Cytotoxic, Antiproliferative and Pro-Apoptotic Effects of 5-Hydroxyl-6,7,3',4',5'-Pentamethoxyflavone Isolated from Lantana ukambensis.
ABSTRACT: Lantana ukambensis (Vatke) Verdc. is an African food and medicinal plant. Its red fruits are eaten and highly appreciated by the rural population. This plant was extensively used in African folk medicinal traditions to treat chronic wounds but also as anti-leishmanial or cytotoxic remedies, especially in Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Kenya, or Ethiopia. This study investigates the in vitro bioactivity of polymethoxyflavones extracted from a L. ukambensis as anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic agents. We isolated two known polymethoxyflavones, 5,6,7,3',4',5'-hexamethoxyflavone (1) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (2) from the whole plant of L. ukambensis. Their chemical structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and comparison with published data. These molecules were tested for the anti-proliferative, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects on human cancer cells. Among them, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (2) was selectively cytotoxic against monocytic lymphoma (U937), acute T cell leukemia (Jurkat), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (K562) cell lines, but not against peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy donors, at all tested concentrations. Moreover, this compound exhibited significant anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects against U937 acute myelogenous leukemia cells. This study highlights the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4',5'-pentamethoxyflavone (2) and provides a scientific basis of traditional use of L. ukambensis.
Project description:The by-product of citrus juice processing is a huge source of bioactive compounds, especially polymethoxyflavones (PMFs) and fibers. In this study, a method for the separation and purification of PMFs from citrus pomace was established based on citrus nanoporous carbon (CNPC) enrichment. Different biomass porous carbons were synthesized, their adsorption/desorption characteristics were evaluated, and the CNPCs from the peel of Citrus tangerina Tanaka were found to be best for the enrichment of PMFs from the crude extracts of citrus pomace. Using this method, six PMF compounds including low-abundant PMFs in citrus fruits such as 5,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone and 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone can be simultaneously obtained, and the purities of these compounds were all higher than 95%, with the highest purity of nobiletin reaching 99.96%. Therefore, CNPCs have a great potential for the separation and purification of PMFs in citrus processing wastes, potentially improving the added value of citrus wastes. We also provide a method reference for disposing of citrus pomace in the future.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Minnelide, a pro-drug of triptolide, has recently emerged as a potent anticancer agent. The precise mechanisms of its cytotoxic effects remain unclear. METHODS:Cell viability was studied using CCK8 assay. Cell proliferation was measured real-time on cultured cells using Electric Cell Substrate Impedence Sensing (ECIS). Apoptosis was assayed by Caspase activity on cultured lung cancer cells and TUNEL staining on tissue sections. Expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic genes (HSP70, BIRC5, BIRC4, BIRC2, UACA, APAF-1) was estimated by qRTPCR. Effect of Minnelide on proliferative cells in the tissue was estimated by Ki-67 staining of animal tissue sections. RESULTS:In this study, we investigated in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of triptolide/Minnelide in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Triptolide/Minnelide exhibited anti-proliferative effects and induced apoptosis in NSCLC cell lines and NSCLC mouse models. Triptolide/Minnelide significantly down-regulated the expression of pro-survival and anti-apoptotic genes (HSP70, BIRC5, BIRC4, BIRC2, UACA) and up-regulated pro-apoptotic APAF-1 gene, in part, via attenuating the NF-?B signaling activity. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, our results provide supporting mechanistic evidence for Minnelide as a potential in NSCLC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer (OvCa) is one of the most lethal tumors of gynecologic malignancies, due to lack of early detection, and a high rate of metastasis. The standard treatment for OvCa is surgery and cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, to overcome the high cost and side effects of these treatments, medicinal plants are widely used in developing countries to treat OvCa. Byrsocarpus coccineus plant preparation has been administered to patients traditionally in the management of tumors in Nigeria. In this study, we investigated the anti-proliferative effects of B. coccineus ethanol leaf extract against OVCAR-3 and SW 626 OvCa cell lines. After the treatment of the two cell lines with the extracts, analyses were carried out to determine inhibition of proliferation and expression of cell cycle markers, pro-apoptotic, and anti-apoptotic markers. RESULTS:Results showed that B. coccineus ethanol leaf extract, significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation in OVCAR-3 and SW 626 treated cells in a dose-dependent manner. Results also show that B. coccineus ethanol leaf extract modulated the expression of tumor suppressor gene (p53), cell cycle progression, pro- and anti-apoptotic gene, and the pro-inflammatory cytokines. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that B. coccineus have anti-proliferative properties and could induce apoptosis. Further investigation will be carried out to isolate bioactive compounds for the treatment of ovarian cancer.
