Catatonia in Ugandan children with nodding syndrome and effects of treatment with lorazepam: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT: Nodding syndrome (NS) is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome of an unknown etiology affecting children and adolescents mostly in Eastern Africa. Symptoms of NS and catatonia seem to overlap. We investigated the presence and types of catatonic symptoms in NS and their response to one or two doses of lorazepam, the first-line treatment for catatonia.A cross-sectional descriptive study with systematic assessment of catatonia in 33 patients with NS using a modified version of the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Sixteen patients met criteria for catatonia and were observed in an open and uncontrolled study to examine the effects of one or two doses of lorazepam in them.Sixteen of 33 patients with NS had an average of 5 catatonia symptoms and met criteria for catatonia. The highest scores were found for mutism, staring, poor eating/drinking, stupor, and grimacing. Excitement, rigidity, negativism and impulsivity had lower scores. None of the children had echolalia or echopraxia. In 6 children, there was a reduction of more than 50% in catatonia ratings, representing a positive response to lorazepam. Three out of six children whose catatonia ratings did not change after the first dose, responded after administration of a second double dose. There were no unusual or critical side-effects.About half of a selected sample of children with NS met criteria for catatonia. Catatonia scores decreased in most patients after one or two doses of lorazepam. Larger, longer, and controlled studies are warranted to assess the prevalence of catatonia in NS and to assess the use of lorazepam in NS through its effects on catatonia.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02462109 Date of formal registration: June 2, 2015.
Project description:The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been proved to rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia in patients with schizophrenia or mood disorder. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of lorazepam-diazepam protocol in catatonia due to general medical conditions (GMC) and substance.Patients with catatonia that required psychiatric intervention in various settings of a medical center were included. The lorazepam-diazepam protocol had been used to treat the catatonia due to GMC or substance according to DSM-IV criteria. The treatment response had been assessed by two psychiatrists.Eighteen (85.7%) of 21 catatonic patients due to GMC or substance became free of catatonia after the lorazepam-diazepam protocol. Five (23.8%) of the 21 patients had passed away with various causes of death and wide range of time periods after catatonia.Our results showed that the lorazepam-diazepam protocol could rapidly and effectively relieve catatonia due to GMC and substance.
Project description:The term catatonia was first introduced in 1874 and several etiologies, both organic and psychiatric have been attributed to the clinical phenotype of catatonia. The interesting feature is their response to lorazepam irrespective of their etiology.Four patients admitted with verbal and motor unresponsiveness following febrile illness were evaluated for infective and metabolic causes. Those who qualified for catatonia as per Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition criteria and Bush-Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument screening tool and rating scale were evaluated in detail and reported.Catatonia occurs in clusters, females are more affected than males. Electroencephalogram can be abnormal based on the precipitating symptom. Minor changes in serum total iron and transferrin saturation and nonspecific elevation of viral antibody titers are seen in some patients. Lorazepam challenge always gives the diagnosis.All patients where females and had preceeding systemic or CNS infection. Three out of the Four patients where independent at the end of one month.Catatonia should be considered as a differential diagnosis in all children with verbal and motor unresponsiveness, which have no other explanation. Early initiation of treatment is very rewarding at least during short term follow-up.
Project description:A literature search identified 9 previously published cases that were considered as possible cases of catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal. Two of these 9 cases did not provide enough information to make a diagnosis of catatonia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 5th Edition (DSM-5). The Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Causality Scale was modified to assess ADRs secondary to drug withdrawal. From the 7 published cases which met DSM-5 catatonia criteria, using the modified scale, we established that 3 were definitive and 4 were probable cases of catatonia secondary to clozapine withdrawal. A new definitive case is described with three catatonic episodes which (1) occurred after sudden discontinuation of clozapine in the context of decades of follow-up, (2) had ?3 of 12 DSM-5 catatonic symptoms and serum creatinine kinase elevation, and (3) required medical hospitalization and intravenous fluids. Clozapine may be a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor agonist; sudden clozapine withdrawal may explain a sudden decrease in GABA activity that may contribute to the development of catatonic symptoms in vulnerable patients. Based on the limited information from these cases, the pharmacological treatment for catatonia secondary to sudden clozapine withdrawal can include benzodiazepines and/or restarting clozapine.
