Crystal structures of native and inhibited forms of human cathepsin D: implications for lysosomal targeting and drug design.
ABSTRACT: Cathepsin D (EC 126.96.36.199) is a lysosomal protease suspected to play important roles in protein catabolism, antigen processing, degenerative diseases, and breast cancer progression. Determination of the crystal structures of cathepsin D and a complex with pepstatin at 2.5 A resolution provides insights into inhibitor binding and lysosomal targeting for this two-chain, N-glycosylated aspartic protease. Comparison with the structures of a complex of pepstatin bound to rhizopuspepsin and with a human renin-inhibitor complex revealed differences in subsite structures and inhibitor-enzyme interactions that are consistent with affinity differences and structure-activity relationships and suggest strategies for fine-tuning the specificity of cathepsin D inhibitors. Mutagenesis studies have identified a phosphotransferase recognition region that is required for oligosaccharide phosphorylation but is 32 A distant from the N-domain glycosylation site at Asn-70. Electron density for the crystal structure of cathepsin D indicated the presence of an N-linked oligosaccharide that extends from Asn-70 toward Lys-203, which is a key component of the phosphotransferase recognition region, and thus provides a structural explanation for how the phosphotransferase can recognize apparently distant sites on the protein surface.
Project description:Golgi-membrane-bound Gal beta 1-4GlcNAc alpha 2-6-sialyltransferase (CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:beta-galactoside alpha 2-6-sialyltransferase, EC 188.8.131.52) behaves as an acute-phase reactant increasing about 5-fold in serum in rats suffering from inflammation. The mechanism of release from the Golgi membrane is not understood. In the present study it was found that sialyltransferase could be released from the membrane by treatment with ultrasonic vibration (sonication) followed by incubation at reduced pH. Maximum release occurred at pH 5.6, and membranes from inflamed rats released more enzyme than did membranes from controls. Galactosyltransferase (UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine galactosyltransferase; EC 184.108.40.206), another Golgi-located enzyme, which does not behave as an acute-phase reactant, remained bound to the membranes under the same conditions. Release of the alpha 2-6-sialyltransferase from Golgi membranes was substantially inhibited by pepstatin A, a potent inhibitor of cathepsin D-like proteinases. Inhibition of release of the sialyltransferase also occurred after preincubation of sonicated Golgi membranes with antiserum raised against rat liver lysosomal cathepsin D. Addition of bovine spleen cathepsin D to incubation mixtures of sonicated Golgi membranes caused enhanced release of the sialyltransferase. Intact Golgi membranes were incubated at lowered pH in presence of pepstatin A to inhibit any proteinase activity at the cytosolic face; subsequent sonication showed that the sialyltransferase had been released, suggesting that the proteinase was active at the luminal face of the Golgi. Golgi membranes contained a low level of cathepsin D activity (EC 220.127.116.11); the enzyme was mainly membrane-bound, since it could only be released by extraction with Triton X-100 or incubation of sonicated Golgi membranes with 5 mM-mannose 6-phosphate. Immunoblot analysis showed that the transferase released from sonicated Golgi membranes at lowered pH had an apparent Mr of about 42,000 compared with one of about 49,000 for the membrane-bound enzyme. Values of Km for the bound and released enzyme activities were comparable and were similar to values reported previously for liver and serum enzymes. The work suggests that a major portion of sialyltransferase containing the catalytic site is released from a membrane anchor by a cathepsin D-like proteinase located at the luminal face of the Golgi and that this explains the acute-phase behaviour of this enzyme.
Project description:Procathepsin D is a rapidly processed precursor form of the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin D. The enzymic properties of procathepsin D have been studied by examining the pepstatin-binding characteristics of both the precursor and the mature enzyme. Procathepsin D bound to immobilized pepstatin at 4 degrees C in pH 3.5 buffer but not in pH 5.3 buffer, whereas mature forms of cathepsin D bound to immobilized pepstatin at both pH values. These characteristics of procathepsin D were exploited to isolate the proenzyme from mature forms and to determine whether activation of the proenzyme is an autocatalytic process. After incubation at 37 degrees C in pH 3.5 buffer, the proenzyme underwent pepstatin-inhibitable proteolysis resulting in a dramatically increased affinity of purified procathepsin D for pepstatin at pH 5.3. The low concentration of enzyme used in these studies suggests that procathepsin D cleavage to single-chain cathepsin D may occur via a unimolecular mechanism.
Project description:We have examined the activity and distribution of cathepsin D (EC 18.104.22.168), a major renal lysosomal endoproteinase, in the various anatomical and functional areas of normal rat kidney. Cathepsin D-like activities (delta A280/h per mg of protein) in normal rat tissues were: cortex, 0.78 +/- 0.05, n = 37; medulla, 0.62 +/- 0.03, n = 12; papilla, 0.63 +/- 0.04, n = 12; tubules, 0.74 +/- 0.04, n = 28; glomeruli, 0.59 +/- 0.03, n = 28; and liver, 0.41 +/- 0.02, n = 28. Enzyme activity was maximal at pH 3.0-3.5 and inhibited more than 90% by pepstatin (6.7 micrograms/ml), suggesting that the enzyme is cathepsin D. In subsequent experiments we measured cathepsin D-like activity in cortex, tubules and glomeruli isolated from rats with puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN)-induced nephrotic syndrome. Treated animals (15 mg of PAN/100g body wt., intraperitoneally) developed proteinuria beginning 4 days after injection and exceeding 900 mg/24h on day 9. In two separate experiments involving 52 animals we observed a significant increase in cathepsin D-like activity in cortex (+82.7%), tubules (+109.6%) and glomeruli (+54.7%) isolated from PAN-treated rats killed during marked proteinuria (day 9, mean total urinary protein excretion: 937 +/- 94 mg/24h). This increase was observed whether the activity was expressed per mg of DNA or per mg of protein. Increased cathepsin D-like activity was first observed in cortex and tubules coincident with the onset of proteinurea (day 4, mean total urinary protein excretion: 112 +/- 23 mg/24h). In contrast with the significant elevation of renal cathepsin D-like activity, the activity (nmol/h per mg of protein) of alpha-L-fucosidase (EC 22.214.171.124), a non-proteolytic enzyme, was markedly decreased in the identical samples used for the measurement of cathepsin D-like activity: cortex (-46.4%); tubules (-46.1%); and glomeruli (-38.5%). In addition to changes in renal enzyme activities, PAN-treated rats excreted large amounts of cathepsin D-like activity in their urine (beginning on day 3) compared with nearly undetectable cathepsin D-like activity in the urine from control rats. The significant increases in glomerular and tubular cathepsin D activity may reflect an important role for this enzyme in the pathophysiology associated with PAN-induced nephrotic syndrome.
Project description:1. A new inhibitor of thiol proteinases, benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylalanine diazomethyl ketone (benzyloxycarbonylphenylalanylalanyldiazomethane, Z-Phe-Ala-CHN2) was added to cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages prelabