Genetic Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Assam, India: Dominance of Beijing Family and Discovery of Two New Clades Related to CAS1_Delhi and EAI Family Based on Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR Typing.
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns in Assam, a remote state located in the northeastern (NE) region of India. The present study was undertaken to explore the circulating genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in this region. A total of 189 MTBC strains were collected from smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis cases from different designated microscopy centres (DMC) from various localities of Assam. All MTBC isolates were cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) media and subsequently genotyped using spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. Spoligotyping of MTBC isolates revealed 89 distinct spoligo patterns. The most dominant MTBC strain belonged to Beijing lineage and was represented by 35.45% (n = 67) of total isolates, followed by MTBC strains belonging to Central Asian-Delhi (CAS/Delhi) lineage and East African Indian (EAI5) lineage. In addition, in the present study 43 unknown spoligo patterns were detected. The discriminatory power of spoligotyping was found to be 0.8637 based on Hunter Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI). On the other hand, 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that out of total 189 MTBC isolates from Assam 185 (97.9%) isolates had unique MIRU-VNTR profiles and 4 isolates grouped into 2 clusters. Phylogenetic analysis of 67 Beijing isolates based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed that Beijing isolates from Assam represent two major groups, each comprising of several subgroups. Neighbour-Joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree analysis based on combined spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR data of 78 Non-Beijing isolates was carried out for strain lineage identification as implemented by MIRU-VNTRplus database. The important lineages of MTBC identified were CAS/CAS1_Delhi (41.02%, n = 78) and East-African-Indian (EAI, 33.33%). Interestingly, phylogenetic analysis of orphan (23.28%) MTBC spoligotypes revealed that majority of these orphan isolates from Assam represent two new sub-clades Assam/EAI and Assam/CAS. The prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Beijing and Non-Beijing strains was found to be 10.44% and 9.01% respectively. In conclusion, the present study has shown the predominance of Beijing isolates in Assam which is a matter of great concern because Beijing strains are considered to be ecologically more fit enabling wider dissemination of M. tuberculosis. Other interesting finding of the present study is the discovery of two new clades of MTBC isolates circulating in Assam. More elaborate longitudinal studies are required to be undertaken in this region to understand the transmission dynamics of MTBC.
Project description:In India, tuberculosis is an enormous public health problem. This study provides the first description of molecular diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) from Sikkim, India. A total of 399 Acid Fast Bacilli sputum positive samples were cultured on Lőwenstein-Jensen media and genetic characterisation was done by spoligotyping and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR typing. Spoligotyping revealed the occurrence of 58 different spoligotypes. Beijing spoligotype was the most dominant type constituting 62.41% of the total isolates and was associated with Multiple Drug Resistance. Minimum Spanning tree analysis of 249 Beijing strains based on 24-loci MIRU-VNTR analysis identified 12 clonal complexes (Single Locus Variants). The principal component analysis was used to visualise possible grouping of MTBC isolates from Sikkim belonging to major spoligotypes using 24-MIRU VNTR profiles. Artificial intelligence-based machine learning (ML) methods such as Random Forests (RF), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to predict dominant spoligotypes of MTBC using MIRU-VNTR data. K-fold cross-validation and validation using unseen testing data set revealed high accuracy of ANN, RF, and SVM for predicting Beijing, CAS1_Delhi, and T1 Spoligotypes (93-99%). However, prediction using the external new validation data set revealed that the RF model was more accurate than SVM and ANN.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Standard 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing allows to get an improved resolution power for tracing TB transmission and predicting different strain (sub) lineages in a community.<h4>Methodology</h4>During 2010-2012, a total of 168 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) isolates were collected by cluster sampling from 10 different Moroccan cities, and centralized by the National Reference Laboratory of Tuberculosis over the study period. All isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping, and a subset of 75 was genotyped using 24-locus based MIRU-VNTR typing, followed by first line drug susceptibility testing. Corresponding strain lineages were predicted using MIRU-VNTRplus database.