Project description:A group of new nitro substituted benzoxazinones (3a-k) were synthesized from easily available 4-nitroanthranilic acid. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic potential of all the synthesized compounds (3a-k) was evaluated by MTT and Hoechst 33258 staining assay respectively whereas their antioxidant properties were determined via DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The most active compounds (3a, 3c and 3k) showed significant cytotoxic potential against HeLa cells with an inhibition of cell viability that ranged between 28.54 and 44.67% (P?<?0.001). Albeit statistically different, the anti-proliferative effect of 3c was in close match with that of the reference drug doxorubicin. Likewise, the test compounds showed profound pro-apoptotic potential with an apoptotic index that ranged between 52.86 and 75.61%. Besides, the docking studies revealed a higher efficiency for compounds (3a and 3h) owing to their better affinity and inhibition constant (Ki?=?4.397 and 3.713?nmol) respectively. The antioxidant potential of synthesized benzoxazinones (3a-k) was in close agreement with the experimental anticancer results with a percent inhibition from 34.45 to 85.93% as compared to standard (90.56%).
Project description:In this study, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying low susceptibility to apoptosis induced by the nucleoside analog azidothymidine (AZT) and the role of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in these phenomena. A preliminary screening in different cell lines indicated U937 monocytic cell line as suitable to this purpose. Treatment of U937 cells even with suprapharmacological concentrations of AZT induced only moderate levels of apoptosis. Surprisingly, SuperArray analysis showed that AZT induced the transcriptional activity of both pro- and anti-apoptotic genes. Interestingly, moreover, several genes upregulated by AZT were NF-?B related. In fact, AZT, after an initial inhibition of NF-?B activation with respect to control, induced a transient, but consistent, increase in NF-?B-binding activity. Inhibition of NF-?B activation in U937 cells, stably transfected with a dominant-negative I?B? or by pharmacological treatment, sensitized them to apoptosis induced by AZT and impaired the upregulation of anti-apoptotic genes in response to AZT treatment, with respect to control cells. These results indicate that NF-?B activation by AZT has a role in protecting target cells from apoptotic cell death, improving our understanding of the toxicology and the therapeutic usage of this drug.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Certain 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) inhibitors exhibit anti-carcinogenic activities against 5-LO overexpressing tumour types and cultured tumour cells. It has been proposed therefore that 5-LO products significantly contribute to tumour cell proliferation. To date, the relationship between the inhibitory mechanisms of 5-LO inhibitors, which vary widely, and tumour cell viability has not been evaluated. This study addresses the anti-proliferative and cytotoxic potency of a number of 5-LO inhibitors with different inhibitory mechanisms in 5-LO-positive and 5-LO-negative tumour cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Cell viability was measured by the WST-1 assay; cell proliferation was assessed using the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. Cell death was analysed by annexin V staining, Western blot analysis of PARP (poly ADP-ribose polymerase) cleavage and a cytotoxicity assay. 5-LO product formation was quantified by a 5-LO activity assay. KEY RESULTS: The common 5-LO inhibitors AA-861, Rev-5901 and MK-886 induced cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects in 5-LO-positive Capan-2 pancreatic cancer cells; BWA4C and CJ-13,610 only caused anti-proliferative effects, while zileuton failed to impair cell viability. Moreover, the concentrations of the 5-LO inhibitors required to induce anti-proliferation and cytotoxicity highly exceeded those for suppression of 5-LO. Supplementation with mitogenic 5-LO products failed to protect Capan-2 cells from the effects of 5-LO inhibitors. Finally, the cytotoxic and anti-proliferative 5-LO inhibitors also potently reduced the viability of 5-LO-deficient tumour cell lines (HeLa, Panc-1 and U937). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Certain 5-LO inhibitors cause cytotoxic and anti-proliferative effects independently of suppression of 5-LO activity. Thus, the role of 5-LO overexpression in tumour cell viability remains unclear and requires further elucidation.
