Distribution of Root-Associated Bacterial Communities Along a Salt-Marsh Primary Succession.
ABSTRACT: Proper quantification of the relative influence of soil and plant host on the root-associated microbiome can only be achieved by studying its distribution along an environmental gradient. Here, we used an undisturbed salt marsh chronosequence to study the bacterial communities associated with the soil, rhizosphere and the root endopshere of Limonium vulgare using 454-pyrosequencing. We hypothesize that the selective force exerted by plants rather than soil would regulate the dynamics of the root-associated bacterial assembly along the chronosequence. Our results showed that the soil and rhizosphere bacterial communities were phylogenetically more diverse than those in the endosphere. Moreover, the diversity of the rhizosphere microbiome followed the increased complexity of the abiotic and biotic factors during succession while remaining constant in the other microbiomes. Multivariate analyses showed that the rhizosphere and soil-associated communities clustered by successional stages, whereas the endosphere communities were dispersed. Interestingly, the endosphere microbiome showed higher turnover, while the bulk and rhizosphere soil microbiomes became more similar at the end of the succession. Overall, we showed that soil characteristics exerted an overriding influence on the rhizosphere microbiome, although plant effect led to a clear diversity pattern along the succession. Conversely, the endosphere microbiome was barely affected by any of the environmental measurements and very distinct from other communities.
Project description:Plant-associated microbiomes are key determinants of host-plant fitness, productivity, and function. However, compared to bacterial community, we still lack fundamental knowledge concerning the variation in the fungal microbiome at the plant niche level. In this study, we quantified the fungal communities in the rhizosphere soil, as well as leaf and root endosphere compartments of a subtropical island shrub, Mussaenda kwangtungensis, using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We found that fungal microbiomes varied significantly across different plant compartments. Rhizosphere soil exhibited the highest level of fungal diversity, whereas the lowest level was found in the leaf endosphere. Further, the fungal communities inhabiting the root endosphere shared a greater proportion of fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with rhizosphere communities than with leaf fungal endophyte communities, despite significant separation in community structure between the two belowground compartments. The fungal co-occurrence networks in the three compartments of M. kwangtungensis showed scale-free features and non-random co-occurrence patterns and matched the topological properties of small-world and evidently modular structure. Additionally, the rhizosphere network was more complex and showed higher centrality and connectedness than the leaf and root endosphere networks. Overall, our findings provide comprehensive insights into the structural variability, niche differentiation, and co-occurrence patterns in the plant associated fungal microbiome.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The plant compartments of Vitis vinifera, including the rhizosphere, rhizoplane, root endosphere, phyllosphere and carposphere, provide unique niches that drive specific bacterial microbiome associations. The majority of phyllosphere endophytes originate from the soil and migrate up to the aerial compartments through the root endosphere. Thus, the soil and root endosphere partially define the aerial endosphere in the leaves and berries, contributing to the terroir of the fruit. However, V. vinifera cultivars are invariably grafted onto the rootstocks of other Vitis species and hybrids. It has been hypothesized that the plant species determines the microbiome of the root endosphere and, as a consequence, the aerial endosphere. In this work, we test the first part of this hypothesis. We investigate whether different rootstocks influence the bacteria selected from the surrounding soil, affecting the bacterial diversity and potential functionality of the rhizosphere and root endosphere. METHODS:Bacterial microbiomes from both the root tissues and the rhizosphere of Barbera cultivars, both ungrafted and grafted on four different rootstocks, cultivated in the same soil from the same vineyard, were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. To assess the influence of the root genotype on the bacterial communities' recruitment in the root system, (i) the phylogenetic diversity coupled with the predicted functional profiles and (ii) the co-occurrence bacterial networks were determined. Cultivation-dependent approaches were used to reveal the plant-growth promoting (PGP) potential associated with the grafted and ungrafted root systems. RESULTS:Richness, diversity and bacterial community networking in the root compartments were significantly influenced by the rootstocks. Complementary to a shared bacterial microbiome, different subsets of soil bacteria, including those endowed with PGP traits, were selected by the root system compartments of different rootstocks. The interaction between the root compartments and the rootstock exerted a unique selective pressure that enhanced niche differentiation, but rootstock-specific bacterial communities were still recruited with conserved PGP traits. CONCLUSION:While the rootstock significantly influences the taxonomy, structure and network properties of the bacterial community in grapevine roots, a homeostatic effect on the distribution of the predicted and potential functional PGP traits was found.
