Bevacizumab dosing strategy in paediatric cancer patients based on population pharmacokinetic analysis with external validation.
ABSTRACT: AIM:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab and various dosing strategies for this agent in paediatric patients. METHODS:Data were collected from 232 paediatric patients (1971 concentrations) in five studies, with a wide range of age (0.5-21 years), body weight (BWT; 5.9-125 kg), and regimens (5-15 mg kg(-1) biweekly or triweekly). Data from 152 patients (1427 concentrations) and 80 patients (544 concentrations) were used for model building and external validation, respectively. Steady-state exposure was simulated under BWT-based, body surface area (BSA)-based, ideal body weight (IBW)-based, and tier-based doses. NONMEM and R were used for analyses. RESULTS:Typical estimates of clearance, central volume of distribution (V1), and median half-life were 9.04 ml h(-1) , 2851 ml, and 19.6 days, respectively. Clearance decreased with increasing albumin. Clearance and V1 increased with BWT and were higher in male patients. Clearance and V1 were lower in children with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours than in children with sarcomas, resulting in 49% higher trough (C min) and 29% higher peak (Cmax) concentrations. BWT-adjusted clearance and V1 remained unchanged across ages. Paediatric C min was similar to adult C min under all dosing strategies. Paediatric Cmax exceeded adult Cmax under tier-based doses. CONCLUSIONS:BWT-adjusted pharmacokinetic parameter estimates in paediatric patients were similar to those in adults, and similar across ages. Bevacizumab exposure was higher in children with primary CNS tumours than in children with sarcomas. BSA-based, IBW-based, and tier-based doses offered no substantial advantage over the BWT-based dose currently used in adults for bevacizumab. Given the similarity in pharmacokinetics among many monoclonal antibodies, this may help to develop practical paediatric dosing guidelines for other therapeutic antibodies.
Project description:Bevacizumab is approved for various cancers. This analysis aimed to comprehensively evaluate bevacizumab pharmacokinetics and the influence of patient variables on bevacizumab pharmacokinetics.Rich and sparse bevacizumab serum concentrations were collected from Phase I through IV studies in early and metastatic cancers. Bevacizumab was given intravenously as single agent or in combination with chemotherapy for single- and multiple-dose schedules.Model-building used 8943 bevacizumab concentrations from 1792 patients with colon/colorectal, non-small cell lung, kidney, pancreatic, breast, prostate and brain cancer. Bevacizumab doses ranged from 1 to 20 mg/kg given once every 1, 2 or 3 weeks. A two-compartment model best described the data. The population estimates of clearance (CL), central volume of distribution (V1) and half-life for a typical 70-kg patient were 9.01 mL/h, 2.88 L and 19.6 days. CL and V1 increased with body weight and were higher in males than females by 14 and 18 %, respectively. CL decreased with increasing albumin and decreasing alkaline phosphatase. The final model was externally validated using 1670 concentrations from 146 Japanese patients that were not used for model-building. Mean prediction errors were -2.1, 3.1 and 1.0 % for concentrations, CL and V1, respectively, confirming adequate predictive performance.A robust bevacizumab pharmacokinetic model was developed and externally validated, which may be used to simulate bevacizumab exposure to optimize dosing strategies. Asian and non-Asian patients exhibited similar bevacizumab pharmacokinetics. Given the similarity in pharmacokinetics among monoclonal antibodies, this may inform pharmacokinetic studies in different ethnic groups for other therapeutic antibodies.
