MiRNA-99b-5p suppresses liver metastasis of colorectal cancer by down-regulating mTOR.
ABSTRACT: Liver metastasis is common in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC), and is also correlated with poor outcome. In this study we screened the different expression profiles of microRNAs (miRNAs) on the development of liver metastasis in CRC patients. miR-99b-5p was found to be more than 6-fold higher in primary tumors than in matched liver metastases (P = 0.007). Expression of miR-99b-5p in primary tumors of patients with stage III CRC without liver metastases was higher than in CRC patients with liver metastases (P = 0.028). Up-regulated miR-99b-5p was associated with longer overall survival (P = 0.01). Besides, miR-99b-5p silencing in miR-99b-5p-positive CRC cell lines promoted cell migration and up-regulated mTOR, and vice versa. In addition, luciferase assays demonstrated that miR-99b-5p functioned as a tumor suppressor by targeting mTOR. Taken together, our results demonstrate thatmiR-99b-5p is differently expressed in primary CRC and liver metastasis and functions as a tumor-suppressive microRNA in metastatic CRC. The miR-99b-5p-mTOR axis may serve as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target for anti-metastatic therapy in CRC patients.
Project description:Liver metastasis is common in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), and is correlated with poor outcome. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs involved in cancer development and progression, but their role in CRC liver metastasis has not been extensively investigated.Thirteen miRNAs were deregulated in pCRCs compared to their matched liver metastases. Seventeen miRNAs were chosen for validation, which confirmed significantly reduced expression of miR-99b-5p, miR-377 and miR-200c and increased expression of miR-196b-5p in the tissue of liver metastasis. Furthermore, miR-200c and miR-196b-5p were positively correlated with shorter overall survival in pCRC patients with liver metastasis.Firstly, affymetrix microarrays involving 1036 miRNAs were performed in two pairs of primary CRCs (pCRCs) and their matched liver metastases. Secondly, validation of the results was carried out on an independent cohort of 48 pairs of pCRCs and matched liver metastases using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay.We discovered a pCRC liver metastasis-specific miRNA panel including miR-377, miR-99b-5p, miR-200c and miR-196b-5p through intensive validation. These miRNAs may function as prognostic factors in patients with metastatic CRC.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the world and liver is the most frequent site of distant metastasis with poor prognosis. The aim of this study is to investigate microRNAs leading to liver metastasis. We applied microarray analysis and quantitative PCR to identify and validate dysregulated miRNAs in liver metastases when compared to primary CRCs. Functional significance and the underlying molecular mechanism of selected miRNA was demonstrated by a series of in vitro and in vivo assays. Our microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative PCR validation revealed that miR-885-5p was strongly up-regulated in liver metastases and in CRC cell-lines derived from distant metastases. Overexpression of miR-885-5p significantly induced cell migration, cell invasion, formation of stress fibre in vitro and development of liver and lung metastases in vivo. MiR-885-5p induced metastatic potential of CRC by repressing cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 transcription through directly binding to two binding sites on its 3' untranslated region, and consequently led to up-regulation of TWIST1 and hence epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Our findings demonstrated the overexpression of miR-885-5p in liver metastasis and its roles in inducing CRC metastasis, potentiating development of miR-885-5p inhibitor to treat advanced CRC in the future.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> Growing evidence suggests that miR-215-5p is a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, its role in metastasis remains unclear. This study evaluates the effects of miR-215 overexpression on the metastatic potential of CRC. Methods: CRC cell lines were stably transfected with miR-215-5p and used for in vitro and in vivo functional analyses. Next-generation sequencing and RT-qPCR were performed to study changes on the mRNA level. <b>Results</b>: Overexpression of miR-215-5p significantly reduced the clonogenic potential, migration, and invasiveness of CRC cells in vitro and tumor weight and volume, and liver metastasis in vivo. Transcriptome analysis revealed mRNAs regulated by miR-215-5p and RT-qPCR confirmed results for seven selected genes. Significantly elevated levels of CTNNBIP1 were also observed in patients' primary tumors and liver metastases compared to adjacent tissues, indicating its direct regulation by miR-215-5p. