MiR-23a sensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma to irradiation by targeting IL-8/Stat3 pathway.
ABSTRACT: Radioresistance poses a major challenge in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment, but little is known about how miRNA regulates this phenomenon. In this study, we investigated the function and mechanism of miR-23a in NPC radioresistance, one of downregulated miRNAs in the radioresistant NPC cells identified by our previous microarray analysis. We observed that miR-23a was frequently downregulated in the radioresistant NPC tissues, and its decrement correlated with NPC radioresistance and poor patient survival, and was an independent predictor for reduced patient survival. In vitro radioresponse assays showed that restoration of miR-23a expression markedly increased NPC cell radiosensitivity. In a mouse model, therapeutic administration of miR-23a agomir dramatically sensitized NPC xenografts to irradiation. Mechanistically, we found that reduced miR-23a promoted NPC cell radioresistance by activating IL-8/Stat3 signaling. Moreover, the levels of IL-8 and phospho-Stat3 were increased in the radioresistance NPC tissues, and negatively associated with miR-23a level. Our data demonstrate that miR-23a is a critical determinant of NPC radioresponse and prognostic predictor for NPC patients, and its decrement enhances NPC radioresistance through activating IL-8/Stat3 signaling, highlighting the therapeutic potential of miR-23a/IL-8/Stat3 signaling axis in NPC radiosensitization.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The purpose of this study was to identify miRNAs and genes involved in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radioresistance, and explore the underlying mechanisms in the development of radioresistance. METHODS:We used microarrays to compare the differences of both miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in the radioresistant NPC CNE2-IR and radiosensitive NPC CNE2 cells, applied qRT-PCR to confirm the reliability of microarray data, adopted databases prediction and anticorrelated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression to identify the miRNA target genes, and employed bioinformatics tools to examine the functions and pathways in which miRNA target genes are involved, and construct a miRNA-target gene regulatory network. We further investigated the roles of miRNA-23a and its target gene IL-8 in the NPC radioresistance. RESULTS:THE MAIN FINDINGS WERE FOURFOLD: (1) fifteen differential miRNAs and 372 differential mRNAs were identified, and the reliability of microarray data was validated for randomly selected eight miRNAs and nine genes; (2) 174 miRNA target were identified, and most of their functions and regulating pathways were related to tumor therapeutic resistance; (3) a posttranscriptional regulatory network including 375 miRNA-target gene pairs was constructed, in which the ten genes were coregulated by the six miRNAs; (4) IL-8 was a direct target of miRNA-23a, the expression levels of IL-8 were elevated in the radioresistant NPC tissues and showed inverse correlation with miRNA-23a expression, and genetic upregulation of miRNA-23a and antibody neutralization of secretory IL-8 could reduce NPC cells radioresistance. CONCLUSIONS:We identified fifteen differential miRNAs and 372 differential mRNAs in the radioresistant NPC cells, constructed a posttranscriptional regulatory network including 375 miRNA-target gene pairs, discovered the ten target genes coregulated by the six miRNAs, and validated that downregulated miRNA-23a was involved in NPC radioresistance through directly targeting IL-8. Our data form a basis for further investigating the mechanisms of NPC radioresistance.
Project description:Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) functions as a chemo-immunotherapeutic sensitizer of cancers, but regulation of RKIP on tumor radiosensitivity remains largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate the role and mechanism of RKIP in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radioresistance. The results showed that RKIP was frequently downregulated in the radioresistant NPC tissues compared with radiosensitive NPC tissues, and its reduction correlated with NPC radioresistance and poor patient survival, and was an independent prognostic factor. In vitro radioresponse assay showed that RKIP overexpression decreased while RKIP knockdown increased NPC cell radioresistance. In the NPC xenografts, RKIP overexpression decreased while RKIP knockdown increased tumor radioresistance. Mechanistically, RKIP reduction promoted NPC cell radioresistance by increasing ERK and AKT activity, and AKT may be a downstream transducer of ERK signaling. Moreover, the levels of phospho-ERK-1/2 and phospho-AKT were increased in the radioresistant NPC tissues compared with radiosensitive ones, and negatively associated with RKIP expression, indicating that RKIP-regulated NPC radioresponse is mediated by ERK and AKT signaling in the clinical samples. Our data demonstrate that RKIP is a critical determinant of NPC radioresponse, and its reduction enhances NPC radioresistance through increasing ERK and AKT signaling activity, highlighting the therapeutic potential of RKIP-ERK-AKT signaling axis in NPC radiosensitization.
