Analysis of protein expression in periodontal pocket tissue: a preliminary study.
ABSTRACT: The periodontal disease is caused by a set of inflammatory disorders characterized by periodontal pocket formation that lead to tooth loss if untreated. The proteomic profile and related molecular conditions of pocket tissue in periodontally-affected patients are not reported in literature. To characterize the proteomic profile of periodontally-affected patients, their interproximal periodontal pocket tissue was compared with that of periodontally-healthy patients. Pocket-associated and healthy tissue samples, harvested during surgical therapy, were treated to extract the protein content. Tissues were always collected at sites where no periodontal-pathogenic bacteria were detectable. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. After identification, four proteins were selected for subsequent Western Blot quantitation both in pathological and healty tissues.A significant unbalance in protein expression between healthy and pathological sites was recorded. Thirty-two protein spots were overall identified, and four proteins (S100A9, HSPB1, LEG7 and 14-3-3) were selected for Western blot analysis of both periodontally-affected and healthy patients. The four selected proteins resulted over-expressed in periodontal pocket tissue when compared with the corresponding tissue of periodontally-healthy patients. The results of Western blot analysis are congruent with the defensive and the regenerative reaction of injured periodontal tissues.The proteomic analysis was performed for the first time directly on periodontal pocket tissue. The proteomic network highlighted in this study enhances the understanding of periodontal disease pathogenesis necessary for specific therapeutic strategies setting.
Project description:Monocytes and macrophages are major cellular components of the innate immunity that play essential roles in tissue homeostasis. The contribution of different subsets of monocytes/macrophages to periodontal health and disease has not been fully elucidated. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for periodontitis. We hypothesized that the monocyte/macrophage signaling is perturbed in periodontitis-affected sites versus periodontally healthy sites and that this perturbation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Pairs of gingival tissue samples (each from a periodontally healthy and a periodontitis-affected site of the same patient) were harvested from 27 periodontitis patients, with and without T2DM. Each sample was processed to form a single-cell suspension, and a flow-cytometry panel was designed and validated to study monocyte and macrophage phenotypes. In separate experiments, the transcriptional changes associated with a pro-inflammatory phenotype were also examined in monocyte/macrophage subsets obtained from peripheral blood of patients with T2DM versus diabetes-free controls. A significantly higher proportion of intermediate (CD14+CD16+) monocytes was observed in periodontitis-affected tissues compared to healthy tissues. These monocytes overexpressed HLA-DR and PDL1 molecules, suggesting their activated inflammatory status. PDL1 increase was specific to intermediate monocytes. The ratio of M1/M2 macrophages was also significantly higher in periodontally affected sites, signifying an imbalance between inflammatory and repair mechanisms. We found a significantly higher expression of PDL1 in overall monocytes and M1 macrophages in periodontitis-affected sites compared to controls. Importantly, we identified a subpopulation of M1 macrophages present in periodontally affected tissues which expressed high levels of CD47, a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin family that plays a critical role in self-recognition and impairment of phagocytosis. Analysis of the transcriptional landscape of monocytes/macrophages in gingival tissue of T2DM patients with periodontitis revealed a significant disruption in homeostasis toward a proinflammatory phenotype, elevation of pro-inflammatory transcription factors STAT1 and IRF1, and repression of anti-inflammatory JMJD3 in circulating monocytes. Taken together, our results demonstrate disruption of myeloid-derived cell homeostasis in periodontitis, with or without T2DM, and highlight a potentially significant role of these cell types in its pathogenesis. The impact of macrophage and monocyte signaling pathways on the pathobiology of periodontitis should be further evaluated.
Project description:To identify possible novel biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from chronic periodontitis (CP) and periodontally healthy individuals using high-throughput proteomic analysis.Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 12 CP and 12 periodontally healthy subjects. Samples were trypically digested with trypsin, eluted using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fragmented using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS/MS spectra were analysed using PILOT_PROTEIN to identify all unmodified proteins within the samples.Using the database derived from Homo sapiens taxonomy and all bacterial taxonomies, 432 human (120 new) and 30 bacterial proteins were identified. The human proteins, angiotensinogen, clusterin and thymidine phosphorylase were identified as biomarker candidates based on their high-scoring only in samples from periodontal health. Similarly, neutrophil defensin-1, carbonic anhydrase-1 and elongation factor-1 gamma were associated with CP. Candidate bacterial biomarkers include 33 kDa chaperonin, iron uptake protein A2 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (health-associated) and ribulose biphosphate carboxylase, a probable succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase, or DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta (CP-associated). Most of these human and bacterial proteins have not been previously evaluated as biomarkers of periodontal conditions and require further investigation.The proposed methods for large-scale comprehensive proteomic analysis may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers of periodontal health or disease.
