Plasma fluorination of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes: functionalization and thermal stability.
ABSTRACT: Grafting of fluorine species on carbon nanostructures has attracted interest due to the effective modification of physical and chemical properties of the starting materials. Various techniques have been employed to achieve a controlled fluorination yield; however, the effect of contaminants is rarely discussed, although they are often present. In the present work, the fluorination of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes was performed using plasma treatment in a magnetron sputtering chamber with fluorine diluted in an argon atmosphere with an Ar/F2 ratio of 95:5. The effect of heavily diluted fluorine in the precursor gas mixture is investigated by evaluating the modifications in the nanotube structure and the electronic properties upon plasma treatment. The existence of oxygen-based grafted species is associated with background oxygen species present in the plasma chamber in addition to fluorine. The thermal stability and desorption process of the fluorine species grafted on the carbon nanotubes during the fluorine plasma treatment were evaluated by combining different spectroscopic techniques.
Project description:The surface chemistry of plasma fluorinated vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (vCNT) is correlated to the CF4 plasma chemical composition. The results obtained via FTIR and mass spectrometry are combined with the XPS and Raman analysis of the sample surface showing the dependence on different plasma parameters (power, time and distance from the plasma region) on the resulting fluorination. Photoemission and absorption spectroscopies are used to investigate the evolution of the electronic properties as a function of the fluorine content at the vCNT surface. The samples suffer a limited ageing effect, with a small loss of fluorine functionalities after two weeks in ambient conditions.
Project description:Double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are fluorinated using (1) fluorine F2 at 200 °C, (2) gaseous BrF3 at room temperature, and (3) CF4 radio-frequency plasma functionalization. These have been comparatively studied using transmission electron microscopy and infrared, Raman, X-ray photoelectron, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. A formation of covalent C-F bonds and a considerable reduction in the intensity of radial breathing modes from the outer shells of DWCNTs are observed for all samples. Differences in the electronic state of fluorine and the C-F vibrations for three kinds of the fluorinated DWCNTs are attributed to distinct local surroundings of the attached fluorine atoms. Possible fluorine patterns realized through a certain fluorination technique are revealed from comparison of experimental NEXAFS F K-edge spectra with quantum-chemical calculations of various models. It is proposed that fluorination with F2 and BrF3 produces small fully fluorinated areas and short fluorinated chains, respectively, while the treatment with CF4 plasma results in various attached species, including single or paired fluorine atoms and -CF3 groups. The results demonstrate a possibility of different patterning of carbon surfaces through choosing the fluorination method.
Project description:Insights into the growth of high edge density carbon nanostructures were achieved by a systematic parametric study of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Such structures are important for electrode performance in a variety of applications such as supercapacitors, neural stimulation, and electrocatalysis. A morphological trend was observed as a function of temperature whereby graphenated carbon nanotubes (g-CNTs) emerged as an intermediate structure between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at lower temperatures and vertically oriented carbon nanosheets (CNS), composed of few-layered graphene, at higher temperatures. This is the first time that three distinct morphologies and dimensionalities of carbon nanostructures (i.e., 1D CNTs, 2D CNSs, and 3D g-CNTs) have been synthesized in the same reaction chamber by varying only a single parameter (temperature). A design of experiments (DOE) approach was utilized to understand the range of growth permitted in a microwave PECVD reactor, with a focus on identifying graphenated carbon nanotube growth within the process space. Factors studied in the experimental design included temperature, gas ratio, catalyst thickness, pretreatment time, and deposition time. This procedure facilitates predicting and modeling high edge density carbon nanostructure characteristics under a complete range of growth conditions that yields various morphologies of nanoscale carbon. Aside from the morphological trends influenced by temperature, a relationship between deposition temperature and specific capacitance emerged from the DOE study. Transmission electron microscopy was also used to understand the morphology and microstructure of the various high edge density structures. From these results, a new graphene foliate formation mechanism is proposed for synthesis of g-CNTs in a single deposition process.
Project description:Carbon-fluorine bond formation by transition metal catalysis is difficult, and only a few methods for the synthesis of aryl fluorides have been developed. All reported transition-metal-catalyzed fluorination reactions for the synthesis of functionalized arenes are based on palladium. Here we present silver catalysis for carbon-fluorine bond formation. Our report is the first example of the use of the transition metal silver to form carbon-heteroatom bonds by cross-coupling catalysis. The functional group tolerance and substrate scope presented here have not been demonstrated for any other fluorination reaction to date.
Project description:A one-step oxidative fluorination for carbon-fluorine bond formation from well-defined nickel complexes with oxidant and aqueous fluoride is presented, which enables a straightforward and practical (18)F late-stage fluorination of complex small molecules with potential for PET imaging.