<h4>Principal findings</h4>Spoligotyping resulted in 137 isolates in 18 clusters (2-50 isolates per cluster: clustering rate of 81.54%) corresponding to a SIT number in the SITVIT database, while 31(18.45%) patterns were unique of which 10 were labelled as "unknown" according to the same database. The most prevalent spoligotype family was LAM; (n = 81 or 48.24% of isolates, dominated by SIT42, n = 49), followed by Haarlem (23.80%), T superfamily (15.47%), >Beijing (2.97%), > U clade (2.38%) and S clade (1.19%). Subsequent 24-Locus MIRU-VNTR typing identified 64 unique types and 11 isolates in 5 clusters (2 to 3isolates per cluster), substantially reducing clusters defined by spoligotyping only. The single cluster of three isolates corresponded to two previously treated MDR-TB cases and one new MDR-TB case known to be contact a same index case and belonging to a same family, albeit residing in 3 different administrative regions. MIRU-VNTR loci 4052, 802, 2996, 2163b, 3690, 1955, 424, 2531, 2401 and 960 were highly discriminative in our setting (HGDI >0.6).<h4>Conclusions</h4>24-locus MIRU-VNTR typing can substantially improve the resolution of large clusters initially defined by spoligotyping alone and predominating in Morocco, and could therefore be used to better study tuberculosis transmission in a population-based, multi-year sample context.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a global population structure consisting of six main phylogenetic lineages associated with specific geographic regions and human populations. One particular M. tuberculosis genotype known as "Beijing" has repeatedly been associated with drug resistance and has been emerging in some parts of the world. "Beijing" strains are traditionally defined based on a characteristic spoligotyping pattern. We used three alternative genotyping techniques to revisit the phylogenetic classification of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains exhibiting the typical "Beijing" spoligotyping pattern.MTBC strains were obtained from an ongoing molecular epidemiological study in Switzerland and Nepal. MTBC genotyping was performed based on SNPs, genomic deletions, and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. We identified three MTBC strains from patients originating from Tibet, Portugal and Nepal which exhibited a spoligotyping patterns identical to the classical Beijing signature. However, based on three alternative molecular markers, these strains were assigned to Lineage 3 (also known as Delhi/CAS) rather than to Lineage 2 (also known as East-Asian lineage). Sequencing of the RD207 in one of these strains showed that the deletion responsible for this "Pseudo-Beijing" spoligotype was about 1,000 base pairs smaller than the usual deletion of RD207 in classical "Beijing" strains, which is consistent with an evolutionarily independent deletion event in the direct repeat (DR) region of MTBC.We provide an example of convergent evolution in the DR locus of MTBC, and highlight the limitation of using spoligotypes for strain classification. Our results indicate that a proportion of "Beijing" strains may have been misclassified in the past. Markers that are more phylogenetically robust should be used when exploring strain-specific differences in experimental or clinical phenotypes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The control of tuberculosis in densely populated cities is complicated by close human-to-human contacts and potential transmission of pathogens from multiple sources. We conducted a molecular epidemiologic analysis of 356 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates from patients presenting pulmonary tuberculosis in metropolitan Taipei. Classical antibiogram studies and genetic characterization, using mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing and spoligotyping, were applied after culture.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 356 isolates were genotyped by standard spoligotyping and the strains were compared with in the international spoligotyping database (SpolDB4). All isolates were also categorized using the 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing method and combin with NTF locus and RD deletion analyses.<h4>Results</h4>Of 356 isolates spoligotyped, 290 (81.4%) displayed known spoligotypes and 66 were not identified in the database. Major spoligotypes found were Beijing lineages (52.5%), followed by Haarlem lineages (13.5%) and EAI plus EAI-like lineages (11%). When MIRU-VNTR was employed, 140 patterns were identified, including 36 clusters by 252 isolates and 104 unique patterns, and the largest cluster comprised 95 isolates from the Beijing family. The combination of spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR revealed that 236 (67%) of the 356 isolates were clustered in 43 genotypes. Strains of the Beijing family was more likely to be of modern strain and a higher percentage of multiple drug resistance than other families combined (P = 0.08). Patients infected with Beijing strains were younger than those with other strains (mean 58.7 vs. 64.2, p = 0.02). Moreover, 85.3% of infected persons younger than 25 years had Beijing modern strain, suggesting a possible recent spread in the young population by this family of TB strain in Taipei.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our data on MTB genotype in Taipei suggest that MTB infection has not been optimally controlled. Control efforts should be reinforced in view of the high prevalence of the Beijing strain in young population and association with drug resistance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cambodia is among the 22 high-burden TB countries, and has one of the highest rates of TB in South-East Asia. This study aimed to describe the genetic diversity among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) isolates collected in Cambodia and to relate these findings to genetic diversity data from neighboring countries.