Project description:Identification of genes that regulate clonogenicity of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells is hindered by the difficulty of isolating pure populations of cells with defined proliferative abilities. By analyzing the growth of clonal siblings in low passage cultures of the cell line OCI/AML4 we resolved this heterogeneous population into strata of distinct clonogenic potential, permitting analysis of the transcriptional signature of single cells with defined proliferative abilities. By microarray analysis we showed that the expression of the orphan nuclear receptor EAR-2 (NR2F6) is greater in leukemia cells with extensive proliferative capacity than in those that have lost proliferative ability. EAR-2 is expressed highly in long-term hematopoietic stem cells, relative to short-term hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and is downregulated in AML cells after induction of differentiation. Exogenous expression of EAR-2 increased the growth of U937 cells and prevented the proliferative arrest associated with terminal differentiation, and blocked differentiation of U937 and 32Dcl3 cells. Conversely, silencing of EAR-2 by short-hairpin RNA initiated terminal differentiation of these cell lines. These data identify EAR-2 as an important factor in the regulation of clonogenicity and differentiation, and establish that analysis of clonal siblings allows the elucidation of differences in gene expression within the AML hierarchy.
Project description:In colorectal cancer, p53 is commonly inactivated, associated with chemo-resistance, and marks the transition from non-invasive to invasive disease. Cancers, including colorectal cancer, are thought to be diseases of aberrant stem cell populations, as stem cells are able to self-renew, making them long-lived enough to acquire mutations necessary to manifest the disease. We have shown that extracts from sweet sorghum stalk components eliminate colon cancer stem cells (CCSC) in a partial p53-dependent fashion. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, CCSC were transfected with short hairpin-RNA against p53 (CCSC p53 shRNA) and treated with sweet sorghum phenolics extracted from different plant components (dermal layer, leaf, seed head and whole plant). While all components demonstrated anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in CCSC, phenolics extracted from the dermal layer and seed head were more potent in eliminating CCSC by elevating caspases 3/7 activity, PARP cleavage, and DNA fragmentation in a p53-dependent and p53-independent fashion, respectively. Further investigations revealed that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects were associated with decreases in beta-catenin protein levels, and beta-catenin targets cyclin D1, cMyc, and survivin. These results suggest that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of sweet sorghum extracts against human colon cancer stem cells are via suppression of Wnt/beta-catenin pro-survival signaling in a p53-dependent (dermal layer) and partial p53-independent (seed head) fashion. LCMS used to identify phenolic compounds associated with extract activity
Project description:In continuation of our interest towards the elucidation of apoptotic pathways of cytotoxic phytocompounds, we have embarked upon a study on the anticancer effects of 7?-hydroxy-?-sitosterol (CT1), a rare natural phytosterol oxide isolated from Chisocheton tomentosus. CT1 was found to be cytotoxic on three different human tumor cell lines with minimal effects on normal cell controls, where cell viability levels were maintained ?80% upon treatment. Our results showed that cell death in MCF-7 breast tumor cells was achieved through the induction of apoptosis via downregulation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. CT1 was also found to increase proapoptotic Bax protein levels, while decreasing anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein levels, suggesting the involvement of the intrinsic pathway. Reduced levels of initiator procaspase-9 and executioner procaspase-3 were also observed following CT1 exposure, confirming the involvement of cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. These results demonstrated the cytotoxic and apoptotic ability of 7?-hydroxy-?-sitosterol and suggest its potential anti-cancer use particularly on breast adenocarcinoma cells.
Project description:Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo subsp. pepo) is a seasonal vegetable with high nutritional and medical values. Many useful properties of this fruit are attributed to bioactive compounds. Zucchini fruits ("Yellow" and "Light Green" varieties) and four distinctive components (lutein, ?-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid) were selected. Firstly, the lutein, ?-carotene, zeaxanthin and dehydroascorbic acid contents were determined in these fruits. Then, in order to evaluate the safety and suitability of their use, different assays were carried out: (i) genotoxicity and anti-genotoxicity tests to determine the safety and DNA-protection against hydrogen peroxide; (ii) cytotoxicity; and (iii) DNA fragmentation and Annexin V/PI (Propidium Iodide) assays to evaluate the pro-apoptotic effect. Results showed that: (i) all the substances were non-genotoxic; (ii) all the substances were anti-genotoxic except the highest concentration of lutein; (iii) "Yellow" zucchini epicarp and mesocarp exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 0.1 mg/mL and 0.2 mg/mL, respectively); and (iv) "Light Green" zucchini skin induced internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, ?-carotene being the possible molecule responsible for its pro-apoptotic activity. To sum up, zucchini fruit could play a positive role in human health and nutrition due to this fruit and its components were safe, able to inhibit significantly the H?O?-induced damage and exhibit anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities toward HL60 (human promyelocytic leukemia cells) tumor cells. The information generated from this research should be considered when selecting potential accessions for breeding program purposes.