High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.
ABSTRACT: The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.
Project description:In this paper, we demonstrate high mobility solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) by using a high-frequency-stable ionic-type hybrid gate dielectric (HGD). The HGD gate dielectric, a blend of sol-gel aluminum oxide (AlOx) and poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP), exhibited high dielectric constant (ε~8.15) and high-frequency-stable characteristics (1 MHz). Using the ionic-type HGD as a gate dielectric layer, an minimal electron-double-layer (EDL) can be formed at the gate dielectric/InOx interface, enhancing the field-effect mobility of the TFTs. Particularly, using the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics annealed at 350 °C, InOx TFTs having an average field-effect mobility of 16.1 cm²/Vs were achieved (maximum mobility of 24 cm²/Vs). Furthermore, the ionic-type HGD gate dielectrics can be processed at a low temperature of 150 °C, which may enable their applications in low-thermal-budget plastic and elastomeric substrates. In addition, we systematically studied the operational stability of the InOx TFTs using the HGD gate dielectric, and it was observed that the HGD gate dielectric effectively suppressed the negative threshold voltage shift during the negative-illumination-bias stress possibly owing to the recombination of hole carriers injected in the gate dielectric with the negatively charged ionic species in the HGD gate dielectric.
Project description:Electrical and carrier transport properties in In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) with a heterojunction channel were investigated. For the heterojunction IGZO channel, a high-In composition IGZO layer (IGZO-high-In) was deposited on a typical compositions IGZO layer (IGZO-111). From the optical properties and photoelectron yield spectroscopy measurements, the heterojunction channel was expected to have the type-II energy band diagram which possesses a conduction band offset (?Ec) of ~0.4 eV. A depth profile of background charge density indicated that a steep ?Ec is formed even in the amorphous IGZO heterojunction interface deposited by sputtering. A field effect mobility (?FE) of bottom gate structured IGZO TFTs with the heterojunction channel (hetero-IGZO TFTs) improved to ~20 cm2 V-1 s-1, although a channel/gate insulator interface was formed by an IGZO-111 (?FE = ~12 cm2 V-1 s-1). Device simulation analysis revealed that the improvement of ?FE in the hetero-IGZO TFTs was originated by a quantum confinement effect for electrons at the heterojunction interface owing to a formation of steep ?Ec. Thus, we believe that heterojunction IGZO channel is an effective method to improve electrical properties of the TFTs.
Project description:This study proposes a hybrid electric double layer (EDL) with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process compatibility by stacking a chitosan electrolyte and a Ta2O5 high-k dielectric thin film. Bio-inspired synaptic transistors with excellent electrical stability were fabricated using the proposed hybrid EDL for the gate dielectric layer. The Ta2O5 high-k dielectric layer with high chemical resistance, thermal stability, and mechanical strength enables CMOS-compatible patterning processes on biocompatible organic polymer chitosan electrolytes. This technique achieved ion-conduction from the chitosan electrolyte to the In-Ga-Zn oxide (IGZO) channel layer. The on/off current ratio, subthreshold voltage swing, and the field-effect mobility of the fabricated IGZO EDL transistors (EDLTs) exhibited excellent electrical properties of 1.80?×?107, 96 mV/dec, and 3.73 cm2/V·s, respectively. A resistor-loaded inverter was constructed by connecting an IGZO EDLT with a load resistor (400 M?) in series. This demonstrated good inverter action and responded to the square-wave input signals. Synaptic behaviours such as the hysteresis window and excitatory post-synaptic current (EPSC) variations were evaluated for different DC gate voltage sweep ranges and different AC gate spike stimuli, respectively. Therefore, the proposed organic-inorganic hybrid EDL is expected to be useful for implementing an extremely compact neural architecture system.
Project description:In this study, InGaZnO (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with a dual active layer (DAL) structure are fabricated by inserting a homogeneous embedded conductive layer (HECL) in an amorphous IGZO (a-IGZO) channel with the aim of enhancing the electrical characteristics of conventional bottom-gate-structure TFTs. A highly conductive HECL (carrier concentration at 1.6?×?10(13) cm(-2), resistivity at 4.6?×?10(-3) ??cm, and Hall mobility at 14.6 cm(2)/Vs at room temperature) is fabricated using photochemical H-doping by irradiating UV light on an a-IGZO film. The electrical properties of the fabricated DAL TFTs are evaluated by varying the HECL length. The results reveal that carrier mobility increased proportionally with the HECL length. Further, a DAL TFT with a 60-?m-long HECL embedded in an 80-?m-long channel exhibits comprehensive and outstanding improvements in its electrical properties: a saturation mobility of 60.2 cm(2)/Vs, threshold voltage of 2.7 V, and subthreshold slope of 0.25 V/decade against the initial values of 19.9 cm(2)/Vs, 4.7 V, and 0.45 V/decade, respectively, for a TFT without HECL. This result confirms that the photochemically H-doped HECL significantly improves the electrical properties of DAL IGZO TFTs.
Project description:A new technique is proposed for the activation of low temperature amorphous InGaZnO thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) backplanes through application of a bias voltage and annealing at 130?°C simultaneously. In this 'electrical activation', the effects of annealing under bias are selectively focused in the channel region. Therefore, electrical activation can be an effective method for lower backplane processing temperatures from 280?°C to 130?°C. Devices fabricated with this method exhibit equivalent electrical properties to those of conventionally-fabricated samples. These results are analyzed electrically and thermodynamically using infrared microthermography. Various bias voltages are applied to the gate, source, and drain electrodes while samples are annealed at 130?°C for 1?hour. Without conventional high temperature annealing or electrical activation, current-voltage curves do not show transfer characteristics. However, electrically activated a-IGZO TFTs show superior electrical characteristics, comparable to the reference TFTs annealed at 280?°C for 1?hour. This effect is a result of the lower activation energy, and efficient transfer of electrical and thermal energy to a-IGZO TFTs. With this approach, superior low-temperature a-IGZO TFTs are fabricated successfully.