<h4>Methods</h4>We characterized by 24 VNTR loci genotyping and spoligotyping 105 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates collected between 2007 and 2008 in the region of Phnom-Penh, Cambodia, enriched in multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates (n = 33).<h4>Results</h4>Classical spoligotyping confirmed that the East-African Indian (EAI) lineage is highly prevalent in this area (60%-68% respectively in whole sample and among non-MDR isolates). Beijing lineage is also largely represented (30% in whole sample, 21% among non-MDR isolates, OR = 4.51, CI 95% [1.77, 11.51]) whereas CAS lineage was absent. The 24 loci MIRU-VNTR typing scheme distinguished 90 patterns with only 13 multi-isolates clusters covering 28 isolates. The clustering of EAI strains could be achieved with only 8 VNTR combined with spoligotyping, which could serve as a performing, easy and cheap genotyping standard for this family. Extended spoligotyping suggested relatedness of some unclassified "T1 ancestors" or "Manu" isolates with modern strains and provided finer resolution.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The genetic diversity of MTC in Cambodia is driven by the EAI and the Beijing families. We validate the usefulness of the extended spoligotyping format in combination with 8 VNTR for EAI isolates in this region.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recently, newly defined clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains, namely Ethiopia 1-3 and Ethiopia H37Rv-like strains, and other clades associated with pulmonary TB (PTB) were identified in Ethiopia. In this study, we investigated whether these new strain types exhibit an increased ability to cause TB lymphadenitis (TBLN) and raised the question, if particular MTBC strains derived from TBLN patients in northern Ethiopia are genetically adapted to their local hosts and/or to the TBLN.<h4>Methods</h4>Genotyping of 196 MTBC strains isolated from TBLN patients was performed by spoligotyping and 24-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) typing. A statistical analysis was carried out to see possible associations between patient characteristics and phylogenetic MTBC strain classification.<h4>Results</h4>Among 196 isolates, the majority of strains belonged to the Delhi/CAS (38.8%) lineage, followed by Ethiopia 1 (9.7%), Ethiopia 3 (8.7%), Ethiopia H37RV-like (8.2%), Ethiopia 2 and Haarlem (7.7% each), URAL (3.6%), Uganda l and LAM (2% each), S-type (1.5%), X-type (1%), and 0.5% isolates of TUR, EAI, and Beijing genotype, respectively. Overall, 15 strains (7.7%) could not be allocated to a previously described phylogenetic lineage. The distribution of MTBC lineages is similar to that found in studies of PTB samples. The cluster rate (35%) in this study is significantly lower (P = 0.035) compared to 45% in the study of PTB in northwestern Ethiopia.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In the studied area, lymph node samples are dominated by Dehli/CAS genotype strains and strains of largely not yet defined clades based on MIRU-VNTR 24-loci nomenclature. We found no indication that strains of particular genotypes are specifically associated with TBLN. However, a detailed analysis of specific genetic variants of the locally contained Ethiopian clades by whole genome sequencing may reveal new insights into the host-pathogen co-evolution and specific features that are related to the local host immune system.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Combining different molecular typing methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can be a powerful tool for molecular epidemiology-based investigation of TB. However, the current standard method that provides high discriminatory power for such a combination, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable numbers of tandem repeats typing (MIRU-VNTR), is laborious, time-consuming and often too costly for many resource-limited laboratories. We aimed to evaluate a reduced set of loci for MIRU-VNTR typing in combination with spoligotyping and SNP-typing for routine molecular epidemiology of TB.<h4>Method</h4>Spoligotyping and SNP-typing, in combination with the 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing, were first used to type clinical MTBC isolates (n = 158) from Madagascar. A step by step reduction of MIRU-VNTR loci number was then performed according to the Hunter and Gaston Discriminatory Index (HGDI) and to the Principal component analysis (PCA) correlation with the spoligotype profiles to evaluate the discrimination power inside the generated spoligotype clusters. The 15 MIRU-VNTR was used as reference and SNP-typing was used to determine the main MTBC lineages.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 158 clinical isolates studied, the SNP-typing classified 23 into Lineage 1 (14.6%), 31 into Lineage 2 (19.6%), 23 into Lineage 3 (14.6%) and 81 into Lineage 4 strains (51.3%). 37 different spoligotypes profiles were obtained, 15 of which were unique and 20 in clusters. 15-loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed 144 different genotypes: 132 isolates had a unique MIRU-VNTR profile and 27 isolates were grouped into 12 clusters. After a stepwise reduction of the MIRU-VNTR loci number within each main spoligotype families, three different sets composed of 5 customised MIRU-VNTR loci had a similar discrimination level to the reference 15 loci MIRU-VNTR in lineage 1, lineage 2 and lineage 3. For lineage 4, a set of 4 and 3 MIRU-VNTR loci were proposed to subtype the Harleem and LAM spoligotype families, respectively. For the T spoligotype family, a set of 5 MIRU-VNTR loci was proposed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>According to the lineages and the spoligotype families, the number of MIRU-VNTR loci can be reduced to get an optimal classification of MTBC. These customized sets of MIRU-VNTR loci reduce workload and save resources while maintaining optimal discriminatory power.