Project description:Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to detect three subgroups in a sample of children with pervasive developmental disorder--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) evaluated at ages 2 and 4. At age 2, Cluster 1 demonstrated few autism symptoms and high cognitive scores; 60% no longer met criteria for PDD at 4. Cluster 2 exhibited more autism symptoms and lower cognitive scores at 2; 89.5% met criteria for ASD at 4. Cluster 3 had the lowest cognitive scores and most impaired social/communication skills at 2, but no repetitive behaviors; 60% diagnosed with Autistic Disorder at 4. Results shed light on outcomes for different PDD-NOS types and raise questions regarding the increased importance of repetitive behaviors in DSM-5.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Catatonia, a condition characterized by motor, behavioral, and emotional changes, can occur during critical illness and appear as clinically similar to delirium, yet its management differs from delirium. Traditional criteria for medical catatonia preclude its diagnosis in delirium. Our objective in this investigation was to understand the overlap and relationship between delirium and catatonia in ICU patients and determine diagnostic thresholds for catatonia. DESIGN:Convenience cohort, nested within two ongoing randomized trials. SETTING:Single academic medical center in Nashville, TN. PATIENTS:We enrolled 136 critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation and/or vasopressors, randomized to two usual care sedation regimens. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Patients were assessed for delirium and catatonia by independent and masked personnel using Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale mapped to Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criterion A for catatonia. Of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had only delirium, four (3%) had only catatonia, 42 (31%) had both, and 32 (24%) had neither. In a logistic regression model, more catatonia signs were associated with greater odds of having delirium. For example, patient assessments with greater than or equal to three Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 symptoms (75th percentile) had, on average, 27.8 times the odds (interquartile range, 12.7-60.6) of having delirium compared with patient assessments with zero Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria (25th percentile) present (p < 0.001). A cut-off of greater than or equal to 4 Bush Francis Catatonia Screening Instrument items was both sensitive (91%; 95% CI, 82.9-95.3) and specific (91%; 95% CI, 87.6-92.9) for Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 catatonia. CONCLUSIONS:Given that about one in three patients had both catatonia and delirium, these data prompt reconsideration of Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria for "Catatonic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition" that preclude diagnosing catatonia in the presence of delirium.
Project description:The purpose of this open-label study was to describe the effectiveness of aripiprazole (APZ) in the treatment of children with bipolar disorders suffering from manic symptomatology.Symptomatic outpatients (Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] score ≥15) meeting strict, unmodified, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, diagnostic symptom criteria for a bipolar disorder, ages 4-9 years, were eligible. Subjects were treated prospectively with flexible doses of APZ (maximum daily dose of 15 mg/day), for up to 16 weeks or until a priori response criteria were met. Outcome measures included the YMRS, Clinical Global Impressions Scale-Severity, Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS), and the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R). A priori response criteria consisted of 3 of 4 consecutive weeks with (1) CDRS-R <29; (2) YMRS <10; and (3) CGAS >50.Ninety-six children (62 males; mean age of 6.9 (SD = 1.7), received APZ for an average length of treatment of 12.5 (SD = 3.9) weeks. Significant improvements in YMRS, CDRS-R, CGAS, and Clinical Global Impressions Scale-Severity scores (p < 0.001) were noted at the end of study participation. Sixty of the subjects (62.5%) met a priori response criteria at study's end. The most common side effects noted were stomachache, increased appetite, and headache. Two subjects were removed from the study due to side effects [epistaxis (n = 1); akathisia (n = 1)]. Subjects experienced an average weight gain of 2.4 (SD = 1.9) kg.APZ may be effective in the acute treatment of symptoms of children with bipolar illnesses.
Project description:Catatonia is a central aspect of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) and most likely associated with abnormalities in affective, motor, and sensorimotor brain regions. However, contributions of different cortical features to the pathophysiology of catatonia in SSD are poorly understood. Here, T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging data at 3 T were obtained from 56 right-handed patients with SSD. Using FreeSurfer version 6.0, we calculated cortical thickness, area, and local gyrification index (LGI). Catatonic symptoms were examined on the Northoff catatonia rating scale (NCRS). Patients with catatonia (NCRS total score ?3; n = 25) showed reduced surface area in the parietal and medial orbitofrontal gyrus and LGI in the temporal gyrus (P < .05, corrected for cluster-wise probability [CWP]) as well as hypergyrification in rostral cingulate and medial orbitofrontal gyrus when compared with patients without catatonia (n = 22; P < .05, corrected for CWP). Following a dimensional approach, a negative association between NCRS motor and behavior scores and cortical thickness in superior frontal, insular, and precentral cortex was found (34 patients with at least 1 motor and at least 1 other affective or behavioral symptom; P < .05, corrected for CWP). Positive associations were found between NCRS motor and behavior scores and surface area and LGI in superior frontal, posterior cingulate, precentral, and pericalcarine gyrus (P < .05, corrected for CWP). The data support the notion that cortical features of distinct evolutionary and genetic origin differently contribute to catatonia in SSD. Catatonia in SSD may be essentially driven by cortex variations in frontoparietal regions including regions implicated in the coordination and goal-orientation of behavior.
