Mutation of the CH1 Domain in the Histone Acetyltransferase CREBBP Results in Autism-Relevant Behaviors in Mice.
ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental afflictions characterized by repetitive behaviors, deficits in social interaction, and impaired communication skills. For most ASD patients, the underlying causes are unknown. Genetic mutations have been identified in about 25 percent of ASD cases, including mutations in epigenetic regulators, suggesting that dysregulated chromatin or DNA function is a critical component of ASD. Mutations in the histone acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP, CREBBP) cause Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome (RTS), a developmental disorder that includes ASD-like symptoms. Recently, genomic studies involving large numbers of ASD patient families have theoretically modeled CBP and its paralog p300 (EP300) as critical hubs in ASD-associated protein and gene interaction networks, and have identified de novo missense mutations in highly conserved residues of the CBP acetyltransferase and CH1 domains. Here we provide animal model evidence that supports this notion that CBP and its CH1 domain are relevant to autism. We show that mice with a deletion mutation in the CBP CH1 (TAZ1) domain (CBP?CH1/?CH1) have an RTS-like phenotype that includes ASD-relevant repetitive behaviors, hyperactivity, social interaction deficits, motor dysfunction, impaired recognition memory, and abnormal synaptic plasticity. Our results therefore indicate that loss of CBP CH1 domain function contributes to RTS, and possibly ASD, and that this domain plays an essential role in normal motor function, cognition and social behavior. Although the key physiological functions affected by ASD-associated mutation of epigenetic regulators have been enigmatic, our findings are consistent with theoretical models involving CBP and p300 in ASD, and with a causative role for recently described ASD-associated CBP mutations.
Project description:Opposing activities of acetyltransferases and deacetylases help regulate energy balance. Mice heterozygous for the acetyltransferase CREB binding protein (CBP) are lean and insulin sensitized, but how CBP regulates energy homeostasis is unclear. In one model, the main CBP interaction with the glucagon-responsive factor CREB is not limiting for liver gluconeogenesis, whereas a second model posits that Ser436 in the CH1 (TAZ1) domain of CBP is required for insulin and the antidiabetic drug metformin to inhibit CREB-mediated liver gluconeogenesis. Here we show that conditional knockout of CBP in liver does not decrease fasting blood glucose or gluconeogenic gene expression, consistent with the first model. However, mice in which the CBP CH1 domain structure is disrupted by deleting residues 342-393 (?CH1) are lean and insulin sensitized, as are p300?CH1 mutants. CBP(?CH1/?CH1) mice remain metformin responsive. An intact CH1 domain is thus necessary for normal energy storage, but not for the blood glucose-lowering actions of insulin and metformin.
Project description:Recruitment of p300/CBP by the hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF-1, is essential for the transcriptional response to hypoxia and requires an interaction between the p300/CBP CH1 region and HIF-1alpha. A new p300-CH1 interacting protein, p35srj, has been identified and cloned. p35srj is an alternatively spliced isoform of MRG1, a human protein of unknown function. Virtually all endogenous p35srj is bound to p300/CBP in vivo, and it inhibits HIF-1 transactivation by blocking the HIF-1alpha/p300 CH1 interaction. p35srj did not affect transactivation by transcription factors that bind p300/CBP outside the CH1 region. Endogenous p35srj is up-regulated markedly by the HIF-1 activators hypoxia or deferoxamine, suggesting that it could operate in a negative-feedback loop. In keeping with this notion, a p300 CH1 mutant domain, defective in HIF-1 but not p35srj binding, enhanced endogenous HIF-1 function. In hypoxic cells, p35srj may regulate HIF-1 transactivation by controlling access of HIF-1alpha to p300/CBP, and may keep a significant portion of p300/CBP available for interaction with other transcription factors by partially sequestering and functionally compartmentalizing cellular p300/CBP.
