Rapid Detection of Neutrophil Oxidative Burst Capacity is Predictive of Whole Blood Cytokine Responses.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Maladaptive immune responses, particularly cytokine and chemokine-driven, are a significant contributor to the deleterious inflammation present in many types of injury and infection. Widely available applications to rapidly assess individual inflammatory capacity could permit identification of patients at risk for exacerbated immune responses and guide therapy. Here we evaluate neutrophil oxidative burst (NOX) capacity measured by plate reader to immuno-type Rhesus Macaques as an acute strategy to rapidly detect inflammatory capacity and predict maladaptive immune responses as assayed by cytokine array. METHODS:Whole blood was collected from anesthetized Rhesus Macaques (n = 25) and analyzed for plasma cytokine secretion (23-plex Luminex assay) and NOX capacity. For cytokine secretion, paired samples were either unstimulated or ex-vivo lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated (100?g/mL/24h). NOX capacity was measured in dihydrorhodamine-123 loaded samples following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin treatment. Pearson's test was utilized to correlate NOX capacity with cytokine secretion, p<0.05 considered significant. RESULTS:LPS stimulation induced secretion of the inflammatory molecules G-CSF, IL-1?, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12/23(p40), IL-18, MIP-1?, MIP-1?, and TNF?. Although values were variable, several cytokines correlated with NOX capacity, p-values?0.0001. Specifically, IL-1? (r = 0.66), IL-6 (r = 0.74), the Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12/23(p40) (r = 0.78), and TNF? (r = 0.76) were strongly associated with NOX. CONCLUSION:NOX capacity correlated with Th1-polarizing cytokine secretion, indicating its ability to rapidly predict inflammatory responses. These data suggest that NOX capacity may quickly identify patients at risk for maladaptive immune responses and who may benefit from immuno-modulatory therapies. Future studies will assess the in-vivo predictive value of NOX in animal models of immune-mediated pathologies.
Project description:Eosinophils are innate immune leukocytes implicated in the initiation and maintenance of type 2 immune responses, including asthma and allergy. The ability to store and rapidly secrete preformed cytokines distinguishes eosinophils from most lymphocytes, which must synthesize cytokine proteins prior to secretion and may be a factor in the apparent Th2 bias of eosinophils. Multiple studies confirm that human eosinophils from atopic or hypereosinophilic donors can secrete over 30 cytokines with a varying and often opposing immune-polarizing potential. However, it remains unclear whether all of these cytokines are constitutively preformed and available for rapid secretion from eosinophils in the circulation of healthy individuals or are restricted to eosinophils from atopic donors. Likewise, the relative concentrations of cytokines stored within eosinophils have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that human blood eosinophils are not singularly outfitted with Th2-associated cytokines but rather, constitutively store a cache of cytokines with nominal Th1, Th2, and regulatory capacities, including IL-4, IL-13, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. We demonstrate further rapid and differential release of each cytokine in response to specific stimuli. As agonists, strong Th1 and inflammatory cytokines elicited release of Th2-promoting IL-4 but not Th1-inducing IL-12. Moreover, a large quantity of IFN-gamma was secreted in response to Th1, Th2, and inflammatory stimuli. Delineations of the multifarious nature of preformed eosinophil cytokines and the varied stimulus-dependent profiles of rapid cytokine secretion provide insights into the functions of human eosinophils in mediating inflammation and initiation of specific immunity.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis, an etiological agent of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pathogenic mycobacteria survive in the host by subverting host innate immunity. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that are vital for eliciting immune responses to infectious agents, including pathogenic mycobacteria. DCs orchestrate distinct Th responses based on the signals they receive. In this perspective, deciphering the interactions of the proline-glutamic acid/proline-proline-glutamic acid (PE/PPE) family of proteins of M. tuberculosis with DCs assumes significant pathophysiological attributes. In this study, we demonstrate that Rv1917c (PPE34), a representative member of the proline-proline-glutamic-major polymorphic tandem repeat family, interacts with TLR2 and triggers functional maturation of human DCs. Signaling perturbations implicated a critical role for integrated cross-talk among PI3K-MAPK and NF-?B signaling cascades in Rv1917c-induced maturation of DCs. However, this maturation of DCs was associated with a secretion of high amounts of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, whereas Th1-polarizing cytokine IL-12 was not induced. Consistent with these results, Rv1917c-matured DCs favored secretion of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10 from CD4(+) T cells and contributed to Th2-skewed cytokine balance ex vivo in healthy individuals and in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Interestingly, the Rv1917c-skewed Th2 immune response involved induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in DCs. Taken together, these results indicate that Rv1917c facilitates a shift in the ensuing immunity toward the Th2 phenotype and could aid in immune evasion by mycobacteria.
