LUBAC-Recruited CYLD and A20 Regulate Gene Activation and Cell Death by Exerting Opposing Effects on Linear Ubiquitin in Signaling Complexes.
ABSTRACT: Ubiquitination and deubiquitination are crucial for assembly and disassembly of signaling complexes. LUBAC-generated linear (M1) ubiquitin is important for signaling via various immune receptors. We show here that the deubiquitinases CYLD and A20, but not OTULIN, are recruited to the TNFR1- and NOD2-associated signaling complexes (TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC), at which they cooperate to limit gene activation. Whereas CYLD recruitment depends on its interaction with LUBAC, but not on LUBAC's M1-chain-forming capacity, A20 recruitment requires this activity. Intriguingly, CYLD and A20 exert opposing effects on M1 chain stability in the TNF-RSC and NOD2-SC. While CYLD cleaves M1 chains, and thereby sensitizes cells to TNF-induced death, A20 binding to them prevents their removal and, consequently, inhibits cell death. Thus, CYLD and A20 cooperatively restrict gene activation and regulate cell death via their respective activities on M1 chains. Hence, the interplay between LUBAC, M1-ubiquitin, CYLD, and A20 is central for physiological signaling through innate immune receptors.
Project description:Stimulation of cells with TNF? leads to the formation of the TNF-R1 signaling complex (TNF-RSC) to mediate downstream cellular fate decision. Activation of the TNF-RSC is modulated by different types of ubiquitination and may lead to cell death, including apoptosis and necroptosis, in both RIPK1-dependent and RIPK1-independent manners. Spata2 (spermatogenesis-associated 2) is an adaptor protein recruited into the TNF-RSC to modulate the interaction between the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) and the deubiquitinase CYLD (cylindromatosis). However, the mechanism by which Spata2 regulates the activation of RIPK1 is unclear. Here, we report that Spata2-deficient cells show resistance to RIPK1-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis and are also partially protected against RIPK1-independent apoptosis. Spata2 deficiency promotes M1 ubiquitination of RIPK1 to inhibit RIPK1 kinase activity. Furthermore, we provide biochemical evidence for the USP domain of CYLD and the PUB domain of the SPATA2 complex preferentially deubiquitinating the M1 ubiquitin chain in vitro. Spata2 deficiency also promotes the activation of MKK4 and JNK and cytokine production independently of RIPK1 kinase activity. Spata2 deficiency sensitizes mice to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by TNF?, which can be suppressed by RIPK1 inhibitor Nec-1s. Thus, Spata2 can regulate inflammatory response and cell death in both RIPK1-dependent and RIPK1-independent manners.
Project description:The linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) regulates immune signaling, and its function is regulated by the deubiquitinases OTULIN and CYLD, which associate with the catalytic subunit HOIP. However, the mechanism through which CYLD interacts with HOIP is unclear. We here show that CYLD interacts with HOIP via spermatogenesis-associated protein 2 (SPATA2). SPATA2 interacts with CYLD through its non-canonical PUB domain, which binds the catalytic CYLD USP domain in a CYLD B-box-dependent manner. Significantly, SPATA2 binding activates CYLD-mediated hydrolysis of ubiquitin chains. SPATA2 also harbors a conserved PUB-interacting motif that selectively docks into the HOIP PUB domain. In cells, SPATA2 is recruited to the TNF receptor 1 signaling complex and is required for CYLD recruitment. Loss of SPATA2 increases ubiquitination of LUBAC substrates and results in enhanced NOD2 signaling. Our data reveal SPATA2 as a high-affinity binding partner of CYLD and HOIP, and a regulatory component of LUBAC-mediated NF-?B signaling.
Project description:Recruitment of the deubiquitinase CYLD to signaling complexes is mediated by its interaction with HOIP, the catalytically active component of the linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC). Here, we identify SPATA2 as a constitutive direct binding partner of HOIP that bridges the interaction between CYLD and HOIP. SPATA2 recruitment to TNFR1- and NOD2-signaling complexes is dependent on HOIP, and loss of SPATA2 abolishes CYLD recruitment. Deficiency in SPATA2 exerts limited effects on gene activation pathways but diminishes necroptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF), resembling loss of CYLD. In summary, we describe SPATA2 as a previously unrecognized factor in LUBAC-dependent signaling pathways that serves as an adaptor between HOIP and CYLD, thereby enabling recruitment of CYLD to signaling complexes.
