Non-equivalent roles of two periplasmic subunits in the function and assembly of triclosan pump TriABC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
ABSTRACT: In Gram-negative bacteria, multidrug efflux transporters function in complexes with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) that enable antibiotic efflux across the outer membrane. In this study, we analyzed the function, composition and assembly of the triclosan efflux transporter TriABC-OpmH from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We report that this transporter possesses a surprising substrate specificity that encompasses not only triclosan but the detergent SDS, which are often used together in antibacterial soaps. These two compounds interact antagonistically in a TriABC-dependent manner and negate antibacterial properties of each other. Unlike other efflux pumps that rely on a single MFP for their activities, two different MFPs, TriA and TriB, are required for triclosan/SDS resistance mediated by TriABC-OpmH. We found that analogous mutations in the ?-helical hairpin and membrane proximal domains of TriA and TriB differentially affect triclosan efflux and assembly of the complex. Furthermore, our results show that TriA and TriB function as a dimer, in which TriA is primarily responsible for stabilizing interactions with the outer membrane channel, whereas TriB is important for the stimulation of the transporter. We conclude that MFPs are engaged into complexes as asymmetric dimers, in which each protomer plays a specific role.
Project description:TriABC-OpmH is an efflux pump from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an unusual substrate specificity and protein composition. When overexpressed, this pump confers a high level of resistance to the biocide triclosan and the detergent SDS, which are commonly used in combinations for antimicrobial treatments. This activity requires an RND transporter (TriC), an outer membrane channel (OpmH), and two periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (TriA and TriB) with nonequivalent functions. In the active complex, TriA is responsible for the recruitment of OpmH, while TriB is responsible for stimulation of the transporter TriC. Here, we used the functional and structural differences between the two membrane fusion proteins to link their functional roles to specific interactions with OpmH. Our results provide evidence that the TriB-dependent stimulation of the TriC transporter is coupled to opening of the OpmH aperture through binding to the interprotomer groove of OpmH.Multidrug efflux transporters are important contributors to intrinsic and acquired antibiotic resistance in clinics. In Gram-negative bacteria, these transporters have a characteristic tripartite architecture spanning the entire two-membrane cell envelope. How such complexes are assembled and how the reactions separated in two different membranes are coupled to provide efficient efflux of various compounds across the cell envelope remain unclear. This study addressed these questions, and the results suggest a mechanism for functional integration of drug efflux by the inner membrane transporter and opening of the channel for transport across the outer membrane.
Project description:Gram- negative bacteria utilize a diverse array of multidrug transporters to pump toxic compounds out of the cell. Some transporters, together with periplasmic membrane fusion proteins (MFPs) and outer membrane channels, assemble trans-envelope complexes that expel multiple antibiotics across outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria and into the external medium. Others further potentiate this efflux by pumping drugs across the inner membrane into the periplasm. Together these transporters create a powerful network of efflux that protects bacteria against a broad range of antimicrobial agents. This review is focused on the mechanism of coupling transport reactions located in two different membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. Using a combination of biochemical, genetic and biophysical approaches we have reconstructed the sequence of events leading to the assembly of trans-envelope drug efflux complexes and characterized the roles of periplasmic and outer membrane proteins in this process. Our recent data suggest a critical step in the activation of intermembrane efflux pumps, which is controlled by MFPs. We propose that the reaction cycles of transporters are tightly coupled to the assembly of the trans-envelope complexes. Transporters and MFPs exist in the inner membrane as dormant complexes. The activation of complexes is triggered by MFP binding to the outer membrane channel, which leads to a conformational change in the membrane proximal domain of MFP needed for stimulation of transporters. The activated MFP-transporter complex engages the outer membrane channel to expel substrates across the outer membrane. The recruitment of the channel is likely triggered by binding of effectors (substrates) to MFP or MFP-transporter complexes. This model together with recent structural and functional advances in the field of drug efflux provides a fairly detailed understanding of the mechanism of drug efflux across the two membranes.
