Effects of SNPs and alternative splicing within HGF gene on its expression patterns in Qinchuan cattle.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Identification of genetic variants, including SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms), CNVs (Copy Number Variations) and alternative splicing, within functional genes has received increasing attention in animal science research. HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor) is a very important growth factor that works as a mitogen or a morphogen during tissue growth, development and regeneration. However, to date, the functions of genetic variants within the bovine HGF gene, particularly their effects on mRNA expression, have not been determined well. RESULTS:The present study aimed to perform association analysis between genetic variants and mRNA expression for the bovine HGF gene in Qinchuan cattle using various strategies, including PCR-RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), qPCR (Quantitative Real-time quantitative PCR), TA cloning, DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. A total of five SNPs were identified and only SV1 locus significantly affected HGF mRNA expression in fetal skeletal muscle (P?
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the correlations of two hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene polymorphisms (rs5745652 and rs2074725) and their protein expression levels with the efficacy of transhepatic arterial chemotherapeutic embolism (TACE) and prognosis in patients with primary liver cancer (PLC). METHODS:From March 2011 to June 2012, 109 PLC patients (the case group) who chose TACE as primary treatment and 80 healthy people (the control group) who had undergone physical examination in The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University were selected during the same period. Gene polymorphisms of HGF rs5745652 and HGF rs2074725 were detected. Serum HGF level, treating efficacy, survival quality, and 3-year survival rate for PLC patients who received TACE were observed. RESULTS:There were significant differences in genotype and allele frequencies of HGF rs5745652 and HGF rs2074725, between the case and control groups (all P<0.05). Compared with CT+TT genotype of HGF rs5745652, patients carrying CC genotype had lower serum HGF levels, higher efficacy, better survival quality, and prolonged 3-year survival rate (all P<0.05). In rs2074725, patients carrying CA+AA genotype had lower serum HGF levels, higher efficacy, better survival quality, and prolonged 3-year survival rate compared with patients carrying rs2074725 CC genotype (all P<0.05). Gene polymorphisms of HGF rs5745652 and HGF rs2074725, tumor size, and Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage were independent prognostic factors for PLC (P<0.05). CONCLUSION:Our results indicated that HGF gene polymorphisms affect TACE efficacy and survival quality of PLC patients. Patients with HGF CC genotype of rs5745652 and CA+AA genotype of rs2074725 had decreased HGF level, better curative effect, high survival quality, and a good prognosis after TACE treatment.
Project description:Alternative splicing is one of the key mechanisms that generate biological diversity. Even though alternative splicing also occurs in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs, the understanding of the significance and the regulation of these variations is rather limited.We investigated 5' UTR mRNA variants of the mouse Gli1 oncogene, which is the terminal transcriptional effector of the Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway. In addition to identifying novel transcription start sites, we demonstrated that the expression ratio of the Gli1 splice variants in the 5' UTR is regulated by the genotype of the mouse strain analyzed. The GT allele, which contains the consensus intronic dinucleotides at the 5' splice site of intron 1B, favors exon 1B inclusion, while the GC allele, having a weaker 5' splice site sequence, promotes exon 1B skipping. Moreover, the alternative Gli1 5' UTRs had an impact on translational capacity, with the shorter and the exon 1B-skipped mRNA variants being most effective.Our findings implicate novel, genome-based mechanisms as regulators of the terminal events in the mouse HH signaling cascade.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is believed to be a prominent component in the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia, although the precise etiology has remained elusive. In this study, the etiological role of FLT1 variant was further validated in pre-eclampsia by examining this association in a Japanese sample population.<h4>Methods</h4>The genotypes of three variants (rs4769613, rs12050029 and rs149427560) were examined in the upstream region of the FLT1 gene in placentas from pre-eclamptic (n=47) or normotensive control (n=49) pregnancy samples. Additionally, FLT1 mRNA levels in placenta were determined by qRT-PCR. ELISA was further used to detect circulating sFlt-1 levels in maternal sera. The intergroup comparisons were made using the Mann-Whitney U test or one way analysis of variance and P values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.<h4>Results</h4>First, the rs4769613 (C>T) and rs12050029 (G>A) genotypes were examined in placentas but no significant differences were found in the genotype or allele-type frequencies. Next, nearby short tandem repeat, rs149427560, was examined which manifested four size variants. In the genotypewise analysis, the frequency of the 474/476 heterozygote was significantly lower in pre-eclampsia (p<0.05). As expected, the FLT1 mRNA levels were significantly elevated in the pre-eclamptic placentas and sFlt-1 was higher in pre-eclamptic maternal sera. However, the genotype of these variants did not affect the FLT1 mRNA or serum sFlt-1 levels.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings did not support the hypothesis that genetic variations around the FLT1 gene affect the subtle expression changes underlying the etiologic pathway of pre-eclampsia. The hypothesis deserves further investigation through a larger sample size.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>The aim of this study is to examine whether or not hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) genetic variations are associated with susceptibility to primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) in the Han Chinese population.<h4>Methods</h4>Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)-rs5745718, rs17427817, and rs3735520-in the HGF gene were genotyped in 238 adult patients with PACG and 287 age-, sex-, and ethnically matched healthy controls by using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Data was analyzed by ?(2) analysis.<h4>Results</h4>The three tested analyzed polymorphisms in the HGF gene were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, in all the subjects. The frequencies of the genotype and allele of rs5745718 and rs1742817 in the HGF gene were significantly different between the PACG patients and the controls. On one hand, the frequencies of the CC genotype and C allele of rs5745718 were significantly decreased in PACG patients compared with controls (Pc?=?1.40×10(-3); Pc?=?3.21×10(-4), respectively); however, on the other hand, significantly decreased frequencies of the GG genotype and the G allele of rs17427817 were observed in PACG patients compared with the controls (Pc?=?0.006,; Pc?=?6.06×10(-4), respectively). A comparison of the distributions of the genotypes and alleles of rs3735520 showed no statistically significant differences between the PACG patients and the controls (pc>0.05). The haplotype analysis results showed that the CGC haplotype frequency was significantly decreased in the patients with PACG compared with the controls (pc<0.001). No difference was detected between the patients and the controls with regard to the other haplotypes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our study suggests that rs5745718 and rs17427817 are associated with a decreased risk of PACG in the Chinese Han population. The CGC haplotype was demonstrated to possibly play a protective role against PACG in this population.
