Analysis of protein expression in periodontal pocket tissue: a preliminary study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The periodontal disease is caused by a set of inflammatory disorders characterized by periodontal pocket formation that lead to tooth loss if untreated. The proteomic profile and related molecular conditions of pocket tissue in periodontally-affected patients are not reported in literature. To characterize the proteomic profile of periodontally-affected patients, their interproximal periodontal pocket tissue was compared with that of periodontally-healthy patients. Pocket-associated and healthy tissue samples, harvested during surgical therapy, were treated to extract the protein content. Tissues were always collected at sites where no periodontal-pathogenic bacteria were detectable. Proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. After identification, four proteins were selected for subsequent Western Blot quantitation both in pathological and healty tissues. RESULTS:A significant unbalance in protein expression between healthy and pathological sites was recorded. Thirty-two protein spots were overall identified, and four proteins (S100A9, HSPB1, LEG7 and 14-3-3) were selected for Western blot analysis of both periodontally-affected and healthy patients. The four selected proteins resulted over-expressed in periodontal pocket tissue when compared with the corresponding tissue of periodontally-healthy patients. The results of Western blot analysis are congruent with the defensive and the regenerative reaction of injured periodontal tissues. CONCLUSIONS:The proteomic analysis was performed for the first time directly on periodontal pocket tissue. The proteomic network highlighted in this study enhances the understanding of periodontal disease pathogenesis necessary for specific therapeutic strategies setting.
Project description:To identify possible novel biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from chronic periodontitis (CP) and periodontally healthy individuals using high-throughput proteomic analysis.Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from 12 CP and 12 periodontally healthy subjects. Samples were trypically digested with trypsin, eluted using high-performance liquid chromatography, and fragmented using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). MS/MS spectra were analysed using PILOT_PROTEIN to identify all unmodified proteins within the samples.Using the database derived from Homo sapiens taxonomy and all bacterial taxonomies, 432 human (120 new) and 30 bacterial proteins were identified. The human proteins, angiotensinogen, clusterin and thymidine phosphorylase were identified as biomarker candidates based on their high-scoring only in samples from periodontal health. Similarly, neutrophil defensin-1, carbonic anhydrase-1 and elongation factor-1 gamma were associated with CP. Candidate bacterial biomarkers include 33 kDa chaperonin, iron uptake protein A2 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (health-associated) and ribulose biphosphate carboxylase, a probable succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase, or DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta (CP-associated). Most of these human and bacterial proteins have not been previously evaluated as biomarkers of periodontal conditions and require further investigation.The proposed methods for large-scale comprehensive proteomic analysis may lead to the identification of novel biomarkers of periodontal health or disease.
Project description:To identify optimal combination(s) of proteomic based biomarkers in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples from chronic periodontitis (CP) and periodontally healthy individuals and validate the predictions through known and blind test sets.GCF samples were collected from 96 CP and periodontally healthy subjects and analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography, tandem mass spectrometry and the PILOT_PROTEIN algorithm. A mixed-integer linear optimization (MILP) model was then developed to identify the optimal combination of biomarkers which could clearly distinguish a blind subject sample as healthy or diseased.A thorough cross-validation of the MILP model capability was performed on a training set of 55 samples and greater than 99% accuracy was consistently achieved when annotating the testing set samples as healthy or diseased. The model was then trained on all 55 samples and tested on two different blind test sets, and using an optimal combination of 7 human proteins and 3 bacterial proteins, the model was able to correctly predict 40 out of 41 healthy and diseased samples.The proposed large-scale proteomic analysis and MILP model led to the identification of novel combinations of biomarkers for consistent diagnosis of periodontal status with greater than 95% predictive accuracy.