Project description:Chronic periodontal disease is an infectious disease consisting of prolonged inflammation of the supporting tooth tissue and resulting in bone loss. Guided bone regeneration procedures have become common and safe treatments in dentistry, and in this context dental stem cells would represent the ideal solution as autologous cells. In this study, we verified the ability of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) harvested from periodontally affected teeth to produce new mineralized bone tissue in vitro, and compared this to cells from healthy teeth.To characterize DPSCs and GMSCs, we assessed colony-forming assay, immunophenotyping, mesenchymal/stem cell phenotyping, stem gene profiling by means of flow cytometry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The effects of proinflammatory cytokines on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and differentiation potential were investigated. We also observed participation of several heat shock proteins (HSPs) and actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) during osteogenic differentiation.DPSCs and GMSCs were successfully isolated both from periodontally affected dental tissue and controls. Periodontally affected dental MSCs proliferated faster, and the inflamed environment did not affect MSC marker expressions. The calcium deposition was higher in periodontally affected MSCs than in the control group. Proinflammatory cytokines activate a cytoskeleton remodeling, interacting with HSPs including HSP90 and HSPA9, thioredoxin-1, and ADFs such as as profilin-1, cofilin-1, and vinculin that probably mediate the increased acquisition in the inflamed environment.Our findings provide evidence that periodontally affected dental tissue (both pulp and gingiva) can be used as a source of MSCs with intact stem cell properties. Moreover, we demonstrated that the osteogenic capability of DPSCs and GMSCs in the test group was not only preserved but increased by the overexpression of several proinflammatory cytokine-dependent chaperones and stress response proteins.
Project description:Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in the association between macro and trace minerals in body fluids and systemic diseases related to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Due to the paucity of data in the literature on periodontitis, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between mineral elements in saliva and periodontal status in patients with untreated and treated periodontitis compared to periodontally healthy controls. Salivary samples from 66 nonsmoker healthy patients (20 periodontally healthy, 24 untreated severe periodontitis and 22 treated severe periodontitis) were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant increases in copper (Cu), sodium (Na), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations occurred in saliva of severe periodontitis subjects compared to periodontally healthy controls. No differences were detected between healthy controls and treated periodontitis patients apart from levels of zinc (Zn) and lithium (Li) that were found to be increased and reduced, respectively, in periodontitis group. Most subjects were correctly separated by cluster analysis into active periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals. Treated periodontitis individuals were classified as healthy subjects. Based on these preliminary results, the assessment of salivary concentration of mineral elements might be useful in discriminating periodontal health and disease.
Project description:To identify optimal combination(s) of proteomic based biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from chronic periodontitis (CP) and periodontally healthy individuals and validate the predictions through known and blind test sets.GCF samples were collected from 96 CP and periodontally healthy subjects and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry and the PILOT_PROTEIN algorithm. A mixed-integer linear optimization (MILP) model was then developed to identify the optimal combination of biomarkers which could clearly distinguish a blind subject sample as healthy or diseased.A thorough cross-validation of the MILP model capability was performed on a training set of 55 samples and greater than 99% accuracy was consistently achieved when annotating the testing set samples as healthy or diseased. The model was then trained on all 55 samples and tested on two different blind test sets, and using an optimal combination of 7 human proteins and 3 bacterial proteins, the model was able to correctly predict 40 out of 41 healthy and diseased samples.The proposed large-scale proteomic analysis and MILP model led to the identification of novel combinations of biomarkers for consistent diagnosis of periodontal status with greater than 95% predictive accuracy.
Project description:The initiation or progression of periodontitis might involve a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in periodontal tissue. The aim of this study was to further characterize the local RAS in human and rat periodontal tissues between healthy and periodontally-affected tissue. Components of the RAS were investigated using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving both human and Wistar rat periodontium. Although not upregulated when challenged with P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide, human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts expressed RAS components. Likewise, healthy and inflamed human gingiva expressed RAS components, some of which were shown to be functional, yet no differences in expression were found between healthy and diseased gingiva. However, in inflamed tissue the immunoreactivity was greater for the AT1R compared to AT2R in fibroblasts. When compared to healthy tissue, ACE activity was increased in human gingiva from volunteers with gingivitis. Human-gingiva homogenates generated Ang II, Ang 1-9 and Ang 1-7 when incubated with precursors. In gingiva homogenates, Ang II formation from Ang I was nearly abolished only when captopril and chymostatin were combined. Ang 1-7 formation was significantly greater when human gingiva homogenates were incubated with chymostatin alone compared to incubation without any inhibitor, only captopril, or captopril and chymostatin. In rat gingiva, RAS components were also found; their expression was not different between healthy and experimentally induced periodontitis (EP) groups. However, renin inhibition (aliskiren) and an AT1R antagonist (losartan) significantly blocked EP-alveolar-bone loss in rats. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that a local RAS system is not only present but is also functional in both human and rat periodontal tissue. Furthermore, blocking AT1R and renin can significantly prevent periodontal bone loss induced by EP in rats.