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analysis identified cellular processes and pathways associated with miR-215-5p deregulation. <b>Conclusions</b>: MiR-215-5p suppresses the metastatic potential of CRC cells through the regulation of divergent molecular pathways, including extracellular-matrix-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. Although the specific targets of miR-215-5p contributing to the formation of distant metastases must be further elucidated, this miRNA could serve as a promising target for CRC patients' future therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Background: Circulating exosomal miRNAs are potential non-invasive biomarkers for colorectal cancer. The present study aimed to validate the novel sensitive and specific exosomal miRNA biomarkers for diagnosing colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients and Methods: Exosomes isolated from the serum of CRC patients and healthy donors by ultracentrifugation were characterized using TEM, qNano, and immunoblotting. The exosomes from 2 healthy donors and 4 CRC patients were subjected to RNA isolation and miRNA sequencing. The differently expressed miRNAs from 165 primary CRC patients and 153 healthy donors were substantiated by RT-qPCR. Results: The RNA-sequence data analysis revealed that 29 exosomal miRNAs (20 downregulated and 9 upregulated) with >1.5-fold difference between CRC patients and healthy donors were selected. The serum exosomal miR-99b-5p and miR-150-5p levels were significantly downregulated in CRC patients as compared to healthy donors (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and benign disease (p = 0.009 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The expression levels of exosomal miR-99b-5p and miR-150-5p were significantly decreased in early CRC patients as compared to healthy donors (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). The expression levels of exosomal miR-99b-5p and miR-150-5p were significantly increased postoperatively (p = 0.0058 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that serum exosomal miRNAs are promising, sensitive, specific, and non-invasive diagnostic biomarkers for CRC. Impact: This is the first study to specifically identify exosomal miR-99b-5p and miR-150-5p associated with CRC. This study, therefore, might deepen the understanding of tumor-derived exosomes for CRC diagnosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Liver metastases are the major cause of colorectal cancer (CRC)-related deaths. However, there is no reliable clinical predictor for CRC progression to liver metastasis. In this study, we investigated possible predictors (miRNAs and biomarkers) for clinical application. METHODOLOGY:The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets GSE49355, GSE41258 and GSE81558 for genes and GSE54088 and GSE56350 for miRNAs were used to identify common differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs between primary CRC tissues and liver metastases. The identified miRNAs and their targets from the DEGs were verified in datasets comprising gene, miRNA and miRNA exosome profiles of CRC patients with no distant metastases (M0) and distant metastases (M1); the interaction networks and pathways were also mapped. RESULTS:There were 49 upregulated and 13 downregulated DEGs and 16 downregulated and 14 upregulated miRNAs; between the DEGs and miRNA targets, there were five upregulated and four downregulated genes. MiR-20a was strongly correlated with the status of liver metastasis. MiR-20a, miR499a, and miR-576-5p were highly correlated with the metastatic outcomes. MiR-20a was significantly highly expressed in the M1 group. In an analysis of the miRNA target genes, we found that CDH2, KNG1, and MMP2 were correlated with CRC metastasis. We demonstrated a new possible pathway for CRC metastasis: miR-576-5p/F9, miR20a/MMP2, CTSK, MMP3, and miR449a/P2RY14. The regulation of IGF transport and uptake by IGFBPs, extracellular matrix organization, signal transduction and the immune system were the enriched pathways. CONCLUSION:This model can predict CRC to liver metastases and the pathways involved, which can be clinically applicable.
Project description:Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of liver metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We previously described the potential involvement of HOMEOBOX A11 (HOXA11) antisense RNA (HOXA11-AS), miR-125a-5p, and peptidyl arginine deiminase 2 (PADI2) in promoting liver metastasis in CRC patients. In the present study, we verified the significant upregulation of HOXA11-AS and PADI2, as well as the downregulation of miR-125a-5p, in CRC patients with liver metastasis. Overexpression and knockdown studies of HOXA11-AS or PADI2, as well as gain-/loss-of-function studies of miR-125a-5p, revealed a positive correlation between HOXA11-AS and PADI2 and a negative correlation with miR-125a-5p in the regulation of liver metastasis in CRC cell lines. Overall, we conclude that HOXA11-AS promotes liver metastasis in CRC by functioning as a miR-125a-5p sponge and describe a novel HOXA11-AS-miR-125a-5p-PADI2 regulatory network involved in CRC liver metastasis.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) and EMT-type cells, which share molecular characteristics with CSCs, have been believed to play critical roles in tumor metastasis. Although much progress has been garnered in elucidating the molecular pathways that trigger EMT, stemness and metastasis, a number of key mechanistic gaps remain elusive. In the study, miR-371-5p was obviously down-regulated in primary CRC tissues compared with matched adjacent normal mucosa and correlated significantly with differentiation, tumor size, lymphatic and liver metastases. MiR-371-5p could attenuate proliferation, invasion in vitro and metastasis in vivo in CRC cells. It also suppressed EMT by regulating Wnt/?