Project description:Clinical observations suggest that Canadian-born (CB) travellers are prone to more severe malaria, characterized by higher parasite density in the blood, and severe symptoms, such as cerebral malaria and renal failure, than foreign-born travellers (FB) from areas of malaria endemicity. It was hypothesized that host cytokine and chemokine responses differ significantly in CB versus FB patients returning with malaria, contributing to the courses of severity. A more detailed understanding of the profiles of cytokines, chemokines, and endothelial activation may be useful in developing biomarkers and novel therapeutic approaches for malaria.The patient population for the study (n = 186) was comprised of travellers returning to Toronto, Canada between 2007 and 2011. The patient blood samples' cytokine, chemokine and angiopoietin concentrations were determined using cytokine multiplex assays, and ELISA assays.Significantly higher plasma cytokine levels of IL-12 (p40) were observed in CB compared to FB travellers, while epidermal growth factor (EGF) was observed to be higher in FB than CB travellers. Older travellers (55 years old or greater) with Plasmodium vivax infections had significantly higher mean cytokine levels for IL-6 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) than other adults with P. vivax (ages 18-55). Patients with P. vivax infections had significantly higher mean cytokine levels for monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and M-CSF than patients with Plasmodium falciparum. Angiopoietin 2 (Ang-2) was higher for patients infected with P. falciparum than P. vivax, especially when comparing just the FB groups. IL-12 (p40) was higher in FB patients with P. vivax compared to P. falciparum. Il-12 (p40) was also higher in patients infected with P. vivax than those infected with Plasmodium ovale. For patients travelling to West Africa, IFN-? and IL-6 was lower than for patients who were in other regions of Africa.Significantly higher levels of IL-12 (p40) and lower levels of EGF in CB travellers may serve as useful prognostic markers of disease severity and help guide clinical management upon return. IL-6 and M-CSF in older adults and MCP-1, IL-12 (p40) and M-CSF for P. vivax infected patients may also prove useful in understanding age-associated and species-specific host immune responses, as could the species-specific differences in Ang-2. Regional differences in host immune response to malaria infection within the same species may speak to unique strains circulating in parts of West Africa.
Project description:IL-12 and IL-23 are heterodimeric cytokines involved in the induction of Th1 and Th17 immune responses. Previous work indicated that a region on chromosome 11 encoding the IL-12p40 subunit regulates strain differences in susceptibility to murine trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. In addition, this region determines strain differences in LPS-induced IL-12 responses. In this study, we investigated how polymorphisms in the coding region of murine Il12b influence IL-12 and IL-23 heterodimer formation. Transfection studies using constructs containing IL-12p35 linked to IL-12p40 from the colitis-resistant C57BL/6 strain or to the polymorphic p40 variant from the colitis-susceptible SJL/J strain demonstrated that SJL/J-derived p40 constructs synthesized significantly more IL-12p70 than did constructs harboring the C57BL/6-p40 variant. This could not be attributed to differences in synthesis rate or secretion, implicating a greater affinity of SJL/J-derived IL-12p40 for its IL-12p35 subunit. This greater affinity is also associated with increased IL-23 synthesis. In addition, C57BL/6 mice transgenic for the SJL/J 40 variant synthesized significantly more IL-12p70 upon LPS challenge and were more prone to develop colonic inflammation than did C57BL/6 mice transgenic for the C57BL/6-p40 variant. The more efficient binding of the polymorphic Il12b variant to p35 and p19 is most likely due to conformational changes following differential glycosylation as a consequence of the polymorphism. The high synthesis rate of the mature cytokines resulting from this efficient binding can lead to rapid proinflammatory skewing of immune responses and distortion of the homeostatic balance underlying the greater susceptibility for colitis.