Project description:Recent microbiome research has shown that soil fertility, plant-associated microbiome, and crop production can be affected by abiotic environmental parameters. The effect of aridity gradient on rhizosphere-soil (rhizosphere) and endosphere-root (endosphere) prokaryotic structure and diversity associated with cacti remain poorly investigated and understood. In the current study, next-generation sequencing approaches were used to characterize the diversity and composition of bacteria and archaea associated with the rhizosphere and endosphere of Opuntia ficus-indica spineless cacti in four bioclimatic zones (humid, semi-arid, upper-arid, and lower-arid) in Tunisia. Our findings showed that bacterial and archaeal cactus microbiomes changed in inside and outside roots and along the aridity gradient. Plant compartment and aridity gradient were the influencing factors on the differentiation of microbial communities in rhizosphere and endosphere samples. The co-occurrence correlations between increased and decreased OTUs in rhizosphere and endosphere samples and soil parameters were determined according to the aridity gradient. Blastococcus, Geodermatophilus, Pseudonocardia, Promicromonospora, and Sphingomonas were identified as prevailing hubs and were considered as specific biomarkers taxa, which could play a crucial role on the aridity stress. Overall, our findings highlighted the prominence of the climatic aridity gradient on the equilibrium and diversity of microbial community composition in the rhizosphere and endosphere of cactus.
Project description:Across plants and animals, host-associated microbial communities play fundamental roles in host nutrition, development, and immunity. The factors that shape host-microbiome interactions are poorly understood, yet essential for understanding the evolution and ecology of these symbioses. Plant roots assemble two distinct microbial compartments from surrounding soil: the rhizosphere (microbes surrounding roots) and the endosphere (microbes within roots). Root-associated microbes were key for the evolution of land plants and underlie fundamental ecosystem processes. However, it is largely unknown how plant evolution has shaped root microbial communities, and in turn, how these microbes affect plant ecology, such as the ability to mitigate biotic and abiotic stressors. Here we show that variation among 30 angiosperm species, which have diverged for up to 140 million years, affects root bacterial diversity and composition. Greater similarity in root microbiomes between hosts leads to negative effects on plant performance through soil feedback, with specific microbial taxa in the endosphere and rhizosphere potentially affecting competitive interactions among plant species. Drought also shifts the composition of root microbiomes, most notably by increasing the relative abundance of the Actinobacteria. However, this drought response varies across host plant species, and host-specific changes in the relative abundance of endosphere Streptomyces are associated with host drought tolerance. Our results emphasize the causes of variation in root microbiomes and their ecological importance for plant performance in response to biotic and abiotic stressors.
Project description:Background Understanding the genetic and environmental factors that structure plant microbiomes is necessary for leveraging these interactions to address critical needs in agriculture, conservation, and sustainability. Legumes, which form root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, have served as model plants for understanding the genetics and evolution of beneficial plant-microbe interactions for decades, and thus have added value as models of plant-microbiome interactions. Here we use a common garden experiment with 16S rRNA gene amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to study the drivers of microbiome diversity and composition in three genotypes of the model legume Medicago truncatula grown in two native soil communities. Results Bacterial diversity decreased between external (rhizosphere) and internal plant compartments (root endosphere, nodule endosphere, and leaf endosphere). Community composition was shaped by strong compartment × soil origin and compartment × plant genotype interactions, driven by significant soil origin effects in the rhizosphere and significant plant genotype effects in the root endosphere. Nevertheless, all compartments were dominated by Ensifer, the genus of rhizobia that forms root nodule symbiosis with M. truncatula, and additional shotgun metagenomic sequencing suggests that the nodulating Ensifer were not genetically distinguishable from those elsewhere in the plant. We also identify a handful of OTUs that are common in nodule tissues, which are likely colonized from the root endosphere. Conclusions Our results demonstrate strong host filtering effects, with rhizospheres driven by soil origin and internal plant compartments driven by host genetics, and identify several key nodule-inhabiting taxa that coexist with rhizobia in the native range. Our results set the stage for future functional genetic experiments aimed at expanding our pairwise understanding of legume-rhizobium symbiosis toward a more mechanistic understanding of plant microbiomes. Video Abstract