Project description:Background:The periodontal ligament is essential for homeostasis of periodontal tissue. A hypoxic milieu of the periodontal tissue is generated under periodontitis or during orthodontic treatment, which affects the periodontal and bone remodelling process. Here, we provide a comprehensive proteomic characterization of periodontal ligament cells under hypoxic conditions, aiming to reveal previously unappreciated biological changes and to help advance hypoxia-based therapeutic strategies for periodontal diseases. Methods:Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) were characterized using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry (FACS). Successful hypoxia treatment of hPDLCs with 1% O2 was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Proliferation was evaluated using an MTT assay. The proteomic expression profile under hypoxia was studied with the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) approach followed by protein identification and bioinformatic analysis, and western blot verification was performed. Results:The hPDLCs were positive for vimentin, CD73 and CD105 and negative for keratin, CD34 and CD45. After hypoxia treatment, the mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a) was upregulated. The proliferation rate was elevated during the first 6?h but decreased from 6?h to 72?h. A total of 220 differentially expressed proteins were quantified in hPDLCs under hypoxia (1% O2, 24?h), including 153 upregulated and 67 downregulated proteins, five of which were verified by western blot analysis. The Gene Ontology enriched terms included the energy metabolic process, membrane-bound organelle and vesicle, and protein binding terms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated several involved pathways, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, biosynthesis of amino acids, the HIF-1 signalling pathway, and focal adhesion. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network demonstrated the dominant role of autophagy over apoptosis under hypoxia. Conclusion:The proteomic profile of hPDLCs under hypoxia was mainly related to energy metabolism, autophagy, and responses to stimuli such as adhesion and inflammation. Previously unrecognized proteins including solute carrier family proteins, heat shock proteins, ubiquitination-related enzymes, collagen and S100 family proteins are involved in adaptive response to hypoxia in hPDLCs and are thus of great research interest in future work.
Project description:Epidemiological evidence on the relationship between IL1A and/or IL1B polymorphisms and periodontal disease is inconsistent. We investigated associations between three IL1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding interleukin (IL) -1α (rs1800587) and IL-1β (rs1143634 and rs16944) and the risk of periodontal disease among young Japanese women. A case-control study was performed with a total of 1150 women, including 131 subjects who had at least one tooth with a probing pocket depth of 4 mm or deeper and 1019 periodontally healthy controls. Compared with a reference group of women with the GG genotype of SNP rs16944, those with the GA genotype had a significantly reduced risk of periodontal disease, while there was no significant relationship between the AA genotype and periodontal disease. No evident relationships were observed between SNP rs1800587 or rs1143634 and periodontal disease. Our study did not reveal any evidence of interaction between the IL1 polymorphisms and smoking. The results of this study showed that the heterozygous variant genotype of the IL1 rs16944 was significantly associated with a reduced risk of periodontal disease in young Japanese women. Smoking did not significantly modify the gene-disease associations under study.
Project description:Background:Various biomarkers have been evaluated for understanding the systemic inflammatory response (SIR) to periodontitis. Hematological markers have been reported to be useful biomarkers in a variety of diseases, including periodontal diseases. The role of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) in periodontitis and their possible role in the SIR are not extensively documented. Therefore, this study assessed NLR and PLR in chronic periodontitis (CP) patients before and after periodontal treatment, which to the best of knowledge has not been reported in the literature. Materials and Methods:Sixty participants were grouped as systemically and periodontally healthy (H) (n = 30) and with CP (n = 30). Plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment loss, leukocyte counts, platelet (PLT) counts, NLR, and PLR were estimated at baseline and also after treatment in the CP group. NLR was calculated as total neutrophil count/absolute lymphocyte count, and PLR was calculated as total PLT count/absolute lymphocyte count. The data were statistically analyzed. Results:Periodontal parameters differed significantly between groups H and CP at baseline and posttreatment. A pair-wise comparison of NLR and PLR between CP patients at baseline and posttreatment was significant. Correlation analyses were not remarkable. Receiver operating characteristics analyses provided significant NLR and PLR predictive cutoff values to differentiate between CP patients at baseline and posttreatment. Conclusion:NLR and PLR may serve as potential biomarkers of the SIR to CP to bridge the association between periodontal and systemic conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Studies that demonstrate an association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and dysbiotic oral microbiomes are often confounded by the presence of extensive periodontitis in these individuals. This study was undertaken to investigate the role of RA in modulating the periodontal microbiome by comparing periodontally healthy individuals with RA to those without RA. METHODS:Subgingival plaque was collected from periodontally healthy individuals (22 with RA and 19 without RA), and the 16S gene was sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq platform. Bacterial biodiversity and co-occurrence patterns were examined using the QIIME and PhyloToAST pipelines. RESULTS:The subgingival microbiomes differed significantly between patients with RA and controls based on both community membership and the abundance of lineages, with 41.9% of the community differing in abundance and 19% in membership. In contrast to the sparse and predominantly congeneric co-occurrence networks seen in controls, RA patients revealed a highly connected grid containing a large intergeneric hub anchored by known periodontal pathogens. Predictive metagenomic analysis (PICRUSt) demonstrated that arachidonic acid and ester lipid metabolism pathways might partly explain the robustness of this clustering. As expected from a periodontally healthy cohort, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were not significantly different between groups; however, Cryptobacterium curtum, another organism capable of producing large amounts of citrulline, emerged as a robust discriminant of the microbiome in individuals with RA. CONCLUSION:Our data demonstrate that the oral microbiome in RA is enriched for inflammophilic and citrulline-producing organisms, which may play a role in the production of autoantigenic citrullinated peptides in RA.