Project description:Doping of low-dimensional graphitic materials, including graphene, graphene quantum dots and single-wall carbon nanotubes with nitrogen, sulfur or boron can significantly change their properties. We report that simple fluorination followed by annealing in a dopant source can superdope low-dimensional graphitic materials with a high level of N, S or B. The superdoping results in the following doping levels: (i) for graphene, 29.82, 17.55 and 10.79?at% for N-, S- and B-doping, respectively; (ii) for graphene quantum dots, 36.38?at% for N-doping; and (iii) for single-wall carbon nanotubes, 7.79 and 10.66?at% for N- and S-doping, respectively. As an example, the N-superdoping of graphene can greatly increase the capacitive energy storage, increase the efficiency of the oxygen reduction reaction and induce ferromagnetism. Furthermore, by changing the degree of fluorination, the doping level can be tuned over a wide range, which is important for optimizing the performance of doped low-dimensional graphitic materials.
Project description:3-Fluoro-5-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene was prepared by three different ways: as a byproduct of direct fluorination of 1,2-bis(3-nitrophenyl)disulfane, by direct fluorination of 4-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene, and by fluorodenitration of 3,5-dinitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzene. The title compound was subjected to a nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the fluorine atom with oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen nucleophiles affording novel (pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes with 3,5-disubstitution pattern. Vicarious nucleophilic substitution of the title compound with carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen nucleophiles provided 3-fluoro-5-nitro-1-(pentafluorosulfanyl)benzenes substituted in position four.
Project description:We propose a method for fabricating high-hardness plasma-polymer-fluorocarbon (PPFC) thin films with controllable optical and surface properties via manipulation of the target composition design and sputtering power density. The carbon/polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composite polymeric material targets with the low electrical resistance were prepared by press-molding using a mechanically mixed powder of PTFE, carbon nanotubes, and graphite. The composite targets showed electrical sheet resistances of 0.1-100 Ω/sq. PPFC thin films were deposited by mid-range frequency (MF) sputtering at power densities within 0.62~4.92 W/cm2. The maximum surface hardness of the PPFC thin film was 4.75 GPa, which was 21.6 times higher than that of fluorocarbon thin film sputtered from PTFE under the same conditions. With the increase of the carbon concentration in the target, the carbon cross-linking density of the PPFC thin film increased but the fluorine concentration decreased. The concentration of fluorine in the PPFC thin films grew with increasing sputtering power density. The MF sputtered carbon-rich PPFC thin films are controllable with physical properties of optical transmittance, surface hardness and surface water repellency which could be applied as protective layers for transparent flexible devices.
Project description:Direct electrophilic fluorination using molecular fluorine gas is used in organic synthesis to create novel fluorine-containing compounds with potential beneficial activity that could not be obtained by nucleophilic substitution. In this paper, we report a novel electrophilic substitution of bromine by fluorine in an aromatic system. The mechanism of this type of fluorination was explored using the reaction between bromothymolsulfonphthalein (Bromothymol Blue) and dilute fluorine gas under acidic conditions. Substitution occurs in the bromine atoms located in the ortho-position relative to the hydroxyl group. A similar electrophilic fluorination of thymolsulfonphthalein (Thymol Blue) leads to a substitution of hydrogen atoms in the same position (ortho to hydroxyl). NMR spectroscopy was used to confirm the fluorination sites. NMR spectra of thymolsulfonphthalein and its derivatives under basic conditions can be explained by considering the absence of resonance between the two phenolic rings. Both dibromothymol blue and fluorobromothymol blue revealed intermolecular attenuate Cerenkov radiation selectively near their maximum absorbance in a pH dependent manner.
Project description:Introduction:It is well known that the grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have antibacterial activity and lower cytotoxicity. Moreover, pyrazole derivatives have a broad spectrum of biological activity due to their fertile template for many medicinal drugs. On view of these findings we report herein the hybridization between MWCNTs and some pyrazole derivatives as antibacterial agents. Materials and methods:Pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives were grafted onto the surface of carboxylated MWCNTs via the reaction of carboxylated MWCNTs and the diazonium salts of pyrazoles and pyrazolones using mixed acid treatment. The insertion of the pyrazole and pyrazolone moieties was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy dispersion spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric (TGA). Results:The results indicate that pyrazole and pyrazolone moieties successfully attached on carboxylated MWCNTs surface. The neat pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives and their corresponding carbon nanotubes were tested against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans bacteria, and Aspergillusniger fungi. The results showed that the grafted carbon nanotubes of pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives have better antimicrobial activity than the neat pyrazole and pyrazolone derivatives. The molecular docking studies were performed on the most potent antimicrobial compounds to investigate the existence of the interactions between the most active inhibitors and Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS). Conclusion:The surface of the carboxylated MWCNTs was successfully grafted with some pyrazole derivatives. The antibacterial activity was investigated for the newly synthesized compounds and indicated that the grafted MWCNTs have good antibacterial activity toward some pathogenic types of bacteria.