Project description:IL-10 is an immunomodulatory cytokine that regulates inflammatory responses of mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes and macrophages). Mononuclear cells exposed to microbes or microbial products secrete a host of proinflammatory cytokines followed by delayed onset of anti-inflammatory IL-10. IL-10 suppresses immune responses by inhibiting cytokine production by mononuclear phagocytes. Using THP-1, a human promonocytic leukemia cell line, we show that endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure induces IL10 expression while IFN-gamma blocks this LPS-mediated effect. IFN-gamma is an important modulator of IL-10 production during infectious diseases. We show that LPS and IFN-gamma regulate IL10 expression in THP-1 cells in part through posttranscriptional mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) AU-rich elements (AREs) decrease expression of a chimeric luciferase reporter gene in THP-1 cells. The ARE-binding protein AUF1 binds the IL10 3'-UTR. Depletion of AUF1 by RNAi suppresses LPS-mediated induction of IL10 mRNA and protein without affecting LPS-mediated stabilization of IL10 mRNA. Upon complementation with either RNAi-refractory p37 or p40 AUF1 plasmids, only p40 restores LPS-mediated induction of IL10 mRNA and protein to near normal levels. Thus, the p40 AUF1 isoform selectively plays a critical, positive role in IL10 expression upon LPS exposure.
Project description:Cytokines that stimulate T cell proliferation, such as interleukin (IL)-15, have been explored as a means of boosting the antitumor activity of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells. However, constitutive cytokine signaling in T cells and activation of bystander cells may cause toxicity. IL-23 is a two-subunit cytokine known to promote proliferation of memory T cells and T helper type 17 cells. We found that, upon T cell antigen receptor (TCR) stimulation, T cells upregulated the IL-23 receptor and the IL-23? p19 subunit, but not the p40 subunit. We engineered expression of the p40 subunit in T cells (p40-Td cells) and obtained selective proliferative activity in activated T cells via autocrine IL-23 signaling. In comparison to CAR T cells, p40-Td CAR T cells showed improved antitumor capacity in vitro, with increased granzyme B and decreased PD-1 expression. In two xenograft and two syngeneic solid tumor mouse models, p40-Td CAR T cells showed superior efficacy in comparison to CAR T cells and attenuated side effects in comparison to CAR T cells expressing IL-18 or IL-15.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During the last decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained much attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into different cell types and to promote immunosuppressive effects. However, the underlying mechanism of MSC-mediated immunoregulation is not fully understood so far. Macrophages are distinguished in classical activated, pro-inflammatory M1 and alternatively activated M2 cells, which possess different functions and transcriptional profiles with respect to inflammatory responses. As polarization is not fixed, macrophage functional plasticity might be modulated by the microenvironment allowing them to rapidly react to danger signals and maintaining tissue homeostasis. METHODS:Murine MSCs were preconditioned with IL-1ß and IFN-? to enhance their immunosuppressive capacity regarding macrophage polarization under M1- and M2a-polarizing conditions. Macrophage polarization was analyzed by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and cytokine detection in culture supernatants. The role of MSC-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and IL-6 in this process has been evaluated using siRNA transfection and IL-6 receptor-deficient macrophages, respectively. RESULTS:Preconditioned, but not unprimed, MSCs secreted high levels of NO, IL-6, and PGE2. Co-culture with macrophages (M0) in the presence of M1 inducers (LPS?+?IFN-?) led to significant reduction of CD86 and iNOS protein in macrophages and diminished TNF-? secretion. Additionally, CD86 and iNOS protein expression as well as NO and IL-10 secretion were markedly increased under M2a-polarizing culture conditions (IL-4). MSC-dependent macrophage polarization did not depend on direct cell-cell contact. Co-culturing in the presence of LPS and IFN-? resulted in the upregulation of M2a, M2b, and M2c marker genes, whereas in the presence of IL-4 only M2b markers were significantly increased. In turn, IL-10-producing regulatory M2b cells significantly inhibited IFN-? expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Finally, we show that MSC-mediated macrophage polarization strongly depends on IL-6, whereas a minor role for NO and PGE2 was found. CONCLUSIONS:Preconditioning of MSCs highly strengthens their capacity to regulate macrophage features and to promote immunosuppression. Repression of M1 polarization during inflammation and M2b polarization under anti-inflammatory conditions strongly depend on functional IL-6 signaling in macrophages. The potential benefit of preconditioned MSCs and IL-6 should be considered for future clinical treatment.