Project description:Plant-associated bacteria are known for their high functional trait diversity, from which many are likely to play a role in primary and secondary succession, facilitating plant establishment in suboptimal soils conditions. Here we used an undisturbed salt marsh chronosequence that represents over 100 years of soil development to assess how the functional traits of plant associated bacteria respond to soil type, plant species and plant compartment. We isolated and characterized 808 bacterial colonies from the rhizosphere soil and root endosphere of two salt marsh plants, Limonium vulgare and Artemisia maritima, along the chronosequence. From these, a set of 59 strains (with unique BOX-PCR patterns, 16S rRNA sequence and unique to one of the treatments) were further screened for their plant growth promoting traits (siderophore production, IAA production, exoprotease production and biofilm formation), traits associated with bacterial fitness (antibiotic and abiotic stress resistance - pH, osmotic and oxidative stress, and salinity) and metabolic potential. An overall view of functional diversity (multivariate analysis) indicated that the distributional pattern of bacterial functional traits was driven by soil type. Samples from the late succession (Stage 105 year) showed the most restricted distribution, harboring strains with relatively low functionalities, whereas the isolates from intermediate stage (35 year) showed a broad functional profiles. However, strains with high trait performance were largely from stage 65 year. Grouping the traits according to category revealed that the functionality of plant endophytes did not vary along the succession, thus being driven by plant rather than soil type. In opposition, the functionality of rhizosphere isolates responded strongly to variations in soil type as observed for antibiotic resistance (P = 0.014). Specifically, certain Pseudomonas sp. and Serratia sp. strains revealed high resistance against abiotic stress and antibiotics and produce more siderophores, confirming the high plant-growth promoting activity of these two genera. Overall, this study contributes to a better understanding of the functional diversity and adaptation of the microbiome at typical salt marsh plant species across soil types. Specifically, soil type was influential only in the rhizosphere but not on the endosphere, indicating a strong plant-driven effect on the functionality of endophytes.
Project description:Microbes that produce phosphatases play an important role in the cycling of phosphorus (P), a key nutrient in soil development. We studied the development, compositional turnover, and environmental drivers of microbial communities carrying the phosphatase-encoding phoD gene (here called phoD communities) in the course of primary succession in the Hailuogou glacier chronosequence. We selected the pioneer species Populus purdomii Rehder as a model plant to study the communities in rhizosphere and bulk soils along the chronosequence. The bulk and rhizosphere soils hosted distinct phoD communities. Changes in the taxa Pseudomonas and Pleomorphomonas in the rhizosphere and Bradyrhizobium, Cupriavidus, and Pleomorphomonas in the bulk soil were associated with soil development. The plant development and soil property changes along the chronosequence were accompanied with changes in the phoD communities. Soil pH, soil organic carbon, and total nitrogen contents that are directly related to the plant development and litter input differences along the chronosequence were the main factors related to changes in community compositions. The community similarity decreased along the chronosequence, and the distance decay rate was higher in the bulk soil than in the rhizosphere. In summary, both in the rhizosphere and in bulk soils the phoD community succession was shaped by plant and soil development-related factors along the primary succession in the Hailuogou glacier chronosequence.IMPORTANCE Phosphorus was the key limiting nutrient for soil development during primary succession that occurred in alpine and high-latitude ecosystems with cold and humid climates. The interactions of functional microbiota involved in phosphorus cycling in the rhizosphere under different soil developmental stages along primary succession are still rarely examined. We selected the pioneer species Populus purdomii as a model plant to study the phoD-harboring bacterial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soils along a mountain glacier chronosequence. Our results showed that the bulk soils and rhizosphere host distinct phoD communities and diversity that differentially varied along the chronosequence, describing in detail the development and compositional turnover of the phoD community in the course of primary succession and determining the main environmental factors driving the development.
