Regulation of YKL-40 expression by corticosteroids: effect on pro-inflammatory macrophages in vitro and its modulation in COPD in vivo.
ABSTRACT: Macrophages constitute a heterogeneous cell population with pro- (M?1) and anti-inflammatory (M?2) cells. The soluble chitinase-like-protein YKL-40 is expressed in macrophages and various other cell types, and has been linked to a variety of inflammatory diseases, including COPD. Dexamethasone strongly reduces YKL-40 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. We hypothesized that: a) YKL-40 is differentially expressed by M?1 and M?2, b) is decreased by corticosteroids and c) that long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) affects YKL-40 levels in serum and sputum of COPD patients.Monocytes of healthy subjects were cultured in vitro for 7 days with either GM-CSF or M-CSF (for M?1 and M?2, respectively) and stimulated for 24 h with LPS, TNF?, or oncostatin M (OSM). M?1 and M?2 differentiation was assessed by measuring secretion of IL-12p40 and IL-10, respectively. YKL-40 expression in macrophages was measured by quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) and ELISA; serum and sputum YKL-40 levels were analyzed by ELISA.Pro-inflammatory M?1 cells secreted significantly more YKL-40 than M?2, which was independent of stimulation with LPS, TNF? or OSM (p < 0.001) and confirmed by qPCR. Dexamethasone dose-dependently and significantly inhibited YKL-40 protein and mRNA levels in M?1. Serum YKL-40 levels of COPD patients were significantly higher than sputum YKL-40 levels but were not significantly changed by ICS treatment.YKL-40 secretion from M?1 cells is higher than from M?2 cells and is unaffected by further stimulation with pro-inflammatory agents. Furthermore, YKL-40 release from cultured monocyte-derived macrophages is inhibited by dexamethasone especially in M?1, but ICS treatment did not change YKL-40 serum and sputum levels in COPD. These results indicate that YKL-40 expression could be used as a marker for M?1 macrophages in vitro, but not for monitoring the effect of ICS in COPD.ClinicalTrials.gov, registration number: NCT00158847.
Project description:The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 was found to be increased in patients with severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), two disease conditions featuring neutrophilic infiltrates. Based on these studies and a previous report indicating that neutrophils secrete YKL-40, we hypothesized that YKL-40 plays a key role in cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease, a prototypic neutrophilic disease. The aim of this study was (i) to analyze YKL-40 levels in human and murine CF lung disease and (ii) to investigate whether YKL-40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulate CF lung disease severity. YKL-40 protein levels were quantified in serum and sputum supernatants from CF patients and control individuals. Levels of the murine homologue BRP-39 were analyzed in airway fluids from CF-like ?ENaC-Tg mice. YKL-40SNPs were analyzed in CF patients. YKL-40 levels were increased in sputum supernatants and in serum from CF patients compared to healthy control individuals. Within CF patients, YKL-40 levels were higher in sputum than in serum. BRP-39 levels were increased in airways fluids from ?ENaC-Tg mice compared to wild-type littermates. In both CF patients and ?ENaC-Tg mice, YKL-40/BRP-39 airway levels correlated with the severity of pulmonary obstruction. Two YKL-40 SNPs (rs871799 and rs880633) were found to modulate age-adjusted lung function in CF patients. YKL-40/BRP-39 levelsare increased in human and murine CF airway fluids, correlate with pulmonary function and modulate CF lung disease severity genetically. These findings suggest YKL-40 as a potential biomarker in CF lung disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Asthma is a heterogeneous chronic airway disease, which may be classified into different phenotypes. YKL-40 is a chitin-binding glycoprotein with unclear functions, but its expression is associated with inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, few studies have explored whether YKL-40 is associated with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma. METHODS:The study had two parts. Study I (n?=?115) was a one-year prospective cohort designed to explore the relationship of serum YKL-40 levels with inflammatory phenotypes of asthma at baseline, and during exacerbations. Study II (n?=?62) was a four-week prospective cohort designed to define whether serum YKL-40 levels could predict responses to a fixed anti-asthma regimen. YKL-40, IL-6 and CCL22 levels were detected using ELISA, and a sputum inflammatory panel (including IL-1?, IL-5, IL-8 and TNF-?) was assessed using Luminex-based MILLIPLEX assay. RESULTS:Study I: Serum YKL-40 levels in non-eosinophilic asthma (NEA) i.e. neutrophilic (47.77 [29.59, 74.97] ng/mL, n?=?40) and paucigranulocytic (47.36 [28.81, 61.68] ng/mL, n?=?31) were significantly elevated compared with eosinophilic asthma (31.05 [22.41, 51.10] ng/mL, n?=?44) (P?=?0.015). Serum YKL-40levels positively correlated with blood neutrophils, sputum IL-1? and plasma IL-6 but negatively correlated with serum IgE and blood eosinophils (all P???0.05). Baseline YKL-40 levels predicted moderate to severe exacerbations within a one-year period (aOR?=?4.13, 95% CI?=?[1.08, 15.83]). Study II: Serum YKL-40 was an independent biomarker of negative responses to anti-asthma regimens (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]?=?0.82, 95% CI?=?[0.71, 0.96]. CONCLUSIONS:These studies show that YKL-40 is a non-type 2 inflammatory signature for NEA, which could predict responsiveness or insensitivity to anti-asthma medications and more exacerbations. Further studies are needed to assess whether monitoring YKL-40 levels could provide potential implications for clinical relevance.
