The Expression of Porcine Prdx6 Gene Is Up-Regulated by C/EBP? and CREB.
ABSTRACT: Peroxiredoxin6 (Prdx6) is one of the peroxiredoxin (Prdxs) family members that play an important role in maintaining cell homeostasis. Our previous studies demonstrated that Prdx6 was significantly associated with pig meat quality, especially meat tenderness. However, the transcriptional regulation of porcine Prdx6 remains unclear. In this study, we determined the transcription start site (TSS) of porcine Prdx6 gene by 5' rapid-amplification of cDNA ends (5' RACE). Several regulatory elements including CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein? (C/EBP?), Myogenic Differentiation (MyoD), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), stimulating protein1 (Sp1) and heat shock factor (HSF) binding sites were found by computational analyses together with luciferase reporter system. Overexpression and RNA interference experiments showed that C/EBP? or CREB could up-regulate the expression of porcine Prdx6 gene at both mRNA and protein level. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays (ChIP) confirmed that C/EBP? and CREB could interact with Prdx6 promoter. Immuoprecipitation results also showed that C/EBP? could interact with Prdx6 in vivo. Taken together, our findings identified C/EBP? and CREB as the important regulators of porcine Prdx6 gene expression, and offered clues for further investigation of Prdx6 gene function.
Project description:Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional enzyme with peroxidase activity and Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activity. Here, we report that H2O2-induced cellular toxicity acts through Prdx6 hyperoxidation. Under high concentrations of H2O2 (> 100 microm), Prdx6, and 2-Cys Prdxs were hyperoxidized. Contrary to hyperoxidation of 2-Cys Prdxs, hyperoxidation of Prdx6 was irreversible in vivo. Surprisingly, H2O2-induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition correlated with hyperoxidation and increased iPLA2 activity of Prdx6. This arrest was also associated with up-regulation of p53 and p21 and with down-regulation of cyclin B1. Furthermore, the H2O2-mediated increase in iPLA2 activity was dramatically abolished in a hyperoxidation mutant (C47A), an iPLA2 mutant (S32A), and a double mutant (C47A/S32A) of Prdx6, demonstrating the essential requirement of Prdx6 C47 hyperoxidation for its iPLA2 activity. Together, our results demonstrate that H2O2-mediated hyperoxidation of Prdx6 induces cell cycle arrest at the G2/M transition through up-regulation of iPLA2 activity.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease with an unknown etiology and has no effective medications despite extensive research. Antioxidants suppress oxidative damages which are implicated in the pathogenesis of MS. In this study, we showed that the expression of an antioxidant protein peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is markedly increased in spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) compared to other PRDXs. PRDX6 transgenic (Tg) mice displayed a significant decrease in clinical severity and attenuated demyelination in EAE compared to wide type mice. The increased PRDX6 expression in astrocytes of EAE mice and MS patients reduced MMP9 expression, fibrinogen leakage, chemokines, and free radical stress, leading to reduction in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption, peripheral immune cell infiltration, and neuroinflammation. Together, these findings suggest that PRDX6 expression may represent a therapeutic way to restrict inflammation in the central nervous system and potentiate oligodendrocyte survival, and suggest a new molecule for neuroprotective therapies in MS.
Project description:Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are antioxidant enzymes that protect cells from oxidative stress and play a role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling. We reported that PRDXs are critical for human fertility by maintaining sperm viability and regulating ROS levels during capacitation. Moreover, studies on Prdx6-/- mice revealed the essential role of PRDX6 in the viability, motility, and fertility competence of spermatozoa. Although PRDXs are abundant in the testis and spermatozoa, their potential role at different phases of spermatogenesis and in perinatal germ cells is unknown. Here, we examined the expression and role of PRDXs in isolated rat neonatal gonocytes, the precursors of spermatogonia, including spermatogonial stem cells. Gene array, qPCR analyses showed that PRDX1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 transcripts are among the most abundant antioxidant genes in postnatal day (PND) 3 gonocytes, while immunofluorescence confirmed the expression of PRDX1, 2, and 6 proteins. The role of PRDXs in gonocyte viability was examined using PRDX inhibitors, revealing that the 2-Cys PRDXs and PRDX6 peroxidases activities are critical for gonocytes viability in basal condition, likely preventing an excessive accumulation of endogenous ROS in the cells. In contrast to its crucial role in spermatozoa, PRDX6 independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) activity was not critical in gonocytes in basal conditions. However, under conditions of H2O2-induced oxidative stress, all these enzymatic activities were critical to maintain gonocyte viability. The inhibition of PRDXs promoted a two-fold increase in lipid peroxidation and prevented gonocyte differentiation. These results suggest that ROS are produced in neonatal gonocytes, where they are maintained by PRDXs at levels that are non-toxic and permissive for cell differentiation. These findings show that PRDXs play a major role in the antioxidant machinery of gonocytes, to maintain cell viability and allow for differentiation.