Project description:Myocyte enhancer factor 2D (MEF2D), a product of the MEF2D gene, belongs to the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) protein family which is involved in vertebrate skeletal muscle development and differentiation during myogenesis. The aim of the present study was to search for polymorphisms in the bovine MEF2D gene and to analyze their effect on MEF2D mRNA and on protein expression levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle. Overall, three novel variations, namely, insertion/deletion g.-818_-814AGCCG and g.-211C<A transversion in the promoter region as well as g.7C<T transition in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR), were identified by DNA sequencing. A total, 375 unrelated bulls belonging to six different cattle breeds were genotyped, and three combined genotypes (Ins-C-C/Ins-C-C, Del-A-T/Del-A-T and Ins-C-C/Del-A-T) were determined. The frequency of the combined genotype Ins-C-C/Ins-C-C and Del-A-T/Del-A-T was varied between the breeds and the average frequency was 0.521 and 0.037, respectively. Expression analysis showed that the MEF2D variants were highly correlated with MEF2D mRNA and protein levels in the longissimus dorsi muscle of Polish Holstein-Friesian bulls carrying the three different combined genotypes. The highest MEF2D mRNA and protein levels were estimated in the muscle of bulls with the Ins-C-C/Ins-C-C homozygous genotype as compared to the Del-A-T/Del-A-T homozygotes (P < 0.01) and Ins-C-C/Del-A-T heterozygotes (P < 0.05). A preliminary association study showed no significant differences in the carcass quality traits between bulls with various MEF2D combined genotypes in the investigated population of Polish Holstein-Friesian cattle.
Project description:Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health. Its beneficial effects are exerted by selenoproteins, which can be quantified in blood and used as molecular biomarkers of Se status. We hypothesize that the presence of genetic polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes may: (1) influence the gene expression of specific selenoproteins and (2) influence the pattern of global gene expression after Brazil nut supplementation. The study was conducted with 130 healthy volunteers in Sao Paulo, Brazil, who consumed one Brazil nut (300 ?g/Se) a day for eight weeks. Gene expression of GPX1 and SELENOP and genotyping were measured by real-time PCR using TaqMan Assays. Global gene expression was assessed by microarray using Illumina HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChips. Brazil nut supplementation significantly increased GPX1 mRNA expression only in subjects with CC genotype at rs1050450 (p < 0.05). SELENOP mRNA expression was significantly higher in A-carriers at rs7579 either before or after supplementation (p < 0.05). Genotype for rs713041 in GPX4 affected the pattern of blood cell global gene expression. Genetic variations in selenoprotein genes modulated both GPX1 and SELENOP selenoprotein gene expression and global gene expression in response to Brazil nut supplementation.
Project description:Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen, morphogen, and motogen that functions in tissue healing and acts as an anti-fibrotic factor. The mechanism for this is not well understood. Recent studies implicate somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in fibrosis. We examined the effects of HGF on ACE expression in bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC). Short term treatment of BPAEC with HGF transiently increased both ACE mRNA (3 h) and activity (24 h), as determined by ACE protease assays and reverse transcription-PCR. Incubation of BPAEC with HGF for longer periods suppressed ACE mRNA (6 h) and activity (72 h). In contrast, phorbol ester (PMA) treatment produced sustained increase in ACE mRNA and activity. We examined the short term molecular effects of HGF on ACE using PMA for comparison. HGF and PMA increased transcription from a luciferase reporter with the core ACE promoter, which contains a composite binding site for SP1/3 and Egr-1. Immunocytochemistry and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that both HGF and PMA increased Egr-1 binding. HGF also increased SP3 binding, as measured by EMSA. However, HGF and PMA increased the cellular activity of only Egr-1, not SP3, as measured by luciferase reporter assays. Deletion of the Egr-1 site in the reporter construct completely abrogated HGF-induced transcription but only approximately 50% of PMA-induced activity. Expression of dominant negative Egr-1 and SP3 blocked up-regulation of the ACE promoter by HGF but only reduced up-regulation by PMA. These results show that HGF transiently increases gene transcription of ACE via activation of Egr-1, whereas PMA regulation involves Egr-1 and additional factor(s).