Project description:Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) retinopathy may be more common than previously recognized; recent ophthalmology guidelines have revised recommendations from ideal body weight (IBW)-based dosing to actual body weight (ABW)-based dosing. However, contemporary HCQ prescribing trends in the UK remain unknown.We examined a UK general population database to investigate HCQ dosing between 2007 and 2016. We studied trends of excess HCQ dosing per ophthalmology guidelines (defined by exceeding 6.5 mg/kg of IBW and 5.0 mg/kg of ABW) and determined their independent predictors using multivariable logistic regression analyses.Among 20,933 new HCQ users (78% female), the proportions of initial HCQ excess dosing declined from 40% to 36% using IBW and 38% to 30% using ABW, between 2007 and 2016. Among these, 47% of women were excess-dosed (multivariable OR 12.52; 95% CI 10.99-14.26) using IBW and 38% (multivariable OR 1.98; 95% CI,1.81-2.15) using ABW. Applying IBW, 37% of normal and 44% of obese patients were excess-dosed; however, applying ABW, 53% of normal and 10% of obese patients were excess-dosed (multivariable ORs?=?1.61 and 0.1 (reference?=?normal); both p?<?0.01). Long-term HCQ users showed similar excess dosing.A substantial proportion of HCQ users in the UK, particularly women, may have excess HCQ dosing per the previous or recent weight-based guidelines despite a modest decline in recent years. Over half of normal-BMI individuals were excess-dosed per the latest guidelines. This implies the potential need to reduce dosing for many patients but also calls for further research to establish unifying evidence-based safe and effective dosing strategies.
Project description:The aim of the study was to simplify the dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C.A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using PK data from 14 children aged 2-8 years and 402 adults. Simulations were produced to identify a simplified dosing regimen that would provide exposures similar to those observed in the paediatric clinical trials and in the range known to be safe/efficacious in adults. Model predictions were evaluated against observed adult and paediatric data to reinforce confidence of the proposed dosing regimen.The final model was a two compartment model with a zero order resorption process. Covariates included a linear influence of body surface area (BSA) on apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and a linear influence of body weight on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 /F). A simplified dosing regimen was developed which is expected to provide exposures in children aged ?5 years similar to the dosing formula used in the paediatric clinical trial and within the range that is safe/efficacious in adults. This simplified regimen is approved in the EU and in other countries for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in treatment-naive children/adolescents aged ?5 years in combination with ribavirin.Pre-existing adult PK data were combined with relatively limited paediatric PK data to develop a PK model able to predict exposure in both populations adequately. This provided increased confidence in characterizing PK in children and helped in the development of a simplified dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients.
Project description:The current recommendations for intravenous (i.v.) acyclovir dosing in obese patients suggest using ideal body weight (IBW) rather than total body weight (TBW). To our knowledge, no pharmacokinetic analysis has validated this recommendation. This single-dose pharmacokinetic study was conducted in an inpatient oncology population. Enrollment was conducted by 1:1 matching of obese patients (>190% of IBW) to normal-weight patients (80 to 120% of IBW). All patients received a single dose of i.v. acyclovir, 5 mg/kg, infused over 60 min. Consistent with current recommendations, IBW was used for obese patients and TBW for normal-weight patients. Serial plasma concentrations were obtained and compared. Seven obese and seven normal-weight patients were enrolled, with mean body mass indexes of 45.0 and 22.5 kg/m(2), respectively. Systemic clearance was substantially higher in the obese than normal-weight patients (mean, 19.4 ± 5.3 versus 14.3 ± 5.4 liters/h; P = 0.047). Area under the concentration-time curve was lower in the obese patients (15.2 ± 2.9 versus 24.0 ± 9.4 mg · h/liter; P = 0.011), as was maximum concentration (5.8 ± 0.9 versus 8.2 ± 1.3 mg/liter; P = 0.031). Utilization of IBW for dose calculation of i.v. acyclovir in obese patients leads to lower systemic exposure than dosing by TBW in normal-weight patients. While not directly evaluated in this study, utilization of an adjusted body weight for dose determination appears to more closely approximate the exposure seen in normal-weight patients. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01714180.).