Project description:Background:The periodontal ligament is essential for homeostasis of periodontal tissue. A hypoxic milieu of the periodontal tissue is generated under periodontitis or during orthodontic treatment, which affects the periodontal and bone remodelling process. Here, we provide a comprehensive proteomic characterization of periodontal ligament cells under hypoxic conditions, aiming to reveal previously unappreciated biological changes and to help advance hypoxia-based therapeutic strategies for periodontal diseases. Methods:Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) were characterized using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry (FACS). Successful hypoxia treatment of hPDLCs with 1% O2 was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Proliferation was evaluated using an MTT assay. The proteomic expression profile under hypoxia was studied with the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) approach followed by protein identification and bioinformatic analysis, and western blot verification was performed. Results:The hPDLCs were positive for vimentin, CD73 and CD105 and negative for keratin, CD34 and CD45. After hypoxia treatment, the mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a (HIF1a) was upregulated. The proliferation rate was elevated during the first 6?h but decreased from 6?h to 72?h. A total of 220 differentially expressed proteins were quantified in hPDLCs under hypoxia (1% O2, 24?h), including 153 upregulated and 67 downregulated proteins, five of which were verified by western blot analysis. The Gene Ontology enriched terms included the energy metabolic process, membrane-bound organelle and vesicle, and protein binding terms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis indicated several involved pathways, including glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, biosynthesis of amino acids, the HIF-1 signalling pathway, and focal adhesion. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network demonstrated the dominant role of autophagy over apoptosis under hypoxia. Conclusion:The proteomic profile of hPDLCs under hypoxia was mainly related to energy metabolism, autophagy, and responses to stimuli such as adhesion and inflammation. Previously unrecognized proteins including solute carrier family proteins, heat shock proteins, ubiquitination-related enzymes, collagen and S100 family proteins are involved in adaptive response to hypoxia in hPDLCs and are thus of great research interest in future work.
Project description:The estimation of oral microbiome (OM) taxonomic composition in periodontally healthy individuals can often be biased because the clinically periodontally healthy subjects for evaluation can already experience dysbiosis. Usually, they are included just based on the absence of clinical signs of periodontitis. Additionally, the age of subjects is used to be higher to correspond well with tested groups of patients with chronic periodontitis, a disorder typically associated with aging. However, the dysbiosis of the OM precedes the clinical signs of the disease by many months or even years. The absence of periodontal pockets thus does not necessarily mean also good periodontal health and the obtained image of "healthy OM" can be distorted.To overcome this bias, we taxonomically characterized the OM in almost a hundred young students of dentistry with precise oral hygiene and no signs of periodontal disease. We compared the results with the OM composition of older periodontally healthy individuals and also a group of patients with severe periodontitis (aggressive periodontitis according to former classification system). The clustering analysis revealed not only two compact clearly separated clusters corresponding to each state of health, but also a group of samples forming an overlap between both well-pronounced states. Additionally, in the cluster of periodontally healthy samples, few outliers with atypical OM and two major stomatotypes could be distinguished, differing in the prevalence and relative abundance of two main bacterial genera: <i>Streptococcus</i> and <i>Veillonella</i>. We hypothesize that the two stomatotypes could represent the microbial succession from periodontal health to starting dysbiosis. The old and young periodontally healthy subjects do not cluster separately but a trend of the OM in older subjects to periodontitis is visible. Several bacterial genera were identified to be typically more abundant in older periodontally healthy subjects.