Project description:Background: Macrophages are important cells in pathogenesis of obstructive lung diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the study was a multivariate, genetic, comparative analysis of macrophages from patients with asthma and COPD. Methods: Macrophages were isolated from induced sputum (IS) by magnetic bead separation. Transcriptomic measurements were carried out using Affymetrix Human Gene 2.1 ST ArrayStrip in 17 samples: 8 asthma (4 ICS naive , 4 ICS treated), 4 COPD and 5 control samples. The expression of the most significantly differentiating genes was evaluated by real time PCR in 34 samples (15 patients with asthma, 11 patients with COPD and 17 controls). Results: USP53 was the only gene differentially expressed (p adjusted clue =0.09) in the comparison between ICS naïve and ICS treated asthma. The PCR verification showed increased expression of BTF3, CDS2, DNAJC13, DDX5, GNAI2, SCGB1A1, SIRPB1, TRAF3IP, USP53, WDR49 in the asthma compared to COPD group. The changed gene expression profile of macrophages were characterized mostly by gene ontology terms linked with cell motility, cilium function, cell junction and adhesion organization. Conclusions: Gene expression profiling of sputum macrophages revealed distinct molecular capacity in asthma and COPD. The role of sputum macrophages in the pathophysiology of obstructive lung diseases is probably connected with biological processes associated with their motility, cilium dysfunction and cell junction organization. Overall design: The microarray experiments were performed using 17 samples: 8 asthma (4 untreated , 4 treated with ICS), 4 COPD and 5 control samples (4 non-smoker, 1 smoker)
Project description:The chitinase-like protein YKL-40 mediates airway inflammation and serum levels are associated with asthma severity. However, asthma phenotypes associated with YKL-40 levels have not been precisely defined.We conducted an unsupervised cluster analysis of asthma patients treated at the Yale Center for Asthma and Airways Disease (n=156) to identify subgroups according to YKL-40 level. The resulting YKL-40 clusters were cross-validated in cohorts from the Severe Asthma Research Programme (n=167) and the New York University/Bellevue Asthma Repository (n=341). A sputum transcriptome analysis revealed molecular pathways associated with YKL-40 subgroups.Four YKL-40 clusters (C1-C4) were identified. C3 and C4 had high serum YKL-40 levels compared with C1 and C2. C3 was associated with earlier onset and longer duration of disease, severe airflow obstruction, and near-fatal asthma exacerbations. C4 had the highest serum YKL-40 levels, adult onset and less airflow obstruction, but frequent exacerbations. An airway transcriptome analysis in C3 and C4 showed activation of non-type 2 inflammatory pathways.Elevated serum YKL-40 levels were associated with two distinct clinical asthma phenotypes: one with irreversible airway obstruction and another with severe exacerbations. The YKL-40 clusters are potentially useful for identification of individuals with severe or exacerbation-prone asthma.