Project description:Ubiquitylation of the TNFR1 signalling complex (TNF-RSC) controls the activation of RIPK1, a kinase critically involved in mediating multiple TNF?-activated deleterious events. However, the molecular mechanism that coordinates different types of ubiquitylation modification to regulate the activation of RIPK1 kinase remains unclear. Here, we show that ABIN-1/NAF-1, a ubiquitin-binding protein, is recruited rapidly into TNF-RSC in a manner dependent on the Met1-ubiquitylating complex LUBAC to regulate the recruitment of A20 to control Lys63 deubiquitylation of RIPK1. ABIN-1 deficiency reduces the recruitment of A20 and licenses cells to die through necroptosis by promoting Lys63 ubiquitylation and activation of RIPK1 with TNF? stimulation under conditions that would otherwise exclusively activate apoptosis in wild-type cells. Inhibition of RIPK1 kinase and RIPK3 deficiency block the embryonic lethality of Abin-1 -/- mice. We propose that ABIN-1 provides a critical link between Met1 ubiquitylation mediated by the LUBAC complex and Lys63 deubiquitylation by phospho-A20 to modulate the activation of RIPK1.
Project description:LUBAC (linear ubiquitin chain assembly complex) activates the canonical NF-?B pathway through linear polyubiquitination of NEMO (NF-?B essential modulator, also known as IKK?) and RIP1. However, the regulatory mechanism of LUBAC-mediated NF-?B activation remains elusive. Here, we show that A20 suppresses LUBAC-mediated NF-?B activation by binding linear polyubiquitin via the C-terminal seventh zinc finger (ZF7), whereas CYLD suppresses it through deubiquitinase (DUB) activity. We determined the crystal structures of A20 ZF7 in complex with linear diubiquitin at 1.70-1.98?Å resolutions. The crystal structures revealed that A20 ZF7 simultaneously recognizes the Met1-linked proximal and distal ubiquitins, and that genetic mutations associated with B cell lymphomas map to the ubiquitin-binding sites. Our functional analysis indicated that the binding of A20 ZF7 to linear polyubiquitin contributes to the recruitment of A20 into a TNF receptor (TNFR) signalling complex containing LUBAC and I?B kinase (IKK), which results in NF-?B suppression. These findings provide new insight into the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses.
Project description:Innate immune signaling relies on the deposition of non-degradative polyubiquitin at receptor-signaling complexes, but how these ubiquitin modifications are regulated by deubiquitinases remains incompletely understood. Met1-linked ubiquitin (Met1-Ub) is assembled by the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC), and this is counteracted by the Met1-Ub-specific deubiquitinase OTULIN, which binds to the catalytic LUBAC subunit HOIP. In this study, we report that HOIP also interacts with the deubiquitinase CYLD but that CYLD does not regulate ubiquitination of LUBAC components. Instead, CYLD limits extension of Lys63-Ub and Met1-Ub conjugated to RIPK2 to restrict signaling and cytokine production. Accordingly, Met1-Ub and Lys63-Ub were individually required for productive NOD2 signaling. Our study thus suggests that LUBAC, through its associated deubiquitinases, coordinates the deposition of not only Met1-Ub but also Lys63-Ub to ensure an appropriate response to innate immune receptor activation.
Project description:K63- and Met1-linked ubiquitylation are crucial posttranslational modifications for TNF receptor signaling. These non-degradative ubiquitylations are counteracted by deubiquitinases (DUBs), such as the enzyme CYLD, resulting in an appropriate signal strength, but the regulation of this process remains incompletely understood. Here, we describe an interaction partner of CYLD, SPATA2, which we identified by a mass spectrometry screen. We find that SPATA2 interacts via its PUB domain with CYLD, while a PUB interaction motif (PIM) of SPATA2 interacts with the PUB domain of the LUBAC component HOIP SPATA2 is required for the recruitment of CYLD to the TNF receptor signaling complex upon TNFR stimulation. Moreover, SPATA2 acts as an allosteric activator for the K63- and M1-deubiquitinase activity of CYLD In consequence, SPATA2 substantially attenuates TNF-induced NF-?B and MAPK signaling. Conversely, SPATA2 is required for TNF-induced complex II formation, caspase activation, and apoptosis. Thus, this study identifies SPATA2 as an important factor in the TNF signaling pathway with a substantial role for the effects mediated by the cytokine.