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tuberculosis remains a serious threat to human health as an infectious disease in China. Henan, a most populated province in China, has a high incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Though the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) has been investigated in many regions, there have been only a few studies on the molecular characteristics and drug resistance phenotypes in Henan. This is the first study on the genetic profile of MTB from Henan.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 668 MTB isolates from various areas were genotyped with spoligotyping and 26-locus MIRU-VNTR (classical 24-locus MIRU-VNTR and 2 other loci). The association between TB spoligotype signatures and drug-resistant profiles was analysed.<h4>Results</h4>Our data revealed that MTB isolates circulating in Henan had a high degree of genetic variation. The Beijing family was the most predominant genotype (83.53%,n?=?558), and the typical Beijing type(ST1) was the major sublineage (81.73%,n?=?546). In total,668 isolates were divided into 567 different types, forming 38 clusters (2-15 isolates per cluster), and 529 unique types by 26-locus MIRU-VNTR analysis. There was no correlation between the Beijing family and gender, age at diagnosis or treatment history, whereas the Beijing family was significantly associated with all four first-line drug resistance and multidrug-resistant phenotypes. For these samples, 15 of 26 MIRU-VNTR loci had high or moderate discriminatory power according to the Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index. A combination of the 10 most polymorphic loci had similar discriminatory power as the 26-locus set.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The Beijing genotype is the most prevalent family. Ten-locus MIRU-VNTR in combination with spoligotyping can efficiently classify the molecular type of MTB in Henan Province.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Investigations of Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity in China have indicated a significant regional distribution. The aim of this study was to characterize the genotypes of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from Gansu, which has a special geographic location in China.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>A total of 467 clinical M. tuberculosis strains isolated in Gansu Province were genotyped by 15-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping. The results showed that 445 isolates belonged to six known spoligotype lineages, whereas 22 isolates were unknown. The Beijing genotype was the most prevalent (87.58%, n?=?409), while the shared type 1 was the dominant genotype (80.94%, n?=?378). The second most common lineage was the T lineage, with 25 isolates (5.35%), followed by the H lineage with 5 isolates (1.07%), the MANU family (0.64%, 3 isolates), the U family (0.43%, 2 isolates) and the CAS lineage with 1 isolate (0.21%). By using the VNTR15China method, we observed 15 groups and 228 genotypes among the 467 isolates. We found no association between the five larger groups (including the Beijing genotype) and sex, age, or treatment status, and there was no noticeable difference in the group analysis in different areas. In the present study, seven of the 15 MIRU-VNTR loci were highly or moderately discriminative according to their Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>The Beijing genotype is the predominant genotype in Gansu province. We confirm that VNTR15China is suitable for typing Beijing strains in China and that it has a better discriminatory power than spoligotyping. Therefore, the use of both methods is the most suitable for genotyping analysis of M. tuberculosis.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB) remains an immense public health problem in the Republic of Korea despite a more than fivefold decrease in the prevalence of the disease over the last 3 decades. The rise in drug-resistant TB has compounded the situation. We analyzed 208 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis from the National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital by spoligotyping, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and 24-locus-based mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing to assess the diversity and transmission dynamics of the tubercle bacilli in the Republic of Korea. The majority of the isolates (97.1%) belonged to the Beijing genotype. Cluster analysis by MIRU-VNTR yielded a low clustering rate of 22.3%, with most of the clusters comprising isolates with diverse drug resistance patterns. The discriminatory capacity of the typing methods was high for RFLP and MIRU-VNTR (allelic diversity [h] = 0.99) but low for spoligotyping (h = 0.31). Although analysis of 19 MIRU-VNTR loci was needed to achieve maximum discrimination, an informative set of 8 loci (960, 1955, 2163b, 2165, 2996, 3192, 4052, and 4348) (h = 0.98) that was able to differentiate most of the closely related strains was identified. These findings suggest that 24-locus-based MIRU-VNTR typing is a likely suitable alternative to RFLP to differentiate clinical isolates in this setting, which is dominated by M. tuberculosis Beijing strains. Within the study limits, our results also suggest that the problem of drug-resistant TB in the Republic of Korea may be largely due to acquired resistance as opposed to transmission.