Project description:To survive in the presence of a wide range of toxic compounds, gram-negative bacteria expel such compounds via tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membranes. The Salmonella-specific MdsAB pump consists of MdsB, a resistance-nodulation-division (RND)-type inner membrane transporter (IMT) that requires the membrane fusion protein (MFP) MdsA, and an outer membrane protein (OMP; MdsC or TolC) to form a tripartite efflux complex. In this study, we investigated the role of the putative tip regions of MdsA and its OMPs, MdsC and TolC, in the formation of a functional MdsAB-mediated efflux pump. Comparative analysis indicated that although sequence homologies of MdsA and MdsC with other MFPs and OMPs, respectively, are extremely low, key residues in the putative tip regions of these proteins are well conserved. Mutagenesis studies on these conserved sites demonstrated their importance for the physical and functional interactions required to form an MdsAB-mediated pump. Our studies suggest that, despite differences in the primary amino acid sequences and functions of various OMPs and MFPs, interactions mediated by the conserved tip regions of OMP and MFP are required for the formation of functional tripartite efflux pumps in gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:In Gram-negative pathogens, multidrug efflux pumps that provide clinically significant levels of antibiotic resistance function as three-component complexes. They are composed of the inner membrane transporters belonging to one of three superfamilies of proteins, RND, ABC, or MF; periplasmic proteins belonging to the membrane fusion protein (MFP) family; and outer membrane channels exemplified by the Escherichia coli TolC. The three-component complexes span the entire two-membrane envelope of Gram-negative bacteria and expel toxic molecules from the cytoplasmic membrane to the medium. The architecture of these complexes is expected to vary significantly because of the structural diversity of the inner membrane transporters. How the three-component pumps are assembled, their architecture, and their dynamics remain unclear. In this study, we reconstituted interactions and compared binding kinetics of the E. coli TolC with AcrA, MacA, and EmrA, the periplasmic MFPs that function in multidrug efflux with transporters from the RND, ABC, and MF superfamilies, respectively. By using surface plasmon resonance, we demonstrate that TolC interactions with MFPs are highly dynamic and sensitive to pH. The affinity of TolC to MFPs decreases in the order MacA > EmrA > AcrA. We further show that MFPs are prone to oligomerization, but differ dramatically from each other in oligomerization kinetics and stability of oligomers. The propensity of MFPs to oligomerize correlates with the stability of MFP-TolC complexes and structural features of inner membrane transporters. We propose that recruitment of TolC by various MFPs is determined not only by kinetics of MFP-TolC interactions but also by oligomerization kinetics of MFPs and pH.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, utilize efflux resistance systems in order to expel toxins from their cells. Heavy-metal resistance is mediated by resistance nodulation cell division (RND)-based efflux pumps composed of a tripartite complex that includes an RND-transporter, an outer-membrane factor (OMF), and a membrane fusion protein (MFP) that spans the periplasmic space. MFPs are necessary for complex assembly and have been hypothesized to play an active role in substrate efflux. Crystal structures of MFPs are available, however incomplete, as large portions of the apparently disordered N- and C-termini are unresolved. Such is the case for CusB, the MFP of the E. coli Cu(I)/Ag(I) efflux pump CusCFBA. In this work, we have investigated the structure and function of the N-terminal region of CusB, which includes the metal-binding site and is missing from previously determined crystal structures. Results from mass spectrometry and X-ray absorption spectroscopy show that the isolated N-terminal 61 residues (CusB-NT) bind metal in a 1:1 stoichiometry with a coordination site composed of M21, M36, and M38, consistent with full-length CusB. NMR spectra show that CusB-NT is mostly disordered in the apo state; however, some slight structure is adopted upon metal binding. Much of the intact protein's function is maintained in this fragment as CusB-NT binds metal in vivo and in vitro, and metal is transferred between the metallochaperone CusF and CusB-NT in vitro. Functional analysis in vivo shows that full-length CusB is necessary in an intact polypeptide for full metal resistance, though CusB-NT alone can contribute partial metal resistance. These findings reinforce the theory that the role of CusB is not only to bind metal but also to play an active role in efflux.
