Biofunctionalization of Selenium Nanoparticle with Dictyophora Indusiata Polysaccharide and Its Antiproliferative Activity through Death-Receptor and Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptotic Pathways.
ABSTRACT: Bio-functionalized nanoparticles with semiconducting/metallic core encapsulated in a bio- or bio-derived materials are promising for applications in biology and especially in cancer diagnostic and healing. In this report, we report a facile, single-step, first-time synthesis and in-situ functionalization strategy for the preparation of monodispersed selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) functionalized using a novel polysaccharide (DP1) extracted from Dictyophora indusiata (a fungus). The DP1 functionalized SeNPs (DP1-SeNPs), where DP1 is attached to the surface via Se-O bond as well as physic-sorption had, an average diameter of 89 nm, and were highly uniform, extremely stable compared to bare SeNPs. Detailed investigation of the biological properties of DP1-SeNP illustrated that they exhibit unprecedented, enhanced, and selective antiproliferative activity through inducing cell apoptosis confirmed by nuclear condensation, DNA cleavage, and accumulation of S phase cell arrest. The mechanism of the induced apoptosis was found to be a combination of the activation of caspases 3, 8, and 9, the Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. It is envisioned that the reported DP1-SeNPs will offer a new phase space for high-efficiency anticancer treatment with little side effect.
Project description:Current chemotherapeutic drugs, although effective, lack cell-specific targeting, instigate adverse side effects in healthy tissue, exhibit unfavourable bio-circulation and can generate drug-resistant cancers. The synergistic use of nanotechnology and gene therapy, using nanoparticles (NPs) for therapeutic gene delivery to cancer cells is hereby proposed. This includes the benefit of cell-specific targeting and exploitation of receptors overexpressed in specific cancer types. The aim of this study was to formulate dendrimer-functionalized selenium nanoparticles (PAMAM-SeNPs) containing the targeting moiety, folic acid (FA), for delivery of pCMV-Luc-DNA (pDNA) in vitro. These NPs and their gene-loaded nanocomplexes were physicochemically and morphologically characterized. Nucleic acid-binding, compaction and pDNA protection were assessed, followed by cell-based in vitro cytotoxicity, transgene expression and apoptotic assays. Nanocomplexes possessed favourable sizes (<150 nm) and ?-potentials (>25 mV), crucial for cellular interaction, and protected the pDNA from degradation in an in vivo simulation. PAMAM-SeNP nanocomplexes exhibited higher cell viability (>85%) compared to selenium-free nanocomplexes (approximately 75%), confirming the important role of selenium in these nanocomplexes. FA-conjugated PAMAM-SeNPs displayed higher overall transgene expression (HeLa cells) compared to their non-targeting counterparts, suggesting enhanced receptor-mediated cellular uptake. Overall, our results bode well for the use of these nano-delivery vehicles in future in vivo studies.
Project description:Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) has an extremely poor prognosis, which leads to a significantly decreased overall survival in patients with peritoneal implantation of cancer cells. Administration of sodium selenite by intraperitoneal injection is highly effective in inhibiting PC. Our previous study found that selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have higher redox activity and safety than sodium selenite. In the present study, we examined the therapeutic effect of SeNPs on PC and elucidated the potential mechanism. Our results revealed that intraperitoneal delivery of SeNPs to cancer cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice at a tolerable dose was beneficial for prolonging the survival time of mice, even better than the optimal dose of cisplatin. The underlying mechanism involved in SeNP-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production caused protein degradation and apoptotic response in cancer cells. Interestingly, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), recognized as a ROS scavenger, without reducing the efficacy of SeNPs, enhanced ROS production and cytotoxicity. The effect of NAC was associated with the following mechanisms: (1) the thiol groups in NAC can increase the biosynthesis of endogenous glutathione (GSH), thus increasing the production of SeNP-induced ROS and cytotoxicity and (2) redox cycling of SeNPs was directly driven by thiol groups in NAC to produce ROS. Moreover, NAC, without increasing the systematic toxicity of SeNPs, decreased SeNP-induced lethality in healthy mice. Overall, we demonstrated that SeNPs exert a potential cytotoxicity effect by inducing ROS production in cancer cells; NAC effectively heightens the property of SeNPs in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:The effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) on the antioxidant capacity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were investigated. The rats were given intragastric administration of an SeNP suspension at doses of 0, 2, 4, and 8?mg Se/kg BW for two weeks. The antioxidant capacity in serum and organic tissues (liver, heart, and kidney) and the gene expression levels of glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) in the liver were measured. Buffalo rat liver (BRL) cell lines were further constructed to explore the cytotoxicity mechanism induced by SeNPs through the determination of antioxidant capacity; cell activity; apoptosis; and Caspase-3, Caspase-8, and Caspase-9 family activities. The results showed that SeNP administration over 4.0?mg Se/kg BW decreased the antioxidant capacities in the serum, liver, and heart and downregulated mRNA expression of GPX1 and GPX4 in the liver. The BRL cell line experiments showed that treatment with over 24??M SeNPs decreased the viability of the cells and damaged the antioxidant capacity. Flow cytometry analysis showed that decreased cell viability induced by SeNPs is mainly due to apoptosis, rather than cell necrosis. Caspase-3 and Caspase-8 activities were also increased when BRL cells were treated with 24??M and 48??M SeNPs. Taken together, a nonlethal level of SeNPs could impair the antioxidant capacity in serum and organic tissues of rats, and the liver is the most sensitive to the toxicity of SeNPs. A pharmacological dose of SeNPs could lead to cytotoxicity and induce cell death through apoptosis and extrinsic pathways contributing to SeNP-induced apoptosis in BRL cells.
