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The Interaction between Influenza HA Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain Affects Membrane Structure.


ABSTRACT: Viral glycoproteins, such as influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and human immunodeficiency virus gp41, are anchored by a single helical segment transmembrane domain (TMD) on the viral envelope membrane. The fusion peptides (FP) of the glycoproteins insert into the host membrane and initiate membrane fusion. Our previous study showed that the FP or TMD alone perturbs membrane structure. Interaction between the influenza HA FP and TMD has previously been shown, but its role is unclear. We used PC spin labels dipalmitoylphospatidyl-tempo-choline (on the headgroup), 5PC and 14PC (5-C and 14-C positions on the acyl chain) to detect the combined effect of FP-TMD interaction by titrating HA FP to TMD-reconstituted 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol)/cholesterol lipid bilayers using electron spin resonance. We found that the FP-TMD increases the lipid order at all positions, which has a greater lipid ordering effect than the sum of the FP or TMD alone, and this effect reaches deeper into the membranes. Although HA-mediated membrane fusion is pH dependent, this combined effect is observed at both pH 5 and pH 7. In addition to increasing lipid order, multiple components are found for 5PC at increased concentration of FP-TMD, indicating that distinct domains are induced. However, the mutation of Gly1 in the FP and L187 in the TMD eliminates the perturbations, consistent with their fusogenic phenotypes. Electron spin resonance on spin-labeled peptides confirms these observations. We suggest that this interaction may provide a driving force in different stages of membrane fusion: initialization, transition from hemifusion stalk to transmembrane contact, and fusion pore formation.

SUBMITTER: Lai AL 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC4699882 | BioStudies | 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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