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been widely studied for the treatment of intestinal inflammatory diseases and infectious diarrhea, but the mechanisms by which they communicate with the host are not well-known. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are produced by Gram-negative bacteria and deliver microbial molecules to distant target cells in the host, which play a very important role in mediating bacteria-host communication. Here, we aimed to investigate whether EcN-derived OMVs (EcN_OMVs) could mediate immune regulation in macrophages. RESULTS:In this study, after the characterization of EcN_OMVs using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking and proteomic analyses, we demonstrated by confocal fluorescence microscopy that EcN_OMVs could be internalized by RAW 264.7 macrophages. Stimulation with EcN_OMVs at appropriate concentrations promoted proliferation, immune-related enzymatic activities and phagocytic functions of RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, EcN_OMVs induced more anti-inflammatory responses (IL-10) than pro-inflammatory responses (IL-6 and TNF-?) in vitro, and also modulated the production of Th1-polarizing cytokine (IL-12) and Th2-polarizing cytokine (IL-4). Treatments with EcN_OMVs effectively improved the antibacterial activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicated that EcN_OMVs could modulate the functions of the host immune cells, which will enrich the existing body of knowledge of EVs as an important mechanism for the communication of probiotics with their hosts.
Project description:The heterodimeric cytokine interleukin (IL) 23 comprises the IL12-shared p40 subunit and an IL23-specific subunit, p19. Together with IL12 and IL27, IL23 sits at the apex of the regulatory mechanisms shaping adaptive immune responses. IL23, together with IL17, plays an important role in the development of chronic inflammation and autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this context, we generated monovalent antihuman IL23 variable heavy chain domain of llama heavy chain antibody (VHH) domains (Nanobodies®) with low nanomolar affinity for human interleukin (hIL) 23. The crystal structure of a quaternary complex assembling hIL23 and several nanobodies against p19 and p40 subunits allowed identification of distinct epitopes and enabled rational design of a multivalent IL23-specific blocking nanobody. Taking advantage of the ease of nanobody formatting, multivalent IL23 nanobodies were assembled with properly designed linkers flanking an antihuman serum albumin nanobody, with improved hIL23 neutralization capacity in vitro and in vivo, as compared to the monovalent nanobodies. These constructs with long exposure time are excellent candidates for further developments targeting Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and psoriasis.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells that might play contradictory roles during HIV-1 infection, contributing not only to antiviral immunity but also to viral dissemination and immune evasion. Although DCs are characterized by enormous functional diversity, it has not been analyzed how differentially programmed DCs interact with HIV-1. We have previously described the reprogramming of DC development by endogenously produced lactic acid that accumulated in a cell culture density-dependent manner and provided a long-lasting anti-inflammatory signal to the cells. By exploiting this mechanism, we generated immunostimulatory DCs characterized by the production of TH1 polarizing and inflammatory mediators or, alternatively, suppressed DCs that produce IL-10 upon activation, and we tested the interaction of these DC types with different HIV-1 strains. Cytokine patterns were monitored in HIV-1-exposed DC cultures. Our results showed that DCs receiving suppressive developmental program strongly upregulated their capacity to produce the TH1 polarizing cytokine IL-12 and the inflammatory chemokines CCL2 and CCL7 upon interaction with HIV-1 strains IIIB and SF162. On the contrary, HIV-1 abolished cytokine production in the more inflammatory DC types. Preincubation of the cells with the HIV-1 proteins gp120 and Nef could inhibit IL-12 production irrespectively of the tested DC types, whereas MyD88- and TRIF-dependent signals stimulated IL-12 production in the suppressed DC type only. Rewiring of DC cytokines did not require DC infections or ligation of the HIV-1 receptor CD209. A third HIV-1 strain, BaL, could not modulate DC cytokines in a similar manner indicating that individual HIV-1 strains can differ in their capacity to influence DCs. Our results demonstrated that HIV-1 could not induce definite and invariable modulatory programs in DCs. Instead, interaction with the virus triggered different responses in different DC types. Thus, the outcome of DC-HIV-1 interactions might be highly variable, shaped by endogenous features of the cells and diversity of the virus.