Project description:Programmed necrosis (necroptosis) is an alternative form of programmed cell death that is regulated by receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIPK) 1 and 3-dependent, but is a caspase (CASP)-independent pathway. In the present study, to determine if necroptosis participates in bovine structural luteolysis, we investigated RIPK1 and RIPK3 expression throughout the estrous cycle, during prostaglandin F2? (PGF)-induced luteolysis in the bovine corpus luteum (CL), and in cultured luteal steroidogenic cells (LSCs) after treatment with selected luteolytic factors. In addition, effects of a RIPK1 inhibitor (necrostatin-1, Nec-1; 50??M) on cell viability, progesterone secretion, apoptosis related factors and RIPKs expression, were evaluated. Expression of RIPK1 and RIPK3 increased in the CL tissue during both spontaneous and PGF-induced luteolysis (P?<?0.05). In cultured LSCs, tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF; 2.3?nM) in combination with interferon ? (IFNG; 2.5?nM) up-regulated RIPK1 mRNA and protein expression (P?<?0.05). TNF?+?IFNG also up-regulated RIPK3 mRNA expression (P?<?0.05), but not RIPK3 protein. Although Nec-1 prevented TNF?+?IFNG-induced cell death (P?<?0.05), it did not affect CASP3 and CASP8 expression. Nec-1 decreased both RIPK1 and RIPK3 protein expression (P?<?0.05). These findings suggest that RIPKs-dependent necroptosis is a potent mechanism responsible for bovine structural luteolysis induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Bovine neosporosis, one of the main causes of reproductive failure in cattle worldwide, poses a challenge for the immune system of pregnant cows. Changes in the Th-1/Th-2 balance in the placenta during gestation have been associated with abortion. Cotyledon and caruncle cell layers form the maternal-foetal interface in the placenta and are able to recognize and induce immune responses against Neospora caninum among other pathogens. The objective of the present work was to elucidate the immunomodulation produced by high- (Nc-Spain7) and low-virulence (Nc-Spain1H) isolates of N. caninum in bovine trophoblast (F3) and caruncular cells (BCEC-1) at early and late points after infection. Variations in the mRNA expression levels of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-17, IFN-?, TGF-?1, TNF-?), and endothelial adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) were investigated by RT-qPCR, and protein variations in culture supernatants were investigated by ELISA. RESULTS:A similar pattern of modulation was found in both cell lines. The most upregulated cytokines in infected cells were pro-inflammatory TNF-? (P?<?0.05-0.0001) and IL-8 (P?<?0.05-0.001) whereas regulatory IL-6 (P?<?0.05-0.001) and TGF-?1 (P?<?0.05-0.001) were downregulated in both cell lines. The measurement of secreted IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-? confirmed the mRNA expression level results. Differences between isolates were found in the mRNA expression levels of TLR-2 (P?<?0.05) in both cell lines and in the mRNA expression levels (P?<?0.05) and protein secretion of TNF-? (P?<?0.05), which were higher in the trophoblast cell line (F3) infected with the low-virulence isolate Nc-Spain1H. CONCLUSIONS:Neospora caninum infection is shown to favor a pro-inflammatory response in placental target cells in vitro. In addition, significant immunomodulation differences were observed between high- and low-virulence isolates, which would partially explain the differences in virulence.
Project description:PURPOSE:The role of IL28B gene variants and expression in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections are not well understood. Here, we evaluated whether IL28B gene expression and rs12979860 variations are associated with HBV outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS:IL28B genetic variations (rs12979860) were genotyped by pyrosequencing of DNA samples from 137 individuals with chronic HBV infection [50 inactive carriers (IC), 34 chronic hepatitis B (CHB), 27 cirrhosis, 26 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)], and 19 healthy controls. IL28A/B mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by qRT-PCR, and serum IL28B protein was measured by ELISA. RESULTS:Patients with IL28B C/C genotype had greater IL28A/B mRNA expression and higher IL28B protein levels than C/T patients. Within the various disease stages, compared to IC and healthy controls, IL28B expression was reduced in the CHB, cirrhosis, and HCC cohorts (CHB vs. IC, p=0.02; cirrhosis vs. IC, p=0.01; HCC vs. IC, p=0.001; CHB vs. controls, p<0.01; cirrhosis vs. controls, p<0.01; HCC vs. controls, p<0.01). When stratified with respect to serum HBV markers in the IC and CHB cohorts, IL28B mRNA and protein levels were higher in HBeAg-positive than negative individuals (p=0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed that factors associated with high IL28B protein levels were C/C versus C/T genotype [p=0.016, odds ratio (OR)=0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.08-0.78], high alanine aminotransferase values (p<0.001, OR=8.02, 95% CI=2.64-24.4), and the IC stage of HBV infection (p<0.001). CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that IL28B genetic variations may play an important role in long-term development of disease in chronic HBV infections.