Project description:The development of a biocompatible and nontoxic gene delivery vehicle remains a challenging task. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) have the potential to increase delivery efficiency, to reduce side effects, and to improve therapeutic outcomes. In this study, chitosan (Ch) functionalized folate (FA)-targeted SeNPs were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for their potential to bind, protect, and safely deliver Fluc-siRNA in vitro. SeNPs of less than 100 nm were successfully synthesised and further confirmed using UV-vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Cell viability studies were conducted in vitro in selected cancer and non-cancer cell lines. Folate receptor (FOLR1) targeted and nontargeted luciferase gene silencing studies were assessed in the transformed Hela-tat-Luc cell line expressing the luciferase gene. Targeted and nontargeted SeNP nanocomplexes showed minimal toxicity in all cell lines at selected w/w ratios. Maximum gene silencing was achieved at optimum w/w ratios for both nanocomplexes, with Selenium-chitosan-folic acid (SeChFA) nanocomplexes showing slightly better transgene silencing, as supported by results from docking studies showing that SeChFA nanocomplexes interacted strongly with the folate receptor (FOLR1) with high binding energy of -4.4 kcal mol-1.
Project description:The covalent attachment of SUMO (small ubiquitin-like protein modifier) to target proteins results in modifications in their activity, binding interactions, localization or half-life. The reversal of this modification is catalysed by SENPs (SUMO-specific processing proteases). Mammals contain four SUMO paralogues and six SENP enzymes. In the present paper, we describe a systematic analysis of human SENPs, integrating estimates of relative selectivity for SUMO1 and SUMO2, and kinetic measurements of recombinant C-terminal cSENPs (SENP catalytic domains). We first characterized the reaction of each endogenous SENP and cSENPs with HA-SUMO-VS [HA (haemagglutinin)-tagged SUMO-vinyl sulfones], active-site-directed irreversible inhibitors of SENPs. We found that all cSENPs and endogenous SENP1 react with both SUMO paralogues, whereas all other endogenous SENPs in mammalian cells and tissues display high selectivity for SUMO2-VS. To obtain more quantitative data, the kinetic properties of purified cSENPs were determined using SUMO1- or SUMO2-AMC (7-amino-4-methylcoumarin) as substrate. All enzymes bind their respective substrates with high affinity. cSENP1 and cSENP2 process either SUMO substrate with similar affinity and catalytic efficiency; cSENP5 and cSENP6 show marked catalytic specificity for SUMO2 as measured by Km and kcat, whereas cSENP7 works only on SUMO2. Compared with cSENPs, recombinant full-length SENP1 and SENP2 show differences in SUMO selectivity, indicating that paralogue specificity is influenced by the presence of the variable N-terminal domain of each SENP. Our data suggest that SUMO2 metabolism is more dynamic than that of SUMO1 since most SENPs display a marked preference for SUMO2.
Project description:Selenite reductase CsrF overexpressed Escherichia coli was used as a microbial factory to produce Se(0) nanoparticles (Bio-SeNPs). The Bio-SeNPs were characterized by transmission electronic microscopy, element mapping, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrographs, Zeta-potential, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The results indicated that Bio-SeNPs are irregular spheres with diameters from 60 to105 nm and mainly consist of Se(0), proteins and lipids. Furthermore, it exhibited maximum adsorption capacity for anionic dye (congo red) at acidic pH and cationic dyes (safranine T and methylene blue) at alkaline pH. To gain more insight, adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics studies were carried out. These results showed that the adsorption capacities of congo red, safranine T and methylene blue were 1577.7, 1911.0 and 1792.2 mg/g, respectively. These adsorption processes were spontaneous and primarily physical reactions. In addition, Bio-SeNPs can be effectively reused by 200 mmol/L NaCl. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of adsorption removal dyes by Bio-SeNPs. The adsorption capacities of Bio-SeNPs for congo red, safranine T and methylene blue were 6.8%, 25.2% and 49.0% higher than that for traditional bio-based materials, respectively.