Project description:Radioresistance remains a challenge during nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) radiotherapy. Numerous studies suggest that the miRNAs may play important roles in the regulation of radioresistance. miRNA-17-5p, which is located within the miR-17-92a cluster, could modulate tumor progression in different tissues by targeting multiple tumor associated genes. However, whether it is correlated with the radioresistance of tumor cells has not yet been elucidated. In our study, we have observed increasing miR-17-5p expression in radioresistant NPC tissues. The functional experiments suggested that miR-17-5p could clearly promote NPC cell proliferation and the cell cycle even after X-ray irradiation. Irradiation leads to tumor cell damage and death via ROS generation. The overexpression of miR-17-5p could protect NPC cells from apoptosis induced by irradiation. In addition, an in vivo experiment indicated that miR-17-5p promoted tumor growth with radiotherapy using the xenograft tumor model. A bioinformatics analysis and reporter assay were carried out to demonstrate that PTEN, which is a key regulator of AKT phosphorylation, is a target of miR-17-5p. The overexpression of miR-17-5p directly suppresses the mRNA and protein expression of PTEN. In addition, the rescue experiments showed that the AKT inhibitor can diminish the proliferation, promotion, and apoptosis inhibition effects on radioresistant NPC cells mediated by miR-17-5p. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that miR-17-5p can enhance the radioresistance of NPC through the PTEN/AKT pathway, which is a biomarker of radioresistant NPC and a potential target for new therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Radioresistance is a major obstacle in successful clinical cancer radiotherapy, and the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we show that IKK?-mediated miR-196a biogenesis via interaction with Drosha regulates the sensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells to radiotherapy. Phosphorylation of IKK? at T23 site (p-IKK?T23) promotes the binding of IKK? to Drosha that accelerates the processing of miR-196a primary transcripts, leading to increased expressions of both precursor and mature miR-196a. Dephosphorylation of p-IKK?T23 downregulates miR-196a expression and promotes the resistance of NPC cells to radiation treatment. The miR-196a mimic suppresses while its inhibitor promotes the resistance of NPC to radiation treatment. Importantly, the expression of p-IKK?T23 is positively related to the expression of miR-196a in human NPC tissues, and expression of p-IKK?T23 and miR-196a is inversely correlated with NPC clinical radioresistance. Thus, our studies establish a novel mechanistic link between the inactivation of IKK?T23-Drosha-miR-196a pathway and NPC radioresistance, and de-inactivation of IKK?T23-Drosha-miR-196a pathway would be an efficient way to restore the sensitivity of radioresistant NPC to radiotherapy.
Project description:Bactericidal/permeability-increasing-fold-containing family B member 1 (BPIFB1, previously named LPLUNC1) is highly expressed in the nasopharynx and significantly downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Low expression is also associated with poor prognosis in patients with NPC. Radiotherapy is a routine treatment for NPC; however, radioresistance is a major cause of treatment failure. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of BPIFB1 in the radioresponse of NPC. Colony formation and cell survival results showed that BPIFB1 sensitized NPC cells to ionizing radiation. VTN, a previously identified BPIFB1-binding protein, was shown to induce cell proliferation and survival, G2/M phase arrest, DNA repair, activation of the ATM-Chk2 and ATR-Chk1 pathways, and anti-apoptotic effects after exposure to radiation, facilitating NPC cell radioresistance. However, BPIFB1 inhibited this VTN-mediated radioresistance, ultimately improving NPC radiosensitivity. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate the functions of BPIFB1 and VTN in the NPC radioresponse. Our findings indicated that promoting BPIFB1 expression and targeting VTN might represent new therapeutic strategies for NPC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Malignant behavior and radioresistance, which severely limits the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), are associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used as a therapeutic tool in a variety of tumors. The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of tumor suppressor microRNA-34c-5p (miR-34c) on NPC development and radioresistance, as well as to confirm that exosomes derived from MSCs overexpressing miR-34c restore the sensitivity to radiotherapy in NPCs. METHODS:Potentially active microRNAs were screened by cell sequencing, Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database analysis, and analysis of clinical serum samples from 70 patients. The expression of genes and proteins was detected by Western blotting, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration and radioresistance of NPC were detected. Luciferase reporter assays were used to verify the interactions of microRNAs with their downstream targets. MSCs exosomes were isolated by ultrafiltration and verified by electron microscopy and nanoparticle tracking technology. RESULTS:The expression of miR-34c was associated with the occurrence and radiation resistance of NPC. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that overexpression of miR-34c inhibit malignant behavior such as invasion, migration, proliferation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NPCs by targeting ?-Catenin. In addition, we found alleviated radioresistance upon miR-34c overexpression or ?-catenin knockdown in NPCs. Exosomes derived from miR-34c-transfected MSCs attenuated NPC invasion, migration, proliferation and EMT. Moreover, miR-34c-overexpressing exosomes drastically increased radiation-induced apoptosis in NPC cells. CONCLUSION:miR-34c is a tumor suppressor miR in NPC, which inhibits malignant behavior as well as radioresistance of tumor. Therefore, exogenous delivery of miR-34c to NPCs via MSC exosomes inhibits tumor progression and increases the efficiency of RT. Combination IR with miR-34c-overexpressing exosomes may be effective treatment for radioresistant NPCs.
