Broadband chirality-coded meta-aperture for photon-spin resolving.
ABSTRACT: The behaviour of light transmitted through an individual subwavelength aperture becomes counterintuitive in the presence of surrounding 'decoration', a phenomenon known as the extraordinary optical transmission. Despite being polarization-sensitive, such an individual nano-aperture, however, often cannot differentiate between the two distinct spin-states of photons because of the loss of photon information on light-aperture interaction. This creates a 'blind-spot' for the aperture with respect to the helicity of chiral light. Here we report the development of a subwavelength aperture embedded with metasurfaces dubbed a 'meta-aperture', which breaks this spin degeneracy. By exploiting the phase-shaping capabilities of metasurfaces, we are able to create specific meta-apertures in which the pair of circularly polarized light spin-states produces opposite transmission spectra over a broad spectral range. The concept incorporating metasurfaces with nano-apertures provides a venue for exploring new physics on spin-aperture interaction and potentially has a broad range of applications in spin-optoelectronics and chiral sensing.
Project description:A hybrid metal-dielectric nano-aperture antenna is proposed for surface-enhanced fluorescence applications. The nano-apertures that formed in the composite thin film consist of silicon and gold layers. These were numerically investigated in detail. The hybrid nano-aperture shows a more uniform field distribution within the apertures and a higher antenna quantum yield than pure gold nano-apertures. The spectral features of the hybrid nano-apertures are independent of the aperture size. This shows a high enhancement effect in the near-infrared region. The nano-apertures with a dielectric gap were then demonstrated theoretically for larger enhancement effects. The hybrid nano-aperture is fully adaptable to large-scale availability and reproducible fabrication. The hybrid antenna will improve the effectiveness of surface-enhanced fluorescence for applications, including sensitive biosensing and fluorescence analysis.
Project description:We numerically validate and experimentally realize considerable funneling of electromagnetic energy through a subwavelength aperture that is covered with an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial (ENZ). The epsilon-near-zero metamaterial is composed of two layers of metasurfaces and operates at microwave frequencies. We demonstrate that the presence of the metamaterial at the inner and outer sides of the aperture not only lead to a significant enhancement in light transmission, but also cause a directional emission of light extracting from this hybrid system. In addition to these experimental results, we theoretically demonstrate the same concept in mid-IR region for a subwavelength gold aperture with indium tin oxide as an epsilon-near-zero material. Moreover, we found that using a dielectric spacer in-between the sunwavelength aperture and the ENZ medium, it is possible to red-shift the enhancement/directional frequency of the system.
Project description:One of the important advantages of optical metasurfaces over conventional diffractive optical elements is their capability to efficiently deflect light by large angles. However, metasurfaces are conventionally designed using approaches that are optimal for small deflection angles and their performance for designing high numerical aperture devices is not well quantified. Here we introduce and apply a technique for the estimation of the efficiency of high numerical aperture metasurfaces. The technique is based on a particular coherent averaging of diffraction coefficients of periodic blazed gratings and can be used to compare the performance of different metasurface designs in implementing high numerical aperture devices. Unlike optimization-based methods that rely on full-wave simulations and are only practicable in designing small metasurfaces, the gradient averaging technique allows for the design of arbitrarily large metasurfaces. Using this technique, we identify an unconventional metasurface design and experimentally demonstrate a metalens with a numerical aperture of 0.78 and a measured focusing efficiency of 77%. The grating averaging is a versatile technique applicable to many types of gradient metasurfaces, thus enabling highly efficient metasurface components and systems.
Project description:One of the long-standing problems in antenna engineering is the realization of highly directive beams using low-profile devices. In this paper, we provide a solution to this problem by means of Huygens' metasurfaces (HMSs), based on the equivalence principle. This principle states that a given excitation can be transformed to a desirable aperture field by inducing suitable electric and (equivalent) magnetic surface currents. Building on this concept, we propose and demonstrate cavity-excited HMS antennas, where the single-source-fed cavity is designed to optimize aperture illumination, while the HMS facilitates the current distribution that ensures phase purity of aperture fields. The HMS breaks the coupling between the excitation and radiation spectra typical to standard partially reflecting surfaces, allowing tailoring of the aperture properties to produce a desirable radiation pattern, without incurring edge-taper losses. The proposed low-profile design yields near-unity aperture illumination efficiencies from arbitrarily large apertures, offering new capabilities for microwave, terahertz and optical radiators.
Project description:We demonstrate a low-profile holographic imaging system at millimeter wavelengths based on an aperture composed of frequency-diverse metasurfaces. Utilizing measurements of spatially-diverse field patterns, diffraction-limited images of human-sized subjects are reconstructed. The system is driven by a single microwave source swept over a band of frequencies (17.5-26.5 GHz) and switched between a collection of transmit and receive metasurface panels. High fidelity image reconstruction requires a precise model for each field pattern generated by the aperture, as well as the manner in which the field scatters from objects in the scene. This constraint makes scaling of computational imaging systems inherently challenging for electrically large, coherent apertures. To meet the demanding requirements, we introduce computational methods and calibration approaches that enable rapid and accurate imaging performance.