Project description:Although Th2 driven inflammation is present in COPD, it is not clearly elucidated which COPD patients are affected. Since periostin is associated with Th2 driven inflammation and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-response in asthma, it could function as a biomarker in COPD. The aim of this study was to analyze if serum periostin is elevated in COPD compared to healthy controls, if it is affected by smoking status, if it is linked to inflammatory cell counts in blood, sputum and endobronchial biopsies, and if periostin can predict ICS-response in COPD patients.Serum periostin levels were measured using Elecsys Periostin immunoassay. Correlations between periostin and inflammatory cell count in blood, sputum and endobronchial biopsies were analyzed. Additionally, the correlation between serum periostin levels and treatment responsiveness after 6 and 30 months was assessed using i.e. ?FEV1% predicted, ?CCQ score and ?RV/TLC ratio. Forty-five COPD smokers, 25 COPD past-smokers, 22 healthy smokers and 23 healthy never-smokers were included. Linear regression analysis of serum periostin showed positive correlations age (B?=?0.02, 95%CI 0.01-0.03) and FEV1% predicted (B?=?0.01, 95%CI 0.01-0.02) in healthy smokers, but not in COPD patients In conclusion, COPD -smokers and -past-smokers have significantly higher periostin levels compared to healthy smokers, yet periostin is not suitable as a biomarker for Th2-driven inflammation or ICS-responsiveness in COPD.
Project description:RATIONALE:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease, and development of novel therapeutics requires an understanding of pathophysiologic phenotypes. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of the Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics (ADEPT) study was to correlate clinical features and biomarkers with molecular characteristics in a well-profiled COPD cohort. METHODS:A total of 67 COPD subjects (forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration [FEV1]: 45%-80% predicted) and 63 healthy smoking and nonsmoking controls underwent multiple assessments including patient questionnaires, lung function, and clinical biomarkers including fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), induced sputum, and blood. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:The impact of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), and to a lesser extent current smoking, was more associated with symptom control, exacerbation rates, and clinical biomarkers, than severity by FEV1. The ICS-treated smoking subjects were most symptomatic, with significantly elevated scores on patient-reported outcomes and more annual exacerbations (P < .05). Inhaled corticosteroid users had greater airflow obstruction and air trapping compared with non-ICS users, regardless of smoking status. Smoking, regardless of ICS use, was associated with significantly lower FENO (P < .05). Smoking, in non-ICS users, was associated with an elevated proportion of sputum neutrophils and reduced sputum macrophages. Increased serum C-reactive protein was observed in smokers but not in ICS and nonsmoking ICS users (P < .05). In contrast, only air trapping and neutrophilic inflammation increased with severity, defined by postbronchodilator FEV1. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with COPD severity by FEV1, ICS use and current smoking were better determinants of clinical characteristics and biomarkers. Use of the ADEPT COPD data promises to prove useful in defining biological phenotypes to facilitate personalized therapeutic approaches.
Project description:The exaggerated expression of chitinase-like protein YKL-40, the human homologue of breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39), was reported in a number of diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the in vivo roles of YKL-40 in normal physiology or in the pathogenesis of specific diseases such as COPD remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that BRP-39/YKL-40 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced emphysema. To test this hypothesis, 10-week-old wild-type and BRP-39 null mutant mice (BRP-39(-/-)) were exposed to room air (RA) and CS for up to 10 months. The expression of BRP-39 was significantly induced in macrophages, airway epithelial cells, and alveolar Type II cells in the lungs of CS-exposed mice compared with RA-exposed mice, at least in part via an IL-18 signaling-dependent pathway. The null mutation of BRP-39 significantly reduced CS-induced bronchoalveolar lavage and tissue inflammation. However, CS-induced epithelial cell apoptosis and alveolar destruction were further enhanced in the absence of BRP-39. Consistent with these findings in mice, the tissue expression of YKL-40 was significantly increased in the lungs of current smokers compared with the lungs of ex-smokers or nonsmokers. In addition, serum concentrations of YKL-40 were significantly higher in smokers with COPD than in nonsmokers or smokers without COPD. These studies demonstrate a novel regulatory role of BRP-39/YKL-40 in CS-induced inflammation and emphysematous destruction. These studies also underscore that maintaining physiologic concentrations of YKL-40 in the lung is therapeutically important in preventing excessive inflammatory responses or emphysematous alveolar destruction.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic non-viral liver disease. YKL-40, chitinase-like protein expressed in multiple tissues including liver, is involved in cell proliferation, inflammation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum YKL-40 levels are associated with liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Serum YKL-40 levels were quantified in 111 NAFLD patients and 23 HCC patients with NAFLD. To identify the source of YKL-40, immunofluorescence staining of liver specimens from NAFLD patients was performed. Serum YKL-40 levels in NAFLD patients increased in accordance with the progression of liver fibrosis. Multivariate analysis revealed that YKL-40 was one of the independent factors significantly associated with severe fibrosis (F3-4). We established a new predictive model for fibrosis of NAFLD, using logistic regression analysis: YKL-40 based fibrosis score?=?-0.0545?+?type IV collagen 7s * 0.3456?+?YKL-40 * 0.0024. Serum YKL-40 levels of HCC patients with non-cirrhotic NAFLD were significantly higher than those without HCC. Immunofluorescence staining showed that YKL-40 was expressed by macrophages in liver tissue of NAFLD patients. In conclusion, macrophage-derived YKL-40 is a feasible biomarker of liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients.