Project description:STUDY QUESTION:Are all components of the peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) system important to control the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain viability and DNA integrity in spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER:PRDX6 is the primary player of the PRDXs system for maintaining viability and DNA integrity in human spermatozoa. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY:Mammalian spermatozoa are sensitive to high levels of ROS and PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes proven to control the levels of ROS generated during sperm capacitation to avoid oxidative damage in the spermatozoon. Low amounts of PRDXs are associated with male infertility. The absence of PRDX6 promotes sperm oxidative damage and infertility in mice. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION:Semen samples were obtained over a period of one year from a cohort of 20 healthy non-smoking volunteers aged 22-30 years old. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS:Sperm from healthy donors was incubated for 2 h in the absence or presence of inhibitors for the 2-Cys PRDXs system (peroxidase, reactivation system and NADPH-enzymes suppliers) or the 1-Cys PRDX system (peroxidase and calcium independent-phospholipase A2 (Ca2+-iPLA2) activity). Sperm viability, DNA oxidation, ROS levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and 4-hydroxynonenal production were determined by flow cytometry. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE:We observed a significant decrease in viable cells due to inhibitors of the 2-Cys PRDXs, PRDX6 Ca2+-iPLA2 activity or the PRDX reactivation system compared to controls (P ? 0.05). PRDX6 Ca2+-iPLA2 activity inhibition had the strongest detrimental effect on sperm viability and DNA oxidation compared to controls (P ? 0.05). The 2-Cys PRDXs did not compensate for the inhibition of PRDX6 peroxidase and Ca2+-iPLA2 activities. LARGE SCALE DATA:Not applicable. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION:Players of the reactivation systems may differ among mammalian species. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS:The Ca2+-iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 is the most important and first line of defense against oxidative stress in human spermatozoa. Peroxynitrite is scavenged mainly by the PRDX6 peroxidase activity. These findings can help to design new diagnostic tools and therapies for male infertility. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S):This research was supported by The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (MOP 133661 to C.O.), and by RI MUHC-Desjardins Studentship in Child Health Research awarded to M.C.F. The authors have nothing to disclose.
Project description:The peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) define a superfamily of thiol-dependent peroxidases able to reduce hydrogen peroxide, alkyl hydroperoxides, and peroxynitrite. Besides their cytoprotective antioxidant function, PRDXs have been implicated in redox signaling and chaperone activity, the latter depending on the formation of decameric high-molecular-weight structures. PRDXs have been mechanistically divided into three major subfamilies, namely typical 2-Cys, atypical 2-Cys, and 1-Cys PRDXs, based on the number and position of cysteines involved in the catalysis. We report the structure of the C45S mutant of annelid worm Arenicola marina PRDX6 in three different crystal forms determined at 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 A resolution. Although A. marina PRDX6 was cloned during the search of annelid homologs of mammalian 1-Cys PRDX6s, the crystal structures support its assignment to the mechanistically typical 2-Cys PRDX subfamily. The protein is composed of two distinct domains: a C-terminal domain and an N-terminal domain exhibiting a thioredoxin fold. The subunits are associated in dimers compatible with the formation of intersubunit disulfide bonds between the peroxidatic and the resolving cysteine residues in the wild-type enzyme. The packing of two crystal forms is very similar, with pairs of dimers associated as tetramers. The toroid-shaped decamers formed by dimer association and observed in most typical 2-Cys PRDXs is not present. Thus, A. marina PRDX6 presents structural features of typical 2-Cys PRDXs without any formation of toroid-shaped decamers, suggesting that it should function more like a cytoprotective antioxidant enzyme or a modulator of peroxide-dependent cell signaling rather than a molecular chaperone.
Project description:Introduction:Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein with glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between the intracellular survival ability of Brucella and Prdx6. Here, the Prdx6 enzyme with a single activity was constructed to facilitate study of the relationship between the single function of Prdx6 and Brucella infection. Material and Methods:The target open reading frame (ORF) DNAs of Prdx6 with a single active centre were prepared using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), and the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids inserted by Prdx6 with the single activity centre were constructed and transfected into murine Raw264.7 macrophages. The glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity of the constructed Prdx6 were examined. Results:The core centres (Ser32 and Cys47) of Prdx6 were successfully mutated by changing the 94th nucleotide from T to G and the 140th nucleotide from G to C in the two enzyme activity cores, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids of Prdx6 with the single active centre were transfected into murine macrophages showing the expected single functional enzyme activity, which MJ33 or mercaptosuccinate inhibitors were able to inhibit. Conclusion:The constructed mutants of Prdx6 with the single activity cores will be a benefit to further study of the biological function of Prdx6 with different enzyme activity.