Project description:Radiotherapy plays a major role in the management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the radioresistant cells limit its efficiency and drive recurrence inside the irradiated tumor volume leading to poor outcome for patients. To illuminate the signal pathway involved in the radioresistance and evaluate the potential for predicting NPC response to radiotherapy, we established the radioresistant NPC cell line (CNE2-RR) derived from NPC cell line CNE2 by gradually increased the radiation dose (total 60 Gy), and the radioresistance of CNE2-RR cells was evaluated by the colony formation, FCM and comet assays. Furthermore, comparison of established CNE2-RR cell line to parental cell line found the homologous recombination repair (HRR) proteins differences involved in NPC radioresistance. In addition, the differentially expressed proteins were further validated by western blotting, immunofluorescence and IHC in tumor xenografs and radioresistant NPC tissues. Furthermore, the correlation of HRR proteins expression levels with NPC radioresistance were evaluated. The results showed that the upregulation of HRR proteins were significantly correlated with NPC radioresistance. In addition, using the Youden Index cutoff value, a panel of the HRR proteins analyses revealed a sensitivity of 70%, specificity of 72%. Furthermore, silencing NFBD1 enhanced the radiosensitivity of CNE2-RR cells by impairing IR-inducing ?-H2AX and HR proteins foci formation. These results suggest that controlling the HRR signaling pathway may hold promise to overcome NPC radioresistance.
Project description:Radioresistance is an important obstacle to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) therapy. In this study, we explored the role of RNA-binding motif protein 3 (RBM3) in the radioresistance of NPC and its underlying mechanism. We measured the expression of RBM3 in 20 clinical NPC tissues and in NPC cell lines. We found that RBM3 was upregulated in radioresistant NPC tissues and cells. Radioresistant NPC cells (CNE1/IR) and parental NPC cells (CNE1) were subjected to RBM3-shRNA knockdown and RBM3 overexpression, respectively. RBM3 depletion in CNE1/IR cells sensitized cells to radiotherapy, increased DNA damage, and accelerated the rate of apoptosis. In contrast, RBM3 overexpression in CNE1 cells significantly enhanced radioresistance and reduced the rate of apoptosis. Additionally, radioresistance conferred by RBM3 was attributed to the activation of the AKT/Bcl-2 signaling pathway and reduction of caspase 3. Inhibition of AKT signaling attenuated RBM3-mediated radioresistance. Furthermore, RBM3 directly interacted with PI3K subunit p85 in NPC cell lines. Altogether, our data demonstrate that RBM3 enhances radioresistance by inhibiting the apoptotic response to radiotherapy through the PI3K/AKT/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. RBM3 may serve as a novel factor for predicting radioresistance and as a molecular target in the treatment of NPC.
Project description:The role and underlying mechanism of Raf kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) metastasis remain unclear. Here, we showed that RKIP was downregulated in the NPC with high metastatic potentials, and its decrement correlated with NPC metastasis and poor patient survival, and was an independent predictor for reduced overall survival. With a combination of loss-of-function and gain-of-function approaches, we observed that high expression of RKIP reduced invasion, metastasis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker alternations of NPC cells. We further showed that RKIP overexpression attenuated while RKIP knockdown enhanced Stat3 phosphorylation and activation in NPC cells; RKIP reduced Stat3 phosphorylation through interacting with Stat3; Stattic attenuated NPC cell migration, invasion and EMT marker alternations induced by RKIP knockdown, whereas Stat3 overexpression restored NPC cell migration, invasion and EMT marker alternations reduced by RKIP overexpression. In addition, there was an inverse correlation between RKIP and phospho-Stat3 expression in the NPC tissues and xenograft metastases. Our data demonstrate that RKIP is a metastatic suppressor and predictor for metastasis and prognosis in NPC, and RKIP downregulation promotes NPC invasion, metastasis and EMT by activating Stat3 signaling, suggesting that RKIP/Stat3 signaling could be used as a therapeutic target for NPC metastasis.
Project description:Although targeting radioresistant tumor cells is essential for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy, the signals activated in resistant tumors are still unclear. This study shows that ERp57 contributes to radioresistance of laryngeal cancer by activating STAT3. Increased ERp57 was associated with the radioresistant phenotype of laryngeal cancer cells. Interestingly, increased interaction between ERp57 and STAT3 was observed in radioresistant cells, compared to the control cells. This physical complex is required for the activation of STAT3 in the radioresistant cells. Among STAT3-regulatory genes, Mcl-1 was predominantly regulated by ERp57. Inhibition of STAT3 activity with a chemical inhibitor or siRNA-mediated depletion of Mcl-1 sensitized radioresistant cells to irradiation, suggesting that the ERp57-STAT3-Mcl-1 axis regulates radioresistance of laryngeal cancer cells. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between ERp57 and phosphorylated STAT3 or Mcl-1 and in vivo interactions between ERp57 and STAT3 in human laryngeal cancer. Importantly, we also found that increased ERp57-STAT3 complex was associated with poor prognosis in human laryngeal cancer, indicating the prognostic role of ERp57-STAT3 regulation. Overall, our data suggest that ERp57-STAT3 regulation functions in radioresistance of laryngeal cancer, and targeting the ERp57-STAT3 pathway might be important for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy in human laryngeal cancer.