Genetic polymorphisms in the androgen metabolism pathway and risk of prostate cancer in low incidence Malaysian ethnic groups.
ABSTRACT: Androgens are involved in prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth. Genes involved in androgen metabolism mediate key steps in sex steroid metabolism. This study attempted to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the androgen metabolism pathway are associated with PCa risk in low incidence Asian ethnic groups. We genotyped 172 Malaysian subjects for cytochrome P450 family 17 (CYP17A1), steroid-5-alpha-reductase, polypeptide 1 and 2 (SRD5A1 and SRD5A2), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) genes of the androgen metabolism pathway and assessed the testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and IGF-1 levels. SNPs in the CYP17A1, SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and IGF-1 genes were genotyped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Although we did not find significant association between SNPs analysed in this study with PCa risk, we observed however, significant association between androgen levels and the IGF-1 and several SNPs. Men carrying the GG genotype for SNP rs1004467 (CYP17A1) had significantly elevated testosterone (P = 0.012) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels (P = 0.024) as compared to carriers of the A allele. The rs518673 of the SRD5A1 was associated with prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels. Our findings suggest CYP17A1 rs1004467 SNP is associated with testosterone and DHT levels indicating the importance of this gene in influencing androgen levels in the circulatory system of PCa patients, hence could be used as a potential marker in PCa assessment.
Project description:In the majority of cases, advanced prostate cancer responds initially to androgen deprivation therapy by depletion of gonadal testosterone. The response is usually transient, and metastatic tumors almost invariably eventually progress as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The development of CRPC is dependent upon the intratumoral generation of the potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), from adrenal precursor steroids. Progression to CRPC is accompanied by increased expression of steroid-5?-reductase isoenzyme-1 (SRD5A1) over SRD5A2, which is otherwise the dominant isoenzyme expressed in the prostate. DHT synthesis in CRPC is widely assumed to require 5?-reduction of testosterone as the obligate precursor, and the increased expression of SRD5A1 is thought to reflect its role in converting testosterone to DHT. Here, we show that the dominant route of DHT synthesis in CRPC bypasses testosterone, and instead requires 5?-reduction of androstenedione by SRD5A1 to 5?-androstanedione, which is then converted to DHT. This alternative pathway is operational and dominant in both human CRPC cell lines and fresh tissue obtained from human tumor metastases. Moreover, CRPC growth in mouse xenograft models is dependent upon this pathway, as well as expression of SRD5A1. These findings reframe the fundamental metabolic pathway that drives CRPC progression, and shed light on the development of new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:The enzyme 5?-reductase, which converts testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), performs key functions in the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. The three isoenzymes of 5?-reductase identified to date are encoded by different genes: SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and SRD5A3. In this study, we investigated mechanisms underlying androgen regulation of 5?-reductase isoenzyme expression in human prostate cells. We found that androgen regulates the mRNA level of 5?-reductase isoenzymes in a cell type-specific manner, that such regulation occurs at the transcriptional level, and that AR is necessary for this regulation. In addition, our results suggest that AR is recruited to a negative androgen response element (nARE) on the promoter of SRD5A3 in vivo and directly binds to the nARE in vitro. The different expression levels of 5?-reductase isoenzymes may confer response or resistance to 5?-reductase inhibitors and thus may have importance in prostate cancer prevention.
Project description:Masculinization of the external genitalia in humans is dependent on formation of 5?-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) through both the canonical androgenic pathway and an alternative (backdoor) pathway. The fetal testes are essential for canonical androgen production, but little is known about the synthesis of backdoor androgens, despite their known critical role in masculinization. In this study, we have measured plasma and tissue levels of endogenous steroids in second trimester human fetuses using multidimensional and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results show that androsterone is the principal backdoor androgen in the male fetal circulation and that DHT is undetectable (<1 ng/mL), while in female fetuses, there are significantly lower levels of androsterone and testosterone. In the male, intermediates in the backdoor pathway are found primarily in the placenta and fetal liver, with significant androsterone levels also in the fetal adrenal. Backdoor intermediates, including androsterone, are only present at very low levels in the fetal testes. This is consistent with transcript levels of enzymes involved in the alternate pathway (steroid 5?-reductase type 1 [SRD5A1], aldo-keto reductase type 1C2 [AKR1C2], aldo-keto reductase type 1C4 [AKR1C4], cytochrome P450 17A1 [CYP17A1]), as measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR). These data identify androsterone as the predominant backdoor androgen in the human fetus and show that circulating levels are sex dependent, but also that there is little de novo synthesis in the testis. Instead, the data indicate that placental progesterone acts as substrate for synthesis of backdoor androgens, which occurs across several tissues. Masculinization of the human fetus depends, therefore, on testosterone and androsterone synthesis by both the fetal testes and nongonadal tissues, leading to DHT formation at the genital tubercle. Our findings also provide a solid basis to explain why placental insufficiency is associated with disorders of sex development in humans.