Project description:Selenium enriched Lactobacillus has been reported as an immunostimulatory agent which can be used to increase the life span of cancer bearing animals. Lactic acid bacteria can reduce selenium ions to elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) and deposit them in intracellular spaces. In this strategy two known immunostimulators, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and SeNPs, are concomitantly administered for enhancing of immune responses in cancer bearing mice.Forty five female inbred BALB/c mice were divided into three groups of tests and control, each containing 15 mice. Test mice were orally administered with SeNP-enriched Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus brevis alone for 3 weeks before tumor induction. After that the administration was followed in three cycles of seven days on/three days off. Control group received phosphate buffer saline (PBS) at same condition. During the study the tumor growth was monitored using caliper method. At the end of study the spleen cell culture was carried out for both NK cytotoxicity assay and cytokines measurement. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses were also assayed after 72h of tumor antigen recall. Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels were measured, the livers of mice were removed and prepared for histopathological analysis.High level of IFN-? and IL-17 besides the significant raised in NK cytotoxicity and DTH responses were observed in SeNP-enriched L. brevis administered mice and the extended life span and decrease in the tumor metastasis to liver were also recorded in this group compared to the control mice or L.brevis alone administered mice.Our results suggested that the better prognosis could be achieved by oral administration of SeNP-enriched L. brevis in highly metastatic breast cancer mice model.
Project description:Human homeobox protein (Nanog) is highly expressed in most cancer cells and has gradually emerged as an excellent target in cancer therapy, owing to its regulation of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and apoptosis. In this study, we prepared tumor-targeting functionalized selenium nanoparticles (RGDfC-SeNPs) to load chemotherapeutic doxorubicin (DOX) and Nanog siRNA. Herein, RGDfC peptide was used as a tumor-targeting moiety which could specifically bind to ?v?3 integrins overexpressed on various cancer cells. The sizes of RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX nanoparticles (~12 nm) were confirmed by both dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical structure of RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX was characterized via Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX was compacted with siRNA (anti-Nanog) by electrostatic interaction to fabricate the RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX/siRNA complex. The RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX/siRNA complex nanoparticles could efficiently enter into HepG2 cells via clathrin-associated endocytosis, and showed high gene transfection efficiency that resulted in enhanced gene silencing. The in vivo biodistribution experiment indicated that RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX/siRNA nanoparticles were capable of specifically accumulating in the tumor site. Furthermore, treatment with RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX/siRNA resulted in a more significant anticancer activity than the free DOX, RGDfC-SeNPs@DOX or RGDfC-SeNPs/siRNA in vitro and in vivo. In summary, this study shows a novel type of DOX and siRNA co-delivery system, thereby providing an alternative route for cancer treatment.
Project description:Once released into the environment, engineered nanoparticles (eNPs) are subjected to processes that may alter their physical or chemical properties, potentially altering their toxicity vis-à-vis the as-synthesized materials. We examined the toxicity to zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) embryos of CdSecore/ZnSshell quantum dots (QDs) before and after exposure to an in vitro chemical model designed to simulate oxidative weathering in soil environments based on a reductant-driven Fenton's reaction. Exposure to these oxidative conditions resulted in severe degradation of the QDs: the Zn shell eroded, Cd(2+) and selenium were released, and amorphous Se-containing aggregates were formed. Products of QD weathering exhibited higher potency than did as-synthesized QDs. Morphological endpoints of toxicity included pericardial, ocular and yolk sac edema, nondepleted yolk, spinal curvature, tail malformations, and craniofacial malformations. To better understand the selenium-like toxicity observed in QD exposures, we examined the toxicity of selenite, selenate, and amorphous selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs). Selenite exposures resulted in high mortality to embryos/larvae while selenate and SeNPs were nontoxic. Co-exposures to SeNPs + CdCl2 resulted in dramatic increase in mortality and recapitulated the morphological endpoints of toxicity observed with exposure to products of QD weathering. Cadmium body burden was increased in larvae exposed to weathered QDs or SeNP + CdCl2 suggesting the increased potency of products of QD weathering was due to selenium modulation of cadmium toxicity. Our findings highlight the need to examine the toxicity of eNPs after they have undergone environmental weathering processes.
Project description:In the light of promising potency of selenium nanoparticles in biomedical applications, this is the first study to report the synergistic antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles and lysozyme. The nanohybrid system was prepared with various concentrations of each component. Resistance of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was compared in the presence of individual Nano and Bio counterparts as well as the nanohybrid system. Upon interaction of SeNPs with Lysozyme, the nanohybrid system efficiently enhanced the antibacterial activity compared to the protein. Therefore, SeNPs play an important role in inhibition of bacterial growth at very low concentrations of protein; whereas very high amount of the protein is required to inhibit bacterial growth individually. On the other hand, lysozyme has also played a vital role in antibacterial property of SeNPs, inducing 100% inhibition at very low concentration of each component. Hence, presence of both nano and bio counterparts induced vital interplay in the Nanohybrid system. The aged samples also presented good stability of SeNPs both as the intact and complex form. Results of this effort highlight design of nanohybrid systems with synergistic antibacterial properties to overcome the emerging antibiotic resistance as well as to define fruitful applications in biomedicine and food safety.