Project description:The C-terminal activation domain (C-TAD) of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha binds the CH1 domains of the related transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300, an oxygen-regulated interaction thought to be highly essential for hypoxia-responsive transcription. The role of the CH1 domain in vivo is unknown, however. We created mutant mice bearing deletions in the CH1 domains (DeltaCH1) of CBP and p300 that abrogate their interactions with the C-TAD, revealing that the CH1 domains of CBP and p300 are genetically non-redundant and indispensable for C-TAD transactivation function. Surprisingly, the CH1 domain was only required for an average of approximately 35-50% of global HIF-1-responsive gene expression, whereas another HIF transactivation mechanism that is sensitive to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA(S)) accounts for approximately 70%. Both pathways are required for greater than 90% of the response for some target genes. Our findings suggest that a novel functional interaction between the protein acetylases CBP and p300, and deacetylases, is essential for nearly all HIF-responsive transcription.
Project description:Adaptation to hypoxia is mediated by transactivation of hypoxia-responsive genes by hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in complex with the CBP and p300 transcriptional coactivators. We report the solution structure of the cysteine/histidine-rich 1 (CH1) domain of p300 bound to the C-terminal transactivation domain of HIF-1 alpha. CH1 has a triangular geometry composed of four alpha-helices with three intervening Zn(2+)-coordinating centers. CH1 serves as a scaffold for folding of the HIF-1 alpha C-terminal transactivation domain, which forms a vise-like clamp on the CH1 domain that is stabilized by extensive hydrophobic and polar interactions. The structure reveals the mechanism of specific recognition of p300 by HIF-1 alpha, and shows how HIF-1 alpha transactivation is regulated by asparagine hydroxylation.
Project description:The CH1 protein interaction domain of the transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP is thought to interact with HIF-1alpha and this interaction is thought to be critical to the expression of HIF-1alpha target genes in response to hypoxia. To test the requirement of the CH1 domain for gene expression in response to hypoxia, rimary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were generated from C57Bl/6x129/Sv F2 e14.5 embryos that contain a deletion in the CH1 domain of three of four alleles of CBP and p300. The remaining allele of p300 or CBP was a conditional knock out allele. Control MEFs with only a single conditional knockout allele of p300 or CBP were also generated. At passage 3 MEFs were infected with Cre Adenovirus and grown until they had expanded at least 100 fold. Subconfluent MEFs were treated with 21% oxygen (normoxia) or 0.1% oxygen (hypoxia) with 5% carbon dioxide at 37 C in a humid chamber for 6hrs. At the start of treatment, medium was removed and replaced with medium (DMEM+10% FBS+pen-strep+ l-glu) that had been preequilibrated overnight in normoxia or hypoxia as appropriate. Immediately after treatment, cells were lysed in Trizol for RNA extraction. 12 samples; 4 genotypes [CBP+/flox (flox1), p300 +/flox (flox2), CBP CH1/flox;p300 CH1/CH1 (triCH1flox1),CBP CH1/CH1;p300 CH1/flox (triCH1flox2)] , 2 treatments (normoxia and hypoxia).
Project description:Transcriptional activation of gene expression by Wnt signaling is driven by the association of beta-catenin with TCF/LEF factors and the recruitment of transcriptional coactivators. It has been shown that the LIM protein FHL2 and the acetyltransferase CBP/p300 individually stimulate beta-catenin transactivating activity and that beta-catenin is acetylated by p300. Here, we report that FHL2 and CBP/p300 synergistically enhanced beta-catenin/TCF-mediated transcription from Wnt-responsive promoters and that the acetyltransferase activity of CBP/p300 was involved in the cooperation. CBP/p300 interacted directly with FHL2, predominantly through the CH3 domain but not the histone acetyltransferase domain, and different regions of CBP/p300 were involved in FHL2 and beta-catenin binding. We provided evidence for the formation of a ternary complex by FHL2, CBP/p300, and beta-catenin and for colocalization of the three proteins in the nucleus. In murine FHL2(-/-) embryo fibroblasts, the transactivation activity of beta-catenin/TCF was markedly reduced, and this defect could be restored by exogenous expression of FHL2. However, CBP/p300 were still able to coactivate the beta-catenin/TCF complex in FHL2(-/-) cells, suggesting that FHL2 is dispensable for the coactivator function of CBP/p300 on beta-catenin. Furthermore, we found that FHL2 significantly increased acetylation of beta-catenin by p300 in vivo. Finally, we showed that FHL2, CBP/p300, and beta-catenin could synergistically activate androgen receptor-mediated transcription, indicating that the synergistic coactivator function is not restricted to TCF/LEF.