Project description:Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is first-line palliative treatment in androgen receptor-positive (AR+) salivary duct carcinoma (SDC), and response rates are 17.6-50.0%. We investigated potential primary ADT resistance mechanisms for their predictive value of clinical benefit from ADT in a cohort of recurrent/metastatic SDC patients receiving palliative ADT (n =?30). We examined mRNA expression of androgen receptor (AR), AR splice variant-7, intratumoral androgen synthesis enzyme-encoding genes AKR1C3, CYP17A1, SRD5A1 and SRD5A2, AR protein expression, ERBB2 (HER2) gene amplification and DNA mutations in driver genes. Furthermore, functional AR pathway activity was determined using a previously reported Bayesian model which infers pathway activity from AR target gene expression levels. SRD5A1 expression levels and AR pathway activity scores were significantly higher in patients with clinical benefit from ADT compared to those without benefit. Survival analysis showed a trend toward a longer median progression-free survival for patients with high SRD5A1 expression levels and high AR pathway activity scores. The AR pathway activity analysis, and not SRD5A1 expression, also showed a trend toward better disease-free survival in an independent cohort of locally advanced SDC patients receiving adjuvant ADT (n =?14) after surgical tumor resection, and in most cases a neck dissection (13/14 patients) and postoperative radiotherapy (13/14 patients). In conclusion, we are the first to describe that AR pathway activity may predict clinical benefit from ADT in SDC patients, but validation in a prospective study is needed.
Project description:PURPOSE: Steroid 5-alpha reductase type 2 (SRD5A2) modifies testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the SRD5A2 gene might affect DHT. We sought to understand the relationship of SRD5A2 SNPs to prostate cancer in the Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six common SNPs in the SRD5A2 gene were assessed in 272 prostate cancer cases and 173 controls. Single-locus analyses were conducted by using conditional logistic regression. Additionally, we performed a haplotype analysis for the SRD5A2 SNPs tested. RESULTS: Among the 20 SNPs and 4 haplotypes, there were no statistically significant results in the prostate cancer patients and the controls. In the logistic analysis of SRD5A2 polymorphisms with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) criteria, two SNPs (rs508562, rs11675297) and haplotype 1 displayed significant results (odds ratio [OR], 1.76; p=0.05; OR, 1.88-2.02; p=0.01-0.04; OR, 0.59; p=0.02, respectively). rs508562, rs11675297, rs2208532, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.49; p=0.05; OR, 2.02; p=0.05; OR, 2.01; p=0.04; OR, 0.56-0.64, p=0.03-0.04, respectively) had significant associations with Gleason score. rs508562, rs11675297, and haplotype 1 (OR, 1.41-2.34; p=0.004-0.05; OR, 1.74-1.82; p=0.03-0.05; OR, 0.42-0.67; p=0.0005-0.03, respectively) were significantly associated with clinical stage. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that there was no significant association between SRD5A2 SNPs and the risk of prostate cancer in the Korean population. However, we found that some SNPs and 1 haplotype influenced PSA level, Gleason score, and clinical stage.
Project description:To characterize the expression of steroidogenic enzymes implicated in the development of ovarian steroid cell tumors, not otherwise specified (SCT-NOS). We present 4 ovarian SCT-NOS evaluated by immunohistochemical staining of steroidogenic enzymes as an approach to define this entity pathologically. All 4 ovarian SCT-NOS showed increased expression for cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1), 17?-hydroxylase (CYP17A1), 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD17B1), aldo-ketoreductase type 1 C3 (AKR1C3), 3?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (HSD3B2), 5?-reductase type 2 (SRD5A2), steroid sulfatase (SULT2A1), estrogen sulfotransferase (EST), and aromatase (CYP19A1). Expression was negative for 21-hydroxylase (CYP21A2) and 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (HSD17B2). 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 (HSD17B3) and 5?-reductase type 1 (SRD5A1) showed variable expression. Our analysis reveals a novel finding of increased expression of AKR1C3, HSD17B1, SRD5A2, SULT2A1, and EST in ovarian SCT-NOS, which is clinically associated with androgen excess and virilization. Further studies are needed to validate these enzymes as new markers in the evaluation of hyperandrogenic ovarian conditions.
