacy and clinical development potential of NVP-BKM120, a selective pan class I phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor in human glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro and in vivo.The effect of NVP-BKM120 on cellular growth was assessed by CellTiter-Blue assay. Flow cytometric analyses were carried out to measure the cell-cycle, apoptosis, and mitotic index. Mitotic catastrophe was detected by immunofluorescence. The efficacy of NVP-BKM120 was tested using intracranial U87 glioma model.We tested the biologic effects of a selective PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120 in a set of glioma cell lines. NVP-BKM120 treatment for 72 hours resulted in a dose-dependent growth inhibition and effectively blocked the PI3K/Akt signaling cascade. Although we found no obvious relationship between the cell line's sensitivity to NVP-BKM120 and the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) statuses, we did observe a differential sensitivity pattern with respect to p53 status, with glioma cells containing wild-type p53 more sensitive than cells with mutated or deleted p53. NVP-BKM120 showed differential forms of cell death on the basis of p53 status of the cells with p53 wild-type cells undergoing apoptotic cell death and p53 mutant/deleted cells having a mitotic catastrophe cell death. NVP-BKM120 mediates mitotic catastrophe mainly through Aurora B kinase. Knockdown of p53 in p53 wild-type U87 glioma cells displayed microtubule misalignment, multiple centrosomes, and mitotic catastrophe cell death. Parallel to the assessment of the compound in in vitro settings, in vivo efficacy studies using an intracranial U87 tumor model showed an increased median survival from 26 days (control cohort) to 38 and 48 days (treated cohorts).Our present findings establish that NVP-BKM120 inhibits the PI3K signaling pathways, leading to different forms of cell death on the basis of p53 statuses. Further studies are warranted to determine if NVP-BKM120 has potential as a glioma treatment.
Project description:Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous hematopoietic malignancy characterized by excessive proliferation and accumulation of immature myeloid blasts in the bone marrow. AML has a very poor 5-year survival rate of just 16% in the UK; hence, more efficacious, tolerable, and targeted therapy is required. Persistent leukemia stem cell (LSC) populations underlie patient relapse and development of resistance to therapy. Identification of critical oncogenic signaling pathways in AML LSC may provide new avenues for novel therapeutic strategies. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, is often hyperactivated in AML, required to sustain the oncogenic potential of LSCs. Growing evidence suggests that targeting key components of this pathway may represent an effective treatment to kill AML LSCs. Despite this, accruing significant body of scientific knowledge, PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors have not translated into clinical practice. In this article, we review the laboratory-based evidence of the critical role of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in AML, and outcomes from current clinical studies using PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors. Based on these results, we discuss the putative mechanisms of resistance to PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibition, offering rationale for potential candidate combination therapies incorporating PI3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors for precision medicine in AML.
Project description:Constitutive signaling of PI3K/Akt/mTOR plays a prominent role in malignant transformation and progression of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHL) underscoring the need for PI3K targeted therapies. The pan-class I PI3-kinase inhibitor BKM120 has shown preclinical activity in distinct malignancies and is currently tested in clinical trials. Intratumor heterogeneity is an intrinsic property of cancers that contributes to drug resistance and tumor recurrence. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of PI3-kinases by BKM120 attenuates growth and survival of B-NHL cell lines by inducing mitotic arrest with subsequent induction of intrinsic apoptosis. BKM120-mediated downregulation of Cyclin A and activation of the CDK1/Cyclin B1 complex facilitates mitotic entry. In addition, concomitant BKM120-mediated upregulation of Cyclin B1 expression attenuates completion of mitosis, which results in mitotic catastrophe and apoptotic cell death. In Bax and Bak deficient B-NHL, which are resistant to BKM120-induced apoptosis, BKM120-induced mitotic catastrophe results in polyploidy. Upon re-expression of wt p53 in these p53 mutated cells, BKM120-induced polyploidy is strongly reduced demonstrating that the genetic status of the cells determines the outcome of a BKM120-mediated pathway inhibition. Mitotic catastrophe and unfavorable induction of polyploidy can be prevented in this setting by additional inhibition of MEK1/2 signaling. Combining MEK1/2 inhibitors with BKM120 enhances the anti-tumor effects of BKM120, prevents prognostic unfavorable polyploidy and might be a potential strategy for the treatment of B-NHL.
Project description:This study focuses on determining whether the combination of NYP-BKM120 (BKM120) and RAD001 exerts enhanced therapeutic effect against lung cancer. The combination of BKM120 and RAD001 exerted synergistic inhibitory effects on the growth of lung cancer cells both in culture and in mouse xenograft model. This combination abrogated RAD001-induced Akt phosphorylation and exerted enhanced suppressive effect on 4EBP1 phosphorylation. Collectively, we suggest that the combination of RAD001 and BKM120 may be an effective regimen for treatment of lung cancer, hence warranting further evaluation of the combination in the clinic.
Project description:Non-Hodgkin lymphomas encompass a heterogeneous group of cancers, with 85-90% arising from B lymphocytes and the remainder deriving from T lymphocytes or NK lymphocytes. These tumors are molecularly and clinically heterogeneous, showing dramatically different responses and outcomes with standard therapies. Deregulated PI3K signaling is linked to oncogenesis and disease progression in hematologic malignancies and in a variety of solid tumors and apparently enhances resistance to antineoplastic therapy, resulting in a poor prognosis. Here, we have evaluated and compared the effects of the pan-PI3K inhibitor BKM120 and the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 on mantle, follicular, and T-cell lymphomas. Our results suggest that BKM120 and BEZ235 can effectively inhibit lymphoma cell proliferation by causing cell cycle arrest and can lead to cell death by inducing apoptosis and autophagy mediated by ROS accumulation. Despite great advances in lymphoma therapy after the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, many patients still die from disease progression. Therefore, novel treatment approaches are needed. BKM120 and BEZ235 alone and in combination are very effective against lymphoma cells in vitro. If further studies confirm their effectiveness in animal models, they may be promising candidates for development as new drugs.
Project description:NVP-BKM120 is a novel phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor and is currently being investigated in phase I clinical trials in solid tumors. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of BKM120 in multiple myeloma (MM). BKM120 induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in both MM cell lines and freshly isolated primary MM cells. However, BKM120 only shows limited cytotoxicity toward normal lymphocytes. The presence of MM bone marrow stromal cells, insulin-like growth factor, or interleukin-6 does not affect BKM120-induced tumor cell apoptosis. More importantly, BKM120 treatment significantly inhibits tumor growth in vivo and prolongs the survival of myeloma-bearing mice. In addition, BKM120 shows synergistic cytotoxicity with dexamethasone in dexamethasone-sensitive MM cells. Low doses of BKM120 and dexamethasone, each of which alone has limited cytotoxicity, induce significant cell apoptosis in MM.1S and ARP-1. Mechanistic study shows that BKM120 exposure causes cell cycle arrest by upregulating p27 (Kip1) and downregulating cyclin D1 and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis by downregulating antiapoptotic XIAP and upregulating expression of cytotoxic small isoform of Bim, BimS. In summary, our findings demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo anti-MM activity of BKM120 and suggest that BKM120 alone or together with other MM chemotherapeutics, particularly dexamethasone, may be a promising treatment for MM.