Vegetation and Climate Change during the Last Deglaciation in the Great Khingan Mountain, Northeastern China.
ABSTRACT: The Great Khingan Mountain range, Northeast China, is located on the northern limit of modern East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) and thus highly sensitive to the extension of the EASM from glacial to interglacial modes. Here, we present a high-resolution pollen record covering the last glacial maximum and the early Holocene from a closed crater Lake Moon to reconstruct vegetation history during the glacial-interglacial transition and thus register the evolution of the EASM during the last deglaciation. The vegetation history has gone through distinct changes from subalpine meadow in the last glacial maximum to dry steppe dominated by Artemisia from 20.3 to 17.4 ka BP, subalpine meadow dominated by Cyperaceae and Artemisia between 17.4 and 14.4 ka BP, and forest steppe dominated by Betula and Artemisia after 14.4 ka BP. The pollen-based temperature index demonstrates a gradual warming trend started at around 20.3 ka BP with interruptions of several brief events. Two cold conditions occurred around at 17.2-16.6 ka BP and 12.8-11.8 ka BP, temporally correlating to the Henrich 1 and the Younger Dryas events respectively, 1and abrupt warming events occurred around at 14.4 ka BP and 11.8 ka BP, probably relevant to the beginning of the Bølling-Allerød stages and the Holocene. The pollen-based moisture proxy shows distinct drought condition during the last glacial maximum (20.3-18.0 ka BP) and the Younger Dryas. The climate history based on pollen record of Lake Moon suggests that the regional temperature variability was coherent with the classical climate in the North Atlantic, implying the dominance of the high latitude processes on the EASM evolution from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to early Holocene. The local humidity variability was influenced by the EASM limitedly before the Bølling-Allerød warming, which is mainly controlled by the summer rainfall due to the EASM front covering the Northeast China after that.
Project description:The hydrological characteristics, including temperatures and salinities, of the upper water over the last 30?ka from two sites connected by the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) across the Makassar Strait are reconstructed and compared. The thermocline hydrological gradient in the strait was larger during 13.4~19?ka BP and 24.2~27?ka BP than that in the Holocene. The weakened ITF during those periods in the last glacial period, corresponding to the decreased trade wind stress under an El Niño-like climate mean state, likely accounts for the increased thermocline gradient. The thermocline water temperature variabilities of the two sites, in particular the highest peaks at ~7?ka BP, are different from the records of the open western Pacific. Reoccurrence of the South China Sea Throughflow and thus a decreased surface throughflow along the Makassar Strait perhaps led to a warmer peak of thermocline temperature at ~7?ka BP than at ~11?ka BP.
Project description:Accurate estimates of the past extent of the Greenland ice sheet provide critical constraints for ice sheet models used to determine Greenland's response to climate forcing and contribution to global sea level. Here we use a continuous ice core dust record from the Renland ice cap on the east coast of Greenland to constrain the timing of changes to the ice sheet margin and relative sea level over the last glacial cycle. During the Holocene and the previous interglacial period (Eemian) the dust record was dominated by coarse particles consistent with rock samples from central East Greenland. From the coarse particle concentration record we infer the East Greenland ice sheet margin advanced from 113.4 ± 0.4 to 111.0 ± 0.4 ka BP during the glacial onset and retreated from 12.1 ± 0.1 to 9.0 ± 0.1 ka BP during the last deglaciation. These findings constrain the possible response of the Greenland ice sheet to climate forcings.
Project description:The lack of a precisely-dated, unequivocal climate proxy from northern China, where precipitation variability is traditionally considered as an East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) indicator, impedes our understanding of the behaviour and dynamics of the EASM. Here we present a well-dated, pollen-based, ~20-yr-resolution quantitative precipitation reconstruction (derived using a transfer function) from an alpine lake in North China, which provides for the first time a direct record of EASM evolution since 14.7 ka (ka = thousands of years before present, where the "present" is defined as the year AD 1950). Our record reveals a gradually intensifying monsoon from 14.7-7.0 ka, a maximum monsoon (30% higher precipitation than present) from ~7.8-5.3 ka, and a rapid decline since ~3.3 ka. These insolation-driven EASM trends were punctuated by two millennial-scale weakening events which occurred synchronously to the cold Younger Dryas and at ~9.5-8.5 ka, and by two centennial-scale intervals of enhanced (weakened) monsoon during the Medieval Warm Period (Little Ice Age). Our precipitation reconstruction, consistent with temperature changes but quite different from the prevailing view of EASM evolution, points to strong internal feedback processes driving the EASM, and may aid our understanding of future monsoon behaviour under ongoing anthropogenic climate change.