Project description:Propranolol has become the first choice therapy for complicated Infantile Hemangiomas (IH). The pharmacokinetics of propranolol were evaluated after repeated oral administration of a new pediatric solution of propranolol at 3 mg kg-1 day-1 given twice daily (BID) in infants (77-243 days) with IH. A population model was built to describe the pharmacokinetics of propranolol in infants and to simulate different dosing regimens. One hundred and sixty-seven plasma concentrations from 22 infants were used in the population analysis. Weight effect was tested on apparent clearance and volume of distribution. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed for 4 dosing regimens: BID dosing with irregular or strict 12-hour intervals and 2 different 3 time daily dosing (TID) regimens. The best model was a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination rates. The weight affected the clearance but not the volume. Typical oral clearance was estimated at 3.06 L hour-1 kg-1 (95% CI: 1.14-8.61 L hour-1 kg-1), close to adult clearance data. When regular BID dosing was compared to TID or irregular BID regimens, simulated median Cmin and Cmax were <20% different. To conclude, a model using a weight allometric function on clearance was established and confirmed that the dose in mg/kg should be used without adaptation by range of age in treatment of complicated IH. The simulations support the use of a BID dosing preferably to a TID dosing thanks to close Cmin and Cmax at steady state between both regimen and showed the possibility of irregular BID dosing, allowing early administration in the evening when needed.
Project description:Diphenhydramine pharmacokinetics were characterized following a single oral dose in children aged 2 to 17 years using a weight- and age-based dosing schedule with more tiers than the current age-based dosing schedule recommended by the nonprescription drug monograph. This study was conducted in 42 subjects, aged 2 to 17 years. Doses were based on a weight-age dosing schedule, ranging from 6.25 to 50 mg. An oral dose was administered with water about 2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained up to 48 hours after dosing and analyzed for diphenhydramine. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, and the relationship of oral clearance with age was assessed using linear regression. Over an 8-fold range of doses, Cmax and AUC increased ∼90 % to ∼140% across age groups, with a similar Tmax (1.5 hours). Oral CL/F increased with age, but after allometric scaling, no maturation-related change in CL/F was apparent. Mild somnolence was the most commonly reported adverse event (95% of the subjects). A weight-age dosing schedule using an 8-fold range of doses achieved Cmax and AUC that increased about 2-fold across age groups. No effect of maturation on CL/F was observed after allometric scaling.
Project description:PURPOSE:The objectives of this analysis were to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of PF-06439535 (a bevacizumab biosimilar) and reference bevacizumab (Avastin®) sourced from the European Union (bevacizumab-EU) in patients with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and to quantify the difference in PK parameters between the two drug products via covariate analysis. METHODS:Pooled PF-06439535 and bevacizumab-EU serum concentration data from a comparative clinical efficacy and safety study (NCT02364999) in patients with NSCLC (N?=?719) were analyzed using a non-linear mixed-effects modeling approach. Patients received PF-06439535 plus chemotherapy or bevacizumab-EU plus chemotherapy every 21 days for 4-6 cycles, followed by monotherapy with PF-06439535 or bevacizumab-EU. PF-06439535 or bevacizumab-EU was administered intravenously at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Effects of patient and disease covariates, as well as the drug product (PF-06439535 versus bevacizumab-EU), on PK were investigated. RESULTS:Overall, 8632 serum bevacizumab concentrations from 351 patients in the PF-06439535 group and 354 patients in the bevacizumab-EU group were included in the analysis. A two-compartment model adequately described the combined data. Clearance (CL) and central volume of distribution (V1) estimates were 0.0113 L/h and 2.99 L for a typical 71-kg female patient with NSCLC administered bevacizumab-EU. CL and V1 increased with body weight and were higher in males than females even after accounting for differences in body weight. The 95% confidence intervals for the effect of drug product on CL and V1 encompassed unity. CONCLUSIONS:The population PK of PF-06439535 and bevacizumab-EU were well characterized by a two-compartment model. Covariate analysis did not reveal any appreciable differences between PK parameters for PF-06439535 and bevacizumab-EU in patients with NSCLC. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02364999.