Project description:The linear-ubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) modulates signalling via various immune receptors. In tumour necrosis factor (TNF) signalling, linear (also known as M1) ubiquitin enables full gene activation and prevents cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying cell death prevention remain ill-defined. Here, we show that LUBAC activity enables TBK1 and IKK? recruitment to and activation at the TNF receptor 1 signalling complex (TNFR1-SC). While exerting only limited effects on TNF-induced gene activation, TBK1 and IKK? are essential to prevent TNF-induced cell death. Mechanistically, TBK1 and IKK? phosphorylate the kinase RIPK1 in the TNFR1-SC, thereby preventing RIPK1-dependent cell death. This activity is essential in vivo, as it prevents TNF-induced lethal shock. Strikingly, NEMO (also known as IKK?), which mostly, but not exclusively, binds the TNFR1-SC via M1 ubiquitin, mediates the recruitment of the adaptors TANK and NAP1 (also known as AZI2). TANK is constitutively associated with both TBK1 and IKK?, while NAP1 is associated with TBK1. We discovered a previously unrecognized cell death checkpoint that is mediated by TBK1 and IKK?, and uncovered an essential survival function for NEMO, whereby it enables the recruitment and activation of these non-canonical IKKs to prevent TNF-induced cell death.
Project description:The cytokine TNF promotes inflammation either directly by activating the MAPK and NF-?B signaling pathways, or indirectly by triggering cell death. A20 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule, and mutations in the gene encoding A20 are associated with a wide panel of inflammatory pathologies, both in human and in the mouse. Binding of TNF to TNFR1 triggers the NF-?B-dependent expression of A20 as part of a negative feedback mechanism preventing sustained NF-?B activation. Apart from acting as an NF-?B inhibitor, A20 is also well-known for its ability to counteract the cytotoxic potential of TNF. However, the mechanism by which A20 mediates this function and the exact cell death modality that it represses have remained incompletely understood. In the present study, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidences that deletion of A20 induces RIPK1 kinase-dependent and -independent apoptosis upon single TNF stimulation. We show that constitutively expressed A20 is recruited to TNFR1 signaling complex (Complex I) via its seventh zinc finger (ZF7) domain, in a cIAP1/2-dependent manner, within minutes after TNF sensing. We demonstrate that Complex I-recruited A20 protects cells from apoptosis by stabilizing the linear (M1) ubiquitin network associated to Complex I, a process independent of its E3 ubiquitin ligase and deubiquitylase (DUB) activities and which is counteracted by the DUB CYLD, both in vitro and in vivo. In absence of linear ubiquitylation, A20 is still recruited to Complex I via its ZF4 and ZF7 domains, but this time protects the cells from death by deploying its DUB activity. Together, our results therefore demonstrate two distinct molecular mechanisms by which constitutively expressed A20 protect cells from TNF-induced apoptosis.
Project description:TNF-? is a key regulator of innate immune and proinflammatory responses. However, the composition of the TNF-? receptor-associated signaling complexes (TNF-RSC) and the architecture of the downstream signaling networks are incompletely understood. We employed quantitative mass spectrometry to demonstrate that TNF-? stimulation induces widespread protein phosphorylation and that the scope of phosphorylation expands in a temporal manner. TNF-? stimulation also induces rapid ubiquitylation of components of the TNF-RSC Temporal analysis of the TNF-RSC composition identified SPATA2 as a novel component of the TNF-RSC The predicted PUB domain in the N-terminus of SPATA2 interacts with the USP domain of CYLD, whereas the C-terminus of SPATA2 interacts with HOIP SPATA2 is required for recruitment of CYLD to the TNF-RSC Downregulation of SPATA2 augments transcriptional activation of NF-?B and inhibits TNF-?-induced necroptosis, pointing to an important function of SPATA2 in modulating the outcomes of TNF-? signaling. Taken together, our study draws a detailed map of TNF-? signaling, identifies SPATA2 as a novel component of TNF-? signaling, and provides a rich resource for further functional investigations.