Project description:We combined novel radiocarbon dates of bat fossils with time-scaled ecological niche models (ENM) to study bat extinctions in the Caribbean. Radiocarbon-dated fossils show that late Quaternary losses of bat populations took place during the late Holocene (<4?ka) rather than late Pleistocene (>10?ka). All bat radiocarbon dates from Abaco (Bahamas) that represent extirpated populations are younger than 4?ka. We include data on six bat species, three of which are Caribbean endemics, and include nectarivores as well as insectivores. Climate-based ENMs from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present reflect overall stability in distributions, with suitable climatic habitat being present over time. In the absence of radiocarbon dates, bat extinctions had been presumed to take place during the last glacial-interglacial transition (ca. 10?ka). Now we see that extirpation of bats on these tropical islands is more complex than previously thought and primarily postdates the major climate changes that took place during the late Pleistocene-Holocene transition.
Project description:We compiled modern and fossil relative abundance of coccolithophore species Florisphaera profunda from published and unpublished datasets, along with ocean environmental variable data from satellite remote sensing and physical measurements. The database includes relative abundances of F. profunda in sediment trap (n?=?26) and core-top (n?=?1258), and sediment core samples (n?=?104). Downcore data covers the Last Glacial Maximum (n?=?94, 24-19?ka) or the Mid-to-Late Holocene (n?=?77, <6?ka). This database allows studying modern and past biogeography of F. profunda as a response to changing ocean and climate conditions, "Quantitative reconstruction of primary productivity in low latitudes during the last glacial maximum and the mid-to-late Holocene from a global Florisphaera. profunda calibration dataset" (Hernández-Almeida et al., 2018).
Project description:Holocene abrupt cooling events have long attracted attention in academia due to public concern that similar rapid changes may reappear in the near future. Thus, considerable progress has been made toward understanding these short-term cooling events in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in Europe and North America. However, few relevant studies have been conducted in coastal East Asia due to a lack of undisturbed sample materials appropriate for paleoclimate studies. In this study, we examined Holocene abrupt drying events and the Holocene climate optimum (HCO) based on a new high-resolution multi-proxy record (pollen, mean grain size, total organic carbon, carbon/nitrogen ratio) from the south coast of Korea. Possible cultural impacts of the events were also explored using summed probability distributions (SPDs) of archaeological radiocarbon dates. Our arboreal pollen percentage (AP) data clearly indicated drying events centered at 9.8 ka, 9.2 ka, 8.2 ka, 4.7 ka, 4.2 ka, 3.7 ka, 3.2 ka, 2.8 ka, and 2.4 ka BP. The AP data also indicated that forests were severely damaged by a two-step successive drying event during the period from 8.4 ka to 8 ka BP and that the HCO lasted from ca. 7.6 ka to ca. 4.8 ka BP. According to the results of a correlation analysis, climate variations on the Korean peninsula were possibly controlled by shifts in western tropical Pacific (WTP) sea surface temperatures during the past ~5500 years. Simultaneous declines in the SPDs and AP from 2.8 ka to 2.3 ka BP may reflect a demographic reduction attributable to rapid climate deterioration on the peninsula. Refugee agriculturalists might have immigrated to Japan and developed the Yayoi culture. In this study, the 2.8 ka event and its societal impact are recognized clearly for the first time in coastal East Asia.