Project description:AIM: Lamivudine is used as first line therapy in HIV-infected children. Yet, like many other paediatric drugs, its dose rationale has been based on limited clinical data, without thorough understanding of the effects of growth on drug disposition. Here we use lamivudine to show how a comprehensive population pharmacokinetic model can account for the influence of demographic covariates on exposure (i.e. AUC and Cmax ). METHODS: Data from three paediatric trials were used to describe the pharmacokinetics across the overall population. Modelling was based on a non-linear mixed effects approach. A stepwise procedure was used for covariate model building. RESULTS: A one compartment model with first order elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine in children. The effect of weight on clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V) was characterized by an exponential function, with exponents of 0.705 and 0.635, respectively. For a child with median body weight (17.6 kg), CL and V were 16.5 (95% CI 15.2, 17.7) l h?¹ and 46.0 (95% CI 42.4, 49.5) l, respectively. There were no differences between formulations (tablet and solution). The predicted AUC(0,12 h) after twice daily doses of 4 mg?kg?¹ ranged from 4.44 mg?l?¹ ?h for children <14 kg to 7.25 mg?l?¹ ?h for children >30 kg. CONCLUSIONS: The use of meta-analysis is critical to identify the correct covariate-parameter relationships, which must be assessed before a model is applied for predictive purposes (e.g. defining dosing recommendations for children). In contrast to prior modelling efforts, we show that the covariate distribution in the target population must be considered.
Project description:To describe sources of interindividual variability in bevacizumab disposition in pediatric patients and explore associations among bevacizumab pharmacokinetics and clinical wound healing outcomes.Before tumor resection, three doses of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) were administered to patients (median age, 12.2 years) enrolled in a multi-institutional osteosarcoma trial. Serial sampling for bevacizumab pharmacokinetics was obtained from 27 patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was fit to the data, and patient demographics and clinical chemistry values were systematically tested as predictive covariates on model parameters. Associations between bevacizumab exposure and wound healing status were evaluated by logistic regression.Bevacizumab concentration-time data were adequately described by a two-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were similar to those previously reported in adults, with a long median (range) terminal half-life of 12.2 days (8.6 to 32.4 days) and a volume of distribution indicating confinement primarily to the vascular space, 49.1 mL/kg (27.1 to 68.3 mL/kg). Body composition was a key determinant of bevacizumab exposure, as body mass index percentile was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated to body-weight normalized clearance and volume of distribution. Furthermore, bevacizumab exposure before primary tumor resection was associated with increased risk of major wound healing complications after surgery (P < 0.05).A population pharmacokinetic model for bevacizumab was developed, which demonstrated that variability in bevacizumab exposure using weight-based dosing is related to body composition. Bevacizumab dosage scaling using ideal body weight would provide an improved dosing approach in children by minimizing pharmacokinetic variability and reducing likelihood of major wound healing complications.
Project description:AIMS:The aims were to 1) develop the pharmacokinetics model to describe and predict observed tanezumab concentrations over time, 2) test possible covariate parameter relationships that could influence clearance and distribution and 3) assess the impact of fixed dosing vs. a dosing regimen adjusted by body weight. METHODS:Individual concentration-time data were determined from 1608 patients in four phase 3 studies conducted to assess efficacy and safety of intravenous tanezumab. Patients received two or three intravenous doses (2.5, 5 or 10 mg) every 8 weeks. Blood samples for assessment of tanezumab PK were collected at baseline, 1 h post-dose and at weeks 4, 8, 16 and 24 (or early termination) in all studies. Blood samples were collected at week 32 in two studies. Plasma samples were analyzed using a sensitive, specific, validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS:A two compartment model with parallel linear and non-linear elimination processes adequately described the data. Population estimates for clearance (CL), central volume (V1 ), peripheral volume (V2 ), inter-compartmental clearance, maximum elimination capacity (VM) and concentration at half-maximum elimination capacity were 0.135 l day(-1) , 2.71 l, 1.98 l, 0.371 l day(-1) , 8.03 ?g day(-1) and 27.7 ng ml(-1) , respectively. Inter-individual variability (IIV) was included on CL, V1 , V2 and VM. A mixture model accounted for the distribution of residual error. While gender, dose and creatinine clearance were significant covariates, only body weight as a covariate of CL, V1 and V2 significantly reduced IIV. CONCLUSIONS:The small increase in variability associated with fixed dosing is consistent with other monoclonal antibodies and does not change risk : benefit.