Project description:YKL-40 is a chitinase-like protein that, in cross-sectional clinical studies, has been associated with severe asthma and COPD in smokers.To determine the longitudinal relation of circulating YKL-40 to levels and decline of lung function in the general population.We used longitudinal data from up to 13 surveys from the population-based TESAOD study which was conducted in Tucson, Arizona between 1972 and 1996. In cross-sectional analyses, we also used data from 3 Spanish centers of the multicenter ECRHS study (ECRHS-Sp). Serum YKL-40 was measured at baseline in TESAOD and in survey 2 in ECRHS-Sp using ELISAs. Multivariate linear regression was used to test associations of serum YKL-40 to concomitant lung function. In TESAOD, random coefficients models were used to test associations of serum YKL-40 to subsequent decline of lung function.Data on YKL-40 and lung function were available from 1088 TESAOD and 854 ECRHS-Sp adult participants (59% and 51% females; respectively). In adjusted multivariate meta-analyses, being in the highest YKL-40 quartile was associated cross-sectionally with significant deficits in FEV1 and FVC %predicted. In adjusted longitudinal analyses, TESAOD participants in the top YKL-40 quartile had an FEV1 decline that was 5 ml/yr (p = 0.05) faster than subjects in the third quartile, 5 ml/yr (p = 0.02) faster than subjects in the second quartile, and 10 ml/yr (p < 0.001) faster than subjects in the lowest YKL-40 quartile. These longitudinal effects were particularly strong in smokers and absent in never smokers. After adjusting for covariates, as compared with the other three quartiles combined, the top YKL-40 quartile was associated with a 9 ml/yr (p = 0.001) faster FEV1 decline among smokers, while no significant effects were found among never smokers (2 ml/yr, p = 0.35).Circulating YKL-40 is associated with levels and decline of lung function in the general population and may be a biomarker of susceptibility to the long-term effects of cigarette smoking.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is hallmarked by inflammatory processes and a progressive decline of lung function. YKL-40 is a potential biomarker of inflammation and mortality in patients suffering from inflammatory lung disease, but its prognostic value in patients with COPD remains unknown. We investigated whether high plasma YKL-40 was associated with increased mortality in patients with moderate to very severe COPD.Four hundred and ninety-three patients with moderate to very severe COPD were followed prospectively for up to 10 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to plasma YKL-40: concentration higher than the 75th percentile for age-matched healthy subjects (i.e. high levels) and normal levels. Outcome was overall survival (OS) and was evaluated in uni- and multivariate proportional hazards Cox regression analyses and adjusted for factors affecting mortality.Median plasma YKL-40 was increased in patients with COPD (81 ng/ml, p < 0.001) compared to healthy subjects (40 ng/ml). Patients with high plasma YKL-40 had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.42 (95% CI: 1.15-1.75, p = 0.001) for all-cause mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that YKL-40 (HR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.72, p = 0.004), age (HR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.03-1.06, p < 0.0001), Severe COPD (HR 1.35; 95 CI: 1.03-1.76, p = 0.03) very severe COPD (HR 2.19; 95% CI: 1.60 - 2.99 < 0.0001), neutrophil granulocyte count (HR 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.08, p = 0.01), and a smoking history of > 40 years (HR 1.38; 95% CI: 1.11-1.71, p = 0.003) were independent prognostic markers of OS.High plasmaYKL-40 is associated with increased mortality in patients with moderate to very severe COPD, suggesting a role for YKL-40 as a potential biomarker of mortality in this patient group.