Project description:Pollen presents a powerful model for studying mechanisms of precise formation and deposition of extracellular structures. Deposition of the pollen wall exine leads to the generation of species-specific patterns on pollen surface. In most species, exine does not develop uniformly across the pollen surface, resulting in the formation of apertures-openings in the exine that are species-specific in number, morphology and location. A long time ago, it was proposed that number and positions of apertures might be determined by the geometry of tetrads of microspores-the precursors of pollen grains arising via meiotic cytokinesis, and by the number of last-contact points between sister microspores. We have tested this model by characterizing Arabidopsis mutants with ectopic apertures and/or abnormal geometry of meiotic products. Here we demonstrate that contact points per se do not act as aperture number determinants and that a correct geometric conformation of a tetrad is neither necessary nor sufficient to generate a correct number of apertures. A mechanism sensitive to pollen ploidy, however, is very important for aperture number and positions and for guiding the aperture factor INP1 to future aperture sites. In the mutants with ectopic apertures, the number and positions of INP1 localization sites change depending on ploidy or ploidy-related cell size and not on INP1 levels, suggesting that sites for aperture formation are specified before INP1 is brought to them.
Project description:Metasurfaces, as a two-dimensional (2D) version of metamaterials, have drawn considerable attention for their revolutionary capability in manipulating the amplitude, phase, and polarization of light. As one of the most important types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces provide a versatile platform for controlling optical phase distributions due to the geometric nature of the generated phase profile. However, it remains a great challenge to design geometric metasurfaces for realizing spin-switchable functionalities because the generated phase profile with the converted spin is reversed once the handedness of the incident beam is switched. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate chiral geometric metasurfaces based on intrinsically chiral plasmonic stepped nanoapertures with a simultaneously high circular dichroism in transmission (CDT) and large cross-polarization ratio (CPR) in transmitted light to exhibit spin-controlled wavefront shaping capabilities. The chiral geometric metasurfaces are constructed by merging two independently designed subarrays of the two enantiomers for the stepped nanoaperture. Under a certain incident handedness, the transmission from one subarray is allowed, while the transmission from the other subarray is strongly prohibited. The merged metasurface then only exhibits the transmitted signal with the phase profile of one subarray, which can be switched by changing the incident handedness. Based on the chiral geometric metasurface, both chiral metasurface holograms and the spin-dependent generation of hybrid-order Poincaré sphere beams are experimentally realized. Our approach promises further applications in spin-controlled metasurface devices for complex beam conversion, image processing, optical trapping, and optical communications.
Project description:Shared-aperture technology for multifunctional planar systems, performing several simultaneous tasks, was first introduced in the field of radar antennas. In photonics, effective control of the electromagnetic response can be achieved by a geometric-phase mechanism implemented within a metasurface, enabling spin-controlled phase modulation. The synthesis of the shared-aperture and geometric-phase concepts facilitates the generation of multifunctional metasurfaces. Here shared-aperture geometric-phase metasurfaces were realized via the interleaving of sparse antenna sub-arrays, forming Si-based devices consisting of multiplexed geometric-phase profiles. We study the performance limitations of interleaved nanoantenna arrays by means of a Wigner phase-space distribution to establish the ultimate information capacity of a metasurface-based photonic system. Within these limitations, we present multifunctional spin-dependent dielectric metasurfaces, and demonstrate multiple-beam technology for optical rotation sensing. We also demonstrate the possibility of achieving complete real-time control and measurement of the fundamental, intrinsic properties of light, including frequency, polarization and orbital angular momentum.
Project description:With properties not previously available, optical metamaterials and metasurfaces have shown their great potential in the precise control of light waves at the nanoscale. However, the use of current metamaterials and metasurfaces is limited by the collective response of the meta-atoms/molecules, which means that a single element cannot provide the functionalities required by most applications. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that a single achiral nanoaperture can be utilized as a meta-macromolecule to achieve giant angular spin Hall effect of light. By controlling the spin-related momenta, we show that these nanoapertures can enable full control of the phase gradient at a deep-subwavelength level, thus forming unique building blocks for optical metasurfaces. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a miniaturized Bessel-like beam generator and flat lens are designed and experimentally characterized. The results presented here may open a door for the development of meta-macromolecule-based metasurfaces for integrated optical systems and nanophotonics.
Project description:Pollen wall exine is usually deposited non-uniformly on the pollen surface, with areas of low exine deposition corresponding to pollen apertures. Little is known about how apertures form, with the novel Arabidopsis INP1 (INAPERTURATE POLLEN1) protein currently being the only identified aperture factor. In developing pollen, INP1 localizes to three plasma membrane domains and underlies formation of three apertures. Although INP1 homologs are found across angiosperms, they lack strong sequence conservation. Thus, it has been unclear whether they also act as aperture factors and whether their sequence divergence contributes to interspecies differences in aperture patterns. To explore the functional conservation of INP1 homologs, we used mutant analysis in maize and tested whether homologs from several other species could function in Arabidopsis. Our data suggest that the INP1 involvement in aperture formation is evolutionarily conserved, despite the significant divergence of INP1 sequences and aperture patterns, but that additional species-specific factors are likely to be required to guide INP1 and to provide information for aperture patterning. To determine the regions in INP1 necessary for its localization and function, we used fragment fusions, domain swaps, and interspecific protein chimeras. We demonstrate that the central portion of the protein is particularly important for mediating the species-specific functionality.