-catenin signaling and strongly decreased the CRC stemness phenotypes. Moreover, demethylation of SOX17 induced miR-371-5p expression and consequently suppressed its direct target SOX2 in CRC cells. MiR-371-5p was necessary for SOX17 mediated cancer-related traits and SOX2 was a functional target of miR-371-5p. A positive relationship between SOX17 and miR-371-5p expression and a negative one between miR-371-5p and SOX2 expression were observed in CRC cell lines and tissues. In conclusion, we identified miR-371-5p as an important "oncosuppressor" in CRC progression and elucidated a novel mechanism of the SOX17/miR-371-5p/SOX2 axis in the regulation of EMT, stemness and metastasis, which may be a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In our preliminary screening, expression of miR-338-5p was found to be higher in primary colorectal cancer (CRC) with metastasis. The autophagy related gene- phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3 (PIK3C3) appeared to be targeted by miR-338-5p. Here, we provide solid evidence in support of PIK3C3 involved in miR-338-5p related metastasis of CRC in vitro and in vivo. METHODS:The potential clinical relevance of miR-338-5p and its target gene was analysed on benign colorectal polyps and primary CRCs by QPCR. Mouse spleen xenograft experiment was performed to examine the importance of miR-338-5p for metastasis. FINDINGS:PIK3C3 was one of target genes of miR-338-5p. In primary CRCs, expression of miR-338-5p is positively related to tumour staging, distant metastasis and poor patient survival. Patients with higher ratios of miR-338-5p/PIK3C3 also had significantly poor overall survival, supporting their significance in the progression of CRC. Over-expression of miR-338-5p promotes CRC metastasis to the liver and lung in vivo, in which PIK3C3 was down-regulated in the metastatic tumours. In contrast, overexpression of PIK3C3 in miR-338-5p stable cells inhibited the growth of metastatic tumours. Both migration and invasion of CRC in vitro induced by miR-338-5p are mediated by suppression of PIK3C3. Using forward and reverse approaches, autophagy was proved to involve in CRC migration and invasion induced by miR-338-5p. INTERPRETATION:MiR-338-5p induces migration, invasion and metastasis of CRC in part through PIK3C3-related autophagy pathway. The miR-338-5p/PIK3C3 ratio may become a prognostic biomarker for CRC patients. FUND: NCKU Hospital, Taiwan, Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Tumor metastasis is one of the leading causes of poor prognosis for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Loss of Smad4 contributes to aggression process in many human cancers. However, the underlying precise mechanism of aberrant Smad4 expression in CRC development is still little known.<h4>Results</h4>miR-20a-5p negatively regulated Smad4 by directly targeting its 3'UTR in human colorectal cancer cells. miR-20a-5p not only promoted CRC cells aggression capacity in vitro and liver metastasis in vivo, but also promoted the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition process by downregulating Smad4 expression. In addition, tissue microarray analysis obtained from 544 CRC patients' clinical characters showed that miR-20a-5p was upregulated in human CRC tissues, especially in the tissues with metastasis. High level of miR-20a-5p predicted poor prognosis in CRC patients.<h4>Methods</h4>Five miRNA target prediction programs were applied to identify potential miRNA(s) that target(s) Smad4 in CRC. Luciferase reporter assay and transfection technique were used to validate the correlation between miR-20a-5p and Smad4 in CRC. Wound healing, transwell and tumorigenesis assays were used to explore the function of miR-20a-5p and Smad4 in CRC progression in vitro and in vivo. The association between miR-20a-5p expression and the prognosis of CRC patients was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate cox proportional hazard analyses based on tissue microarray data.<h4>Conclusions</h4>miR-20a-5p, as an onco-miRNA, promoted the invasion and metastasis ability by suppressing Smad4 expression in CRC cells, and high miR-20a-5p predicted poor prognosis for CRC patients, providing a novel and promising therapeutic target in human colorectal cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men and women. The presence of systemic disease, with metastatic spread to distant sites such as the liver, considerably reduces the survival rate in CRC. Cancer stem cells contribute to the metastatic potential of CRC. However, the mechanism underlying metastasis in CRC remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to examine the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) in CRC stem cells in cases of liver metastases and assess their correlation with clinicopathological features. METHODS:miRNAs showing high expression in liver metastases and primary lesions were selected through data mining of gene expression omnibus datasets, and miRNAs characteristic of stem cells were selected through COREMINE medical text mining. Subsequently, paired formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples of primary CRC and liver metastasis from 30 patients were examined for the expression of miRNAs common to these lists (hsa-miR-20a, hsa-miR-26b, hsa-miR-146a, hsa-miR-17, hsa-miR-451, hsa-miR-23a, and hsa-miR-29a) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Further, miRNA expression was compared between liver metastases and the primary tumor in each patient and the factors associated with differential expression were analyzed. RESULTS:hsa-miR-17 was significantly upregulated in liver metastases (P?<?.05), but no significant difference in the expression of hsa-miR-26b, hsa-miR-146a, hsa-miR-451, hsa-miR-23a, and hsa-miR-29a was observed between primary tumors and liver metastases. The higher expression of hsa-miR-17 in liver metastases was associated with the administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and tumor differentiation (P?<?.05) but was not associated with age, sex, tumor location, or lymphatic metastasis. CONCLUSIONS:High expression of miR-17 may contribute to liver metastasis in CRC. Therefore, an in-depth understanding of its downstream pathways could help in elucidating the mechanisms underlying liver metastases in CRC. However, additional studies are warranted to validate these findings.