Project description:Tripartite efflux pumps and the related type 1 secretion systems (T1SSs) in Gram-negative organisms are diverse in function, energization, and structural organization. They form continuous conduits spanning both the inner and the outer membrane and are composed of three principal components-the energized inner membrane transporters (belonging to ABC, RND, and MFS families), the outer membrane factor channel-like proteins, and linking the two, the periplasmic adaptor proteins (PAPs), also known as the membrane fusion proteins (MFPs). In this review we summarize the recent advances in understanding of structural biology, function, and regulation of these systems, highlighting the previously undescribed role of PAPs in providing a common architectural scaffold across diverse families of transporters. Despite being built from a limited number of basic structural domains, these complexes present a staggering variety of architectures. While key insights have been derived from the RND transporter systems, a closer inspection of the operation and structural organization of different tripartite systems reveals unexpected analogies between them, including those formed around MFS- and ATP-driven transporters, suggesting that they operate around basic common principles. Based on that we are proposing a new integrated model of PAP-mediated communication within the conformational cycling of tripartite systems, which could be expanded to other types of assemblies.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, frequently utilize tripartite efflux complexes belonging to the resistance-nodulation-division family to expel diverse toxic compounds from the cell. These systems contain a periplasmic membrane fusion protein (MFP) that is critical for substrate transport. We here present the x-ray structures of the CusB MFP from the copper/silver efflux system of E. coli. This is the first structure of any MFPs associated with heavy-metal efflux transporters. CusB bridges the inner-membrane efflux pump CusA and outer-membrane channel CusC to mediate resistance to Cu(+) and Ag(+) ions. Two distinct structures of the elongated molecules of CusB were found in the asymmetric unit of a single crystal, which suggests the flexible nature of this protein. Each protomer of CusB can be divided into four different domains, whereby the first three domains are mostly beta-strands and the last domain adopts an entirely helical architecture. Unlike other known structures of MFPs, the alpha-helical domain of CusB is folded into a three-helix bundle. This three-helix bundle presumably interacts with the periplasmic domain of CusC. The N- and C-termini of CusB form the first beta-strand domain, which is found to interact with the periplasmic domain of the CusA efflux pump. Atomic details of how this efflux protein binds Cu(+) and Ag(+) were revealed by the crystals of the CusB-Cu(I) and CusB-Ag(I) complexes. The structures indicate that CusB consists of multiple binding sites for these metal ions. These findings reveal novel structural features of an MFP in the resistance-nodulation-division efflux system and provide direct evidence that this protein specifically interacts with transported substrates.
Project description:Resistance nodulation cell division (RND)-based efflux complexes mediate multidrug and heavy-metal resistance in many Gram-negative bacteria. Efflux of toxic compounds is driven by membrane proton/substrate antiporters (RND protein) in the plasma membrane, linked by a membrane fusion protein (MFP) to an outer-membrane protein. The three-component complex forms an efflux system that spans the entire cell envelope. The MFP is required for the assembly of this complex and is proposed to play an important active role in substrate efflux. To better understand the role of MFPs in RND-driven efflux systems, we chose ZneB, the MFP component of the ZneCAB heavy-metal efflux system from Cupriavidus metallidurans CH34. ZneB is shown to be highly specific for Zn(2+) alone. The crystal structure of ZneB to 2.8 A resolution defines the basis for metal ion binding in the coordination site at a flexible interface between the beta-barrel and membrane proximal domains. The conformational differences observed between the crystal structures of metal-bound and apo forms are monitored in solution by spectroscopy and chromatography. The structural rearrangements between the two states suggest an active role in substrate efflux through metal binding and release.
Project description:The Serratia marcescens hemophore is secreted by a type I secretion system consisting of three proteins: a membrane ABC protein, an adaptor protein, and the TolC-like outer membrane protein. Assembly of these proteins is induced by substrate binding to the ABC protein. Here we show that a hemophore mutant lacking the last 14 C-terminal amino acids is not secreted but rather interacts with the ABC protein and promotes a stable multiprotein complex. Strains expressing the transporter and the mutant protein are sensitive to detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS]). TolC is trapped in the transporter jammed by the truncated substrate and therefore is not present at sufficient concentrations to allow the efflux pumps to expel detergents. Using an SDS sensitivity assay, we showed that the hemophore interacts with the ABC protein via two nonoverlapping sites. We also demonstrated that the C-terminal peptide, which functions as an intramolecular signal sequence in the complete substrate, may also have intermolecular activity and triggers complex dissociation in vivo when it is provided as a distinct peptide. The SDS sensitivity test on plates enables workers to study type I secretion protein association and dissociation independent of the secretion process itself.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, expel toxic chemicals through tripartite efflux pumps that span both the inner and outer membrane. The three parts are an inner membrane, substrate-binding transporter; a membrane fusion protein; and an outer-membrane-anchored channel. The fusion protein connects the transporter to the channel within the periplasmic space. A crystallographic model of this tripartite efflux complex has been unavailable because co-crystallization of the various components of the system has proven to be extremely difficult. We previously described the crystal structures of both the inner membrane transporter CusA and the membrane fusion protein CusB of the CusCBA efflux system of E. coli. Here we report the co-crystal structure of the CusBA efflux complex, showing that the transporter (or pump) CusA, which is present as a trimer, interacts with six CusB protomers and that the periplasmic domain of CusA is involved in these interactions. The six CusB molecules seem to form a continuous channel. The affinity of the CusA and CusB interaction was found to be in the micromolar range. Finally, we have predicted a three-dimensional structure for the trimeric CusC outer membrane channel and developed a model of the tripartite efflux assemblage. This CusC(3)-CusB(6)-CusA(3) model shows a 750-kilodalton efflux complex that spans the entire bacterial cell envelope and exports Cu I and Ag I ions.