Project description:<h4>Background and objective</h4>The complement system is engaged in inflammatory reactions both in the periodontal pockets and in the periodontium itself, where it can mediate tissue destruction. The aim of this study was, first, to compare salivary levels of the total complement system protein C3 and its split product, fluid-phase C3c in patients with periodontitis and periodontally healthy controls. Next, to determine if C3 and C3c levels had biomarker potential in diagnosing and monitoring periodontitis and its treatment. We hypothesized that salivary levels of total C3 and the split product C3c associated with the severity of periodontitis and reflected decreased inflammatory activity after periodontal treatment.<h4>Methods</h4>At baseline, stimulated saliva samples were collected from patients with periodontitis (n = 18) and periodontally healthy controls (n = 15). Subsequently, non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed in the patients, and saliva sampling from patients was repeated two-, six-, and twelve weeks post-treatment (NCT02913248 at clinicaltrials.gov). The patients were grouped as good and poor responders to treatment according to the achieved reduction in bleeding on probing (BOP). Salivary levels of C3 and C3c were quantified using sandwich ELISA.<h4>Results</h4>Patients with periodontitis had higher baseline levels of both total C3 and the split product C3c in saliva than did periodontally healthy controls (P < .0001). Receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses discriminated patients with periodontitis from controls based on both C3 (AUC (area under curve) = 0.91, P < .001) and C3c levels (AUC = 0.84, P < .001) in saliva. Periodontal treatment improved all clinical parameters (P < .01). Good responders (n = 10) had lower baseline levels of C3c than poor responders (n = 8), (P < .05), and baseline levels of C3c discriminated between good and poor responders (AUC = 0.80, P < .05).<h4>Conclusion</h4>In conclusion, patients with periodontitis had higher salivary levels of C3c, and the C3c levels were predictive of reductions in BOP, that is, the poor responders. This suggests that salivary C3c levels possess potential to serve as a biomarker predicting the clinical response to non-surgical periodontal treatment.
Project description:Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in the association between macro and trace minerals in body fluids and systemic diseases related to chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. Due to the paucity of data in the literature on periodontitis, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between mineral elements in saliva and periodontal status in patients with untreated and treated periodontitis compared to periodontally healthy controls. Salivary samples from 66 nonsmoker healthy patients (20 periodontally healthy, 24 untreated severe periodontitis and 22 treated severe periodontitis) were analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). Significant increases in copper (Cu), sodium (Na), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) concentrations occurred in saliva of severe periodontitis subjects compared to periodontally healthy controls. No differences were detected between healthy controls and treated periodontitis patients apart from levels of zinc (Zn) and lithium (Li) that were found to be increased and reduced, respectively, in periodontitis group. Most subjects were correctly separated by cluster analysis into active periodontitis and periodontally healthy individuals. Treated periodontitis individuals were classified as healthy subjects. Based on these preliminary results, the assessment of salivary concentration of mineral elements might be useful in discriminating periodontal health and disease.
Project description:The dysbiosis of oral microbiome (OM) precedes the clinical signs of periodontal disease. Its simple measure thus could indicate individuals at risk of periodontitis development; however, such a tool is still missing. Up to now, numerous microbial taxa were associated with periodontal health or periodontitis. The outputs of most studies could, nevertheless, be slightly biased from following two reasons: First, the healthy group is often characterized only by the absence of the disease, but the individuals could already suffer from dysbiosis without any visible signs. Second, the healthy/diseased OM characteristics are frequently determined based on average data obtained for whole groups of periodontally healthy persons <i>versus</i> patients. Especially in smaller sets of tested individuals the typical individual variability can thus complicate the unambiguous assignment of oral taxa to respective state of health. In this work the taxonomic composition of OM was evaluated for 20 periodontally healthy individuals and 15 patients with chronic periodontitis. The narrowed selection set of the most diseased patients (confirmed by clinical parameters) and the most distant group of healthy individuals with the lowest probability of dysbiosis was determined by clustering analysis and used for identification of marker taxa. Based on their representation in each individual oral cavity we proposed the numeric index of periodontal health called R/G value. Its diagnostic potential was further confirmed using independent set of 20 periodontally healthy individuals and 20 patients with periodontitis with 95 percent of samples assigned correctly. We also assessed the individual temporal OM dynamics in periodontal health and we compared it to periodontitis. We revealed that the taxonomic composition of the system changes dynamically but generally it ranges within values typical for periodontal health or transient state, but far from values typical for periodontitis. R/G value tool, formulated from individually evaluated data, allowed us to arrange individual OMs into a continuous series, instead of two distinct groups, thus mimicking the gradual transformation of a virtual person from periodontal health to disease. The application of R/G value index thus represents a very promising diagnostic tool for early prediction of persons at risk of developing periodontal disease.