Project description:Impaired neurogenesis has been associated with several brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). The role of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) in neurodegenerative diseases is very controversial. To demonstrate the role of PRDX6 in neurogenesis, we compared the neurogenesis ability of PRDX6-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice and wild-type mice and studied the involved molecular mechanisms. We showed that the neurogenesis of neural stem cells (NSCs) and the expression of the marker protein were lower in PRDX6 Tg-mice than in wild-type mice. To determine the factors involved in PRDX6-related neural stem cell impairment, we performed a microarray experiment. We showed that the expression of WDFY1 was dramatically decreased in PRDX6-Tg mice. Moreover, WDFY1 siRNA decreases the differentiation ability of primary neural stem cells. Interestingly, WDFY1 reportedly recruits the signaling adaptor TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) to toll-like receptors (TLRs); thus, we showed the relationship among TLRs, PRDX6, and WDFY1. We showed that TLR4 was dramatically reduced in PRDX6 Tg mice, and reduced TLR4 expression and neurogenesis was reversed by the introduction of WDFY1 plasmid in the neural stem cells from PRDX6 Tg mice. This study indicated that PRDX6 inhibits the neurogenesis of neural precursor cells through TLR4-dependent downregulation of WDFY1 and suggested that the inhibitory effect of PRDX6 on neurogenesis play a role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases in the PRDX6 overexpressing transgenic mice.
Project description:Ferroptosis is a newly characterized iron-dependent form of nonapoptotic regulated cell death triggered by lipid reactive oxygen species (LOOH). The dysregulation of ferroptosis is highly related to cancer, and the induction of ferroptosis is also proposed as a potential strategy for cancer therapy. Although several key regulators have been identified that are involved in ferroptosis, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains largely unknown. Here, we report that Peroxiredoxin-6 (PRDX6) is a bona fide negative regulator of ferroptotic cell death. The knockdown of intracellular PRDX6 significantly enhances LOOH and ferroptotic cell death triggered by ferroptosis inducers (Erastin and RSL-3), which is correlated with the transcriptional activation of heme oxygenase-1. Moreover, overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 enhances both Erastin- and RSL-3-triggered LOOH, suggesting that heme oxygenase-1 mediates PRDX6 silencing-enhanced ferroptosis. More importantly, the application of a specific PRDX6 phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) inhibitor, MJ-33, synergistically enhances the ferroptosis induced by Erastin, suggesting that PRDX6 removes LOOH through its iPLA2 activity. Thus, our findings reveal an essential role of PRDX6 in protecting cells against ferroptosis and provide a potential target to improve the antitumor activity of ferroptosis-based chemotherapy.
Project description:The inner layer of the cornea, the corneal endothelium, is post-mitotic and unable to regenerate if damaged. The corneal endothelium is one of the most transplanted tissues in the body. Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the leading indication for corneal endothelial transplantation. FECD is thought to be an age-dependent disorder, with a major component related to oxidative stress. Prdx6 is an antioxidant with particular affinity for repairing peroxidised cell membranes. To address the role of Prdx6 in corneal endothelial cells, we used a combination of biochemical and functional studies. Our data reveal that Prdx6 is expressed at unusually high levels at the plasma membrane of corneal endothelial cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Prdx6 revealed a role for Prdx6 in lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, following induction of oxidative stress with menadione, Prdx6-deficient cells had defective mitochondrial membrane potential and were more sensitive to cell death. These data reveal that Prdx6 is compartmentalised in corneal endothelial cells and has multiple functions to preserve cellular integrity.
Project description:Peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) are members of a highly conserved peroxidase family and maintain intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis. The family members are expressed in most organisms and involved in various biological processes, such as cellular protection against ROS, inflammation, carcinogenesis, atherosclerosis, heart diseases, and metabolism. In mammals, six PRDX members have been identified and are subdivided into three subfamilies: typical 2-Cys (PRDX1, PRDX2, PRDX3, and PRDX4), atypical 2-Cys (PRDX5), and 1-Cys (PRDX6) subfamilies. Knockout mouse models of PRDXs have been developed to investigate their in vivo roles. This review presents an overview of the knockout mouse models of PRDXs with emphases on the biological and physiological changes of these model mice.