Project description:Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4-6 years) from the community or via clinical referrals. A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among three factors derived from the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and informant discrepancies on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and internalizing behaviors. Scores reported by parents were higher for each of the symptoms examined than those reported by teachers, and the degree of agreement between informants ranged from low to moderate. The parental distress factor of parenting stress was associated only with parent ratings, whereas other factors of parenting stress-parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parents' stress resulted from their child's temperament-were correlated with both parent and teacher ratings. Only parental distress factor predicted informant discrepancies for all behavioral symptoms assessed. Our findings suggest that parental distress should be considered when parent rating scores show significant discrepancies from that of teacher rating scores.
Project description:Background: Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are important for designating a distinct subgroup of children and adolescents with behaviour problems. As a result, CU traits are now used to form the specifier "with Limited Prosocial Emotions" that is part of the diagnostic criteria for the Conduct Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5 th Edition (DSM-5) and International Classification of Diseases 11 th Revision (ICD-11). Given this inclusion in major classification systems, it is important to develop and test methods for assessing these traits that can be used in clinical settings. The present study aimed to validate a clinician rating of CU traits, the Clinical Assessment of Prosocial Emotions, Version 1.1 (CAPE 1.1), in a sample of hard-to-reach families referred to a government program designed to prevent the development of behaviour problems in high risk families. Methods: Clinical ratings of children were obtained from 34 families of children ages 5 to 18 (M=13.5; SD=3.2). The ratings on the CAPE 1.1 were based on interviews with both parent and child. Results : Of the sample, 21% (100% male) met the diagnostic cut-off for the specifier according to the CAPE 1.1, and CAPE 1.1 scores were associated with parent ratings of CU traits, psychopathic traits, and externalising behaviours. CAPE 1.1 ratings were also associated with risk for violence obtained from case files. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence for the validity of the CAPE 1.1 as clinician rated measure of CU traits.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine whether sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptomatology moderates dose response to methylphenidate and whether the impact of SCT on medication response is distinct from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subtype effects. METHODS:Stimulant-naive children with ADHD predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I; n = 126) or ADHD combined type (ADHD-C; n = 45) aged 7-11 years were recruited from the community from September 2006 to June 2013 to participate in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, 4-week crossover trial of long-acting methylphenidate. ADHD diagnosis and subtype were established according to DSM-IV criteria using a structured interview and teacher ADHD symptom ratings. SCT symptoms were assessed using a teacher-rated scale with 2 factors (Sluggish/Sleepy and Daydreamy). Primary outcomes included (1) categorization of children as methylphenidate responders, methylphenidate nonresponders, or placebo responders by 2 blinded physicians and (2) parent and teacher ratings of child behavior on the Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scales while subjects were on treatment with placebo or 1 of 3 methylphenidate dosages (low, medium, high). RESULTS:Increased SCT Sluggish/Sleepy factor scores were associated with being a methylphenidate nonresponder or placebo responder rather than a methylphenidate responder (P = .04). Sluggish/Sleepy factor scores were also linked to diminished methylphenidate dose response for parent- and teacher-rated inattention symptoms (Sluggish/Sleepy factor × dose P = .004). SCT Daydreamy symptoms and ADHD subtype (ADHD-I vs ADHD-C) were not associated with methylphenidate responder status and did not moderate methylphenidate dose response for inattention symptoms. CONCLUSIONS:SCT Sluggish/Sleepy symptoms, but not SCT Daydreamy symptoms or ADHD subtype, predicted methylphenidate nonresponse. This novel finding, if replicated, may have important implications for assessing SCT as part of ADHD care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01727414.