Project description:The pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-induced acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF), a serious and prevalent medical condition, is not clear, particularly with regard to which proteins are expressed in the course of the disease. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in hepatic tissue protein expression between normal human subjects and patients with ACLF using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis and to verify the results using western blot analysis. The iTRAQ method was used to analyze the protein contents of hepatic tissue samples from 3 patients with HBV-induced ACLF and 3 normal healthy subjects. The results were verified by subjecting the hepatic tissues from 2 patients with HBV-induced ACLF and 4 healthy subjects to western blot analysis. In total, 57 proteins with ?1.5-fold differences between patients with HBV-induced ACLF and healthy subjects were identified using iTRAQ. Among these 57 proteins, 4 with the most marked differences in their expression and the most significant association with liver disease were selected to be verified through western blot analysis: Keratin, type-I cytoskeletal 19; ?-1-acid glycoprotein 1 (?1-AGP); carbonic anhydrase-1; and serpin peptidase inhibitor and clade A (?-1 anti proteinase, antitrypsin) member 1 (SERPINA1). The results of the western blot analyses were nearly identical to the iTRAQ results. Identifying the differences in liver protein expression in patients with HBV-induced ACLF may provide a basis for studies on the pathogenesis of ACLF. Future studies should focus particularly on ?1-AGP, carbonic anhydrase 1 and SERPINA1.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic periodontal disease is an infectious disease consisting of prolonged inflammation of the supporting tooth tissue and resulting in bone loss. Guided bone regeneration procedures have become common and safe treatments in dentistry, and in this context dental stem cells would represent the ideal solution as autologous cells. In this study, we verified the ability of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells (DPSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) harvested from periodontally affected teeth to produce new mineralized bone tissue in vitro, and compared this to cells from healthy teeth.<h4>Methods</h4>To characterize DPSCs and GMSCs, we assessed colony-forming assay, immunophenotyping, mesenchymal/stem cell phenotyping, stem gene profiling by means of flow cytometry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The effects of proinflammatory cytokines on mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) proliferation and differentiation potential were investigated. We also observed participation of several heat shock proteins (HSPs) and actin-depolymerizing factors (ADFs) during osteogenic differentiation.<h4>Results</h4>DPSCs and GMSCs were successfully isolated both from periodontally affected dental tissue and controls. Periodontally affected dental MSCs proliferated faster, and the inflamed environment did not affect MSC marker expressions. The calcium deposition was higher in periodontally affected MSCs than in the control group. Proinflammatory cytokines activate a cytoskeleton remodeling, interacting with HSPs including HSP90 and HSPA9, thioredoxin-1, and ADFs such as as profilin-1, cofilin-1, and vinculin that probably mediate the increased acquisition in the inflamed environment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings provide evidence that periodontally affected dental tissue (both pulp and gingiva) can be used as a source of MSCs with intact stem cell properties. Moreover, we demonstrated that the osteogenic capability of DPSCs and GMSCs in the test group was not only preserved but increased by the overexpression of several proinflammatory cytokine-dependent chaperones and stress response proteins.
Project description:The objective of this study was to investigate the salivary proteins that are associated with periodontitis in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Volunteers for the study were patients from the Diabetic Unit, University of Malaya Medical Centre, whose periodontal status was determined. The diabetic volunteers were divided into two groups, i.e., patients with periodontitis and those who were periodontally healthy. Saliva samples were collected and treated with 10% TCA/acetone/20 mM DTT to precipitate the proteins, which were then separated using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel images were scanned using the GS-800(TM) Calibrated Densitometer. The protein spots were analyzed and expressed in percentage volumes. The percentage volume of each protein spot was subjected to Mann-Whitney statistical analysis using SPSS software and false discovery rate correction. When the expression of the salivary proteins was compared between the T2DM patients with periodontitis with those who were periodontally healthy, seven proteins, including polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, plastin-2, actin related protein 3, leukocyte elastase inhibitor, carbonic anhydrases 6, immunoglobulin J and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, were found to be differentially expressed (p < 0.01304). This implies that the proteins may have the potential to be used as biomarkers for the prediction of T2DM patients who may be prone to periodontitis.