Project description:Solution-processed metal oxides have been investigated as an alternative to vacuum-based oxides to implement low-cost, high-performance electronic devices on flexible transparent substrates. However, their electrical properties need to be enhanced to apply at industrial scale. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the most-used transparent semiconductor metal oxide as an active channel layer in thin-film transistors (TFTs), due to its superior electrical properties. The present work evaluates the influence of composition, thickness and ageing on the electrical properties of solution a-IGZO TFTs, using solution combustion synthesis method, with urea as fuel. After optimizing the semiconductor properties, low-voltage TFTs were obtained by implementing a back-surface passivated 3-layer In:Ga:Zn 3:1:1 with a solution-processed high-к dielectric; AlOx. The devices show saturation mobility of 3.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, IOn/IOff of 106, SS of 73 mV dec-1 and VOn of 0.18 V, thus demonstrating promising features for low-cost circuit applications.
Project description:The properties of organic thin-film transistors (TFTs) and thus their ability to address specific circuit design requirements depend greatly on the choice of the materials, particularly the organic semiconductor and the gate dielectric. For a particular organic semiconductor, the TFT performance must be reviewed for different combinations of substrates, fabrication conditions, and the choice of the gate dielectric in order to achieve the optimum TFT and circuit characteristics. We have fabricated and characterized organic TFTs based on the small-molecule organic semiconductor 2,7-diphenylbenzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene in combination with an ultrathin hybrid gate dielectric consisting of aluminum oxide and a self-assembled monolayer. Fluoroalkylphosphonic acids with chain lengths ranging from 6 to 14 carbon atoms have been used to form the self-assembled monolayer in the gate dielectric, and their influence on the TFT characteristics has been studied. By optimizing the fabrication conditions, a turn-on voltage of 0 V with an on/off current ratio above 106 has been achieved, in combination with charge-carrier mobilities up to 0.4 cm2/V s on flexible plastic substrates and 1 cm2/V s on silicon substrates.
Project description:Amorphous indium- gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) has been intensively studied for the application to active matrix flat-panel display because of its superior electrical and optical properties. However, the characteristics of a-IGZO were found to be very sensitive to external circumstance such as light illumination, which dramatically degrades the device performance and stability practically required for display applications. Here, we suggest the use for silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) films grown plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) as photo-blocking layers in the a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs). The charge mobility and threshold voltage (Vth) of the TFTs depend on the thickness of the Si-Ge films and dielectric buffer layers (SiNX), which were carefully optimized to be ~200?nm and ~300?nm, respectively. As a result, even after 1,000?s illumination time, the Vth and electron mobility of the TFTs remain unchanged, which was enabled by the photo-blocking effect of the Si-Ge layers for a-IGZO films. Considering the simple fabrication process by PECVD with outstanding scalability, we expect that this method can be widely applied to TFT devices that are sensitive to light illumination.
Project description:This study proposes a two-photomask process for fabricating amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) that exhibit a self-aligned structure. The fabricated TFTs, which lack etching-stop (ES) layers, have undamaged a-IGZO active layers that facilitate superior performance. In addition, we demonstrate a bilayer passivation method that uses a polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) and SiO₂ combination layer for improving the electrical reliability of the fabricated TFTs. Teflon was deposited as a buffer layer through thermal evaporation. The Teflon layer exhibited favorable compatibility with the underlying IGZO channel layer and effectively protected the a-IGZO TFTs from plasma damage during SiO₂ deposition, resulting in a negligible initial performance drop in the a-IGZO TFTs. Compared with passivation-free a-IGZO TFTs, passivated TFTs exhibited superior stability even after 168 h of aging under ambient air at 95% relative humidity.
Project description:Amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors (AOSs) such as indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) as an active channel have attracted substantial interests with regard to high-performance thin-film transistors (TFTs). Recently, intensive and extensive studies of flexible and/or wearable AOS-based TFTs fabricated by solution-process have been reported for emerging approaches based on device configuration and fabrication process. However, several challenges pertaining to practical and effective solution-process technologies remain to be resolved before low-power consuming AOS-based TFTs for wearable electronics can be realized. In this paper, we investigate the non-thermal annealing processes for sol-gel based metal-oxide semiconductor and dielectric films fabricated by deep ultraviolet (DUV) photo and microwave annealing at low temperature, compared to the conventional thermal annealing at high temperature. A comprehensive investigation including a comparative analysis of the effects of DUV photo and microwave annealing on the degree of metal-oxide-metal networks in amorphous IGZO and high-dielectric-constant (high-k) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) films and device performance of IGZO-TFTs in a comparison with conventional thermal annealing at 400 °C was conducted. We also demonstrate the feasibility of wearable IGZO-TFTs with Al2O3 dielectrics on solution-processed polyimide films exhibiting a high on/off current ratio of 5 × 104 and field effect mobility up to 1.5 cm2/V-s operating at 1 V. In order to reduce the health risk and power consumption during the operation of wearable electronics, the operating voltage of IGZO-TFTs fabricated by non-thermal annealing at low temperature was set below ~1 V. The mechanical stability of wearable IGZO-TFTs fabricated by an all-solution-process except metal electrodes, against cyclic bending tests with diverse radius of curvatures in real-time was investigated. Highly stable and robust flexible IGZO-TFTs without passivation films were achieved even under continuous flexing with a curvature radius of 12 mm.