Project description:Culture-independent molecular surveys of plant root microbiomes indicate that soil type generally has a stronger influence on microbial communities than host phylogeny. However, these studies have mostly focussed on model plants and crops. Here, we examine the root microbiomes of multiple plant phyla including lycopods, ferns, gymnosperms, and angiosperms across a soil chronosequence using 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling. We confirm that soil type is the primary determinant of root-associated bacterial community composition, but also observe a significant correlation with plant phylogeny. A total of 47 bacterial genera are associated with roots relative to bulk soil microbial communities, including well-recognized plant-associated genera such as Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, and Burkholderia, and major uncharacterized lineages such as WPS-2, Ellin329, and FW68. We suggest that these taxa collectively constitute an evolutionarily conserved core root microbiome at this site. This lends support to the inference that a core root microbiome has evolved with terrestrial plants over their 400 million year history.Yeoh et al. study root microbiomes of different plant phyla across a tropical soil chronosequence. They confirm that soil type is the primary determinant of root-associated bacterial communities, but also observe a clear correlation with plant phylogeny and define a core root microbiome at this site.
Project description:Bacterial and fungal communities associated with plant roots are central to the host health, survival and growth. However, a robust understanding of the root-microbiome and the factors that drive host associated microbial community structure have remained elusive, especially in mature perennial plants from natural settings. Here, we investigated relationships of bacterial and fungal communities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of the riparian tree species Populus deltoides, and the influence of soil parameters, environmental properties (host phenotype and aboveground environmental settings), host plant genotype (Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers), season (Spring vs. Fall) and geographic setting (at scales from regional watersheds to local riparian zones) on microbial community structure. Each of the trees sampled displayed unique aspects to its associated community structure with high numbers of Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) specific to an individual trees (bacteria >90%, fungi >60%). Over the diverse conditions surveyed only a small number of OTUs were common to all samples within rhizosphere (35 bacterial and 4 fungal) and endosphere (1 bacterial and 1 fungal) microbiomes. As expected, Proteobacteria and Ascomycota were dominant in root communities (>50%) while other higher-level phylogenetic groups (Chytridiomycota, Acidobacteria) displayed greatly reduced abundance in endosphere compared to the rhizosphere. Variance partitioning partially explained differences in microbiome composition between all sampled roots on the basis of seasonal and soil properties (4% to 23%). While most variation remains unattributed, we observed significant differences in the microbiota between watersheds (Tennessee vs. North Carolina) and seasons (Spring vs. Fall). SSR markers clearly delineated two host populations associated with the samples taken in TN vs. NC, but overall host genotypic distances did not have a significant effect on corresponding communities that could be separated from other measured effects.
Project description:Root-associated microbial communities are very important in the adaptation of halophytes to coastal environments. However, little has been reported on microbial community structures related to halophytes, or on comparisons of their compositions among halophytic plant species. Here, we studied the diversity and community structure of both rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria in two halophytic plants: Glaux maritima and Salicornia europaea. We sampled the rhizosphere, the root endosphere, and bulk control soil samples, and performed bacterial 16S rRNA sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq platform to characterize the bacterial community diversities in the rhizosphere and root endosphere of both halophytes. Among the G. maritima samples, the richness and diversity of bacteria in the rhizosphere were higher than those in the root endosphere but were lower than those of the bulk soil. In contrast for S. europaea, the bulk soil, the rhizosphere, and the root endosphere all had similar bacterial richness and diversity. The number of unique operational taxonomic units within the root endosphere, the rhizosphere, and the bulk soil were 181, 366, and 924 in G. maritima and 126, 416, and 596 in S. europaea, respectively, implying habitat-specific patterns for each halophyte. In total, 35 phyla and 566 genera were identified. The dominant phyla across all samples were Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Actinobacteria was extremely abundant in the root endosphere from G. maritima. Beneficial bacterial genera were enriched in the root endosphere and rhizosphere in both halophytes. Rhizobium, Actinoplanes, and Marinomonas were highly abundant in G. maritima, whereas Sulfurimonas and Coleofasciculus were highly abundant in S. europaea. A principal coordinate analysis demonstrated significant differences in the microbiota composition associated with the plant species and type of sample. These results strongly indicate that there are clear differences in bacterial community structure and diversity between G. maritima and S. europaea. This is the first report to characterize the root microbiome of G. maritima, and to compare the diversity and community structure of rhizosphere and root endosphere bacteria between G. maritima and S. europaea.