Project description:Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that activate expression of multiple gene products and promote tumor adaptation to a hypoxic environment. To become transcriptionally active, HIFs associate with cofactors p300 or CBP. Previously, we found that arylsulfonamides can antagonize HIF transcription in a bioassay, block the p300/HIF-1? interaction, and exert potent anticancer activity in several animal models. In the present work, KCN1-bead affinity pull down, (14)C-labeled KCN1 binding, and KCN1-surface plasmon resonance measurements provide initial support for a mechanism in which KCN1 can bind to the CH1 domain of p300 and likely prevent the p300/HIF-1? assembly. Using a previously reported NMR structure of the p300/HIF-1? complex, we have identified potential binding sites in the p300-CH1 domain. A two-site binding model coupled with IC50 values has allowed establishment of a modest ROC-based enrichment and creation of a guide for future analogue synthesis.
Project description:Using NMR spectroscopy, we identified and characterized a previously unrecognized structured domain near the N-terminus (residues 35-121) of the ETS family transcription factor GABP alpha. The monomeric domain folds as a five-stranded beta-sheet crossed by a distorted helix. Although globally resembling ubiquitin, the GABP alpha fragment differs in its secondary structure topology and thus appears to represent a new protein fold that we term the OST (On-SighT) domain. The surface of the GABP alpha OST domain contains two predominant clusters of negatively-charged residues suggestive of electrostatically driven interactions with positively-charged partner proteins. Following a best-candidate approach to identify such a partner, we demonstrated through NMR-monitored titrations and glutathione S-transferase pulldown assays that the OST domain binds to the CH1 and CH3 domains of the co-activator histone acetyltransferase CBP/p300. This provides a direct structural link between GABP and a central component of the transcriptional machinery.
Project description:The C-terminal activation domain (C-TAD) of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF-1? and HIF-2? binds the CH1 domains of the related transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300, an oxygen-regulated interaction thought to be highly essential for hypoxia-responsive transcription. The role of the CH1 domain in vivo is unknown, however. We created mutant mice bearing deletions in the CH1 domains (?CH1) of CBP and p300 that abrogate their interactions with the C-TAD, revealing that the CH1 domains of CBP and p300 are genetically non-redundant and indispensable for C-TAD transactivation function. Surprisingly, the CH1 domain was only required for an average of ~35-50% of global HIF-1?-responsive gene expression, whereas another HIF-transactivation mechanism that is sensitive to the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSAS) accounts for ~70%. Both pathways are required for greater than 90% of the response for some target genes. Our findings suggest that a novel functional interaction between the protein acetylases CBP and p300, and deacetylases, is essential for nearly all HIF-responsive transcription. Experiment Overall Design: Three separate affymetrix experiments using mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from embryos bearing the ?CH1 mutation in p300 and/or CBP and treated with hypoxia or combinations of dipyridyl (a hypoxia mimetic) and trichostatin A (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) are described (GSE3195, GSE3196 and GSE3296). Samples are not directly comparable between experiments because of differences in experiment design and Affymetrix chips used.
Project description:The CH1 (TAZ) domain of the transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP has been reported to interact with the transcription factor HIF-1alpha and this interaction is thought to be critical for HIF-1alpha target gene expression in response to hypoxia. To determine the requirement for the CH1 domain in hypoxia-responsive gene expression, primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were generated from e14.5 C57B/6x129/Sv F2 embryos that were either wildtype or bore deletion mutations in the CH1 protein binding domains of both alleles of p300 and one allele of CBP (tri_CH1). Subconfluent MEFs were treated with 21% oxygen (normoxia) or 0.1% oxygen (hypoxia) with 5% carbon dioxide at 37 C in a humid chamber for 6hrs. At the start of treatment, medium was removed and replaced with medium (DMEM+10% FBS+pen-strep+ l-glu) that had been preequilibrated overnight in normoxia or hypoxia as appropriate. Immediately after treatment, cells were lysed in Trizol for RNA extraction. Keywords: genetic modification, dose response Overall design: 4 samples: two genotypes (1 control, 1 mutant); two treatments (normoxia, hypoxia).