Project description:The aim of this study was to search for clinical and laboratorial data in 46,XY patients with ambiguous genitalia (AG) and normal testosterone (T) synthesis that could help to distinguish partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) from 5?-reductase type 2 deficiency (5?-RD2) and from cases without molecular defects in the AR and SRD5A2 genes. Fifty-eight patients (51 families) were included. Age at first evaluation, weight and height at birth, consanguinity, familial recurrence, severity of AG, penile length, LH, FSH, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), ?4-androstenedione (?4), and T/DHT and T/?4 ratios were evaluated. The AR and SRD5A2 genes were sequenced in all cases. There were 9 cases (7 families) of 5?-RD2, 10 cases (5 families) of PAIS, and 39 patients had normal molecular analysis of SRD5A2 and AR genes. Age at first evaluation, birth weight and height, and T/DHT ratio were lower in the undetermined group, while penile length was higher in this group. Consanguinity was more frequent and severity of AG was higher in 5?-RD2 patients. Familial recurrence was more frequent in PAIS patients. Birth weight and height, consanguinity, familial recurrence, severity of AG, penile length, and T/DHT ratio may help the investigation of 46,XY patients with AG and normal T synthesis.
Project description:Introduction: The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has not so far been fully explicated. However, it is assumed that changes in the levels of hormones associated with aging can contribute to the development of prostatic hyperplasia. Dihydrotestosterone combines with the androgen receptor (AR) proteins of the prostate gland. Enzyme activity is based on two isoenzymes: type 1 and type 2. 5α-reductase type 1 is encoded by the SRD5A1 gene, and type 2 is encoded by the SRD5A2 gene. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of the SRD5A1 (rs6884552, rs3797177) and SRD5A2 (rs523349, rs12470143) genes' polymorphisms, and to assess the relationships between the genotypes of the tested mutations, and the levels of biochemical and hormonal parameters in patients with BPH. Material and Methods: The study involved 299 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia. We determined the serum levels of particular biochemical parameters-fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides (TG)-by the spectrophotometric method, using ready reagent kits. The ELISA method was used to determine the levels of the following hormonal parameters and proteins: total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), insulin (I), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone binding protein (SHBG). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed. Genotyping was performed by real-time PCR. Results: We analyzed the relationships between the incidence of particular diseases and the genotypes of the SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 polymorphisms among patients with BPH. The BPH patients with the CC genotype of the SRD5A2 rs523349 and rs12470143 polymorphisms were considerably less frequently diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MetS) (p = 0.022 and p = 0.023 respectively). Our analysis revealed that homozygotes with the CC of the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism had visibly higher HDL levels than those with the TT and CT genotypes (p = 0.001). Additionally, we found that the patients with the CC genotype of the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism had considerably higher FT levels (p = 0.001) than the heterozygotes with the CT and the homozygotes with the TT of the genetic variant analyzed in our study. Furthermore, the patients with at least one G allele of the SRD5A2 rs523349 polymorphism had significantly lower SGBG levels (p = 0.022) compared with the homozygotes with the CC genotype. The presence of at least one A allele (AA + AG genotypes) of the SRD5A1 rs3797177 polymorphism entailed notably lower serum insulin levels than those observed in homozygotes with the GG genotype (p = 0.033). Conclusions: The study described in this article shows that selected SRD5A1 and SRD5A2 polymorphisms can alter the levels of metabolic and hormonal parameters in patients with BPH. Special attention should be paid to the SDR5A2 rs12470143 polymorphism, which is associated with a change in lipid profile, as well as with the inheritance and incidence rate of MetS among these patients. An analysis of the frequency of this polymorphism among BPH patients could be useful in estimating the risk of getting ill, and planning therapies of concomitant diseases for BPH patients.
Project description:Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is a widely used synthetic phthalic diester and monobutyl phthalate (MBP) is its main metabolite. DBP can be released into the environment and potentially disrupting mammalian male reproductive endocrine system. However, the potencies of DBP and MBP to inhibit Leydig cell steroidogenesis and their possible mechanisms are not clear. Immature Leydig cells isolated from rats were cultured with 0.05-50??M DBP or MBP for 3?h in combination with testosterone synthesis regulator or intermediate. The concentrations of 5?-androstanediol and testosterone in the media were measured, and the mRNA levels of the androgen biosynthetic genes were detected by qPCR. The direct actions of DBP or MBP on CYP11A1, CYP17A1, SRD5A1, and AKR1C14 activities were measured. MBP inhibited androgen production by the immature Leydig cell at as low as 50?nM, while 50??M was required for DBP to suppress its androgen production. MBP mainly downregulated Cyp11a1 and Hsd3b1 expression levels at 50?nM. However, 50??M DBP downregulated Star, Hsd3b1, and Hsd17b3 expression levels and directly inhibited CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 activities. In conclusion, DBP is metabolized to more potent inhibitor MBP that downregulated the expression levels of some androgen biosynthetic enzymes.