Project description:An understanding of the mechanisms that control CO2 change during glacial-interglacial cycles remains elusive. Here we help to constrain changing sources with a high-precision, high-resolution deglacial record of the stable isotopic composition of carbon in CO2(?(13)C-CO2) in air extracted from ice samples from Taylor Glacier, Antarctica. During the initial rise in atmospheric CO2 from 17.6 to 15.5 ka, these data demarcate a decrease in ?(13)C-CO2, likely due to a weakened oceanic biological pump. From 15.5 to 11.5 ka, the continued atmospheric CO2 rise of 40 ppm is associated with small changes in ?(13)C-CO2, consistent with a nearly equal contribution from a further weakening of the biological pump and rising ocean temperature. These two trends, related to marine sources, are punctuated at 16.3 and 12.9 ka with abrupt, century-scale perturbations in ?(13)C-CO2 that suggest rapid oxidation of organic land carbon or enhanced air-sea gas exchange in the Southern Ocean. Additional century-scale increases in atmospheric CO2 coincident with increases in atmospheric CH4 and Northern Hemisphere temperature at the onset of the Bølling (14.6-14.3 ka) and Holocene (11.6-11.4 ka) intervals are associated with small changes in ?(13)C-CO2, suggesting a combination of sources that included rising surface ocean temperature.
Project description:Eastern Beringia is one of the few Western Arctic regions where full Holocene climate reconstructions are possible. However, most full Holocene reconstructions in Eastern Beringia are based either on pollen or midges, which show conflicting early Holocene summer temperature histories. This discrepancy precludes understanding the factors that drove past (and potentially future) climate change and calls for independent proxies to advance the debate. We present a ~13.6 ka summer temperature reconstruction in central Yukon, part of Eastern Beringia, using precipitation isotopes in syngenetic permafrost. The reconstruction shows that early Holocene summers were consistently warmer than the Holocene mean, as supported by midges, and a thermal maximum at ~7.6-6.6 ka BP. This maximum was followed by a ~6 ka cooling, and later abruptly reversed by industrial-era warming leading to a modern climate that is unprecedented in the Holocene context and exceeds the Holocene thermal maximum by +1.7?±?0.7?°C.
Project description:Paleo-environmental reconstructions show that the distribution of tropical African rain forests was affected by Quaternary climate changes. They suggest that the Dahomey Gap (DG)-the savanna corridor that currently separates Upper Guinean (UG, West Africa) and Lower Guinean (LG, western Central Africa) rain forest blocks-was forested during the African Humid Holocene period (from at least 9?ka till 4.5?ka), and possibly during other interglacial periods, while an open vegetation developed in the DG under drier conditions, notably during glacial maxima. Nowadays, relics of semi-deciduous forests containing UG and LG forest species are still present within the DG. We used one of these species, the pioneer tree Terminalia superba (Combretaceae), to study past forest fragmentation in the DG and its impact on infraspecific biodiversity. A Bayesian clustering analysis of 299 individuals genotyped at 14 nuclear microsatellites revealed five parapatric genetic clusters (UG, DG, and three in LG) with low to moderate genetic differentiation (Fst from 0.02 to 0.24). Approximate Bayesian Computation analyses inferred a demographic bottleneck around the penultimate glacial period in all populations. They also supported an origin of the DG population by admixture of UG and LG populations around 54,000 (27,600-161,000) years BP, thus before the Last Glacial Maximum. These results contrast with those obtained on Distemonanthus benthamianus where the DG population seems to originate from the Humid Holocene period. We discuss these differences in light of the ecology of each species. Our results challenge the simplistic view linking population fragmentation/expansion with glacial/interglacial periods in African forest species.
Project description:Climate warming is expected to cause a poleward spread of species, resulting in increased richness at mid to high latitudes and weakening the latitudinal diversity gradient. We used pollen data to test if such a change in the latitudinal diversity gradient occurred during the last major poleward shift of plant species in Europe following the end of the last glacial period. In contrast to expectations, the slope of the gradient strengthened during the Holocene. The increase in temperatures around 10?ka ago reduced diversity at mid to high latitude sites due to the gradual closure of forests. Deforestation and the introduction of agriculture during the last 5?ky had a greater impact on richness in central Europe than the earlier climate warming. These results do not support the current view that global warming alone will lead to a loss in biodiversity, and demonstrate that non-climatic human impacts on the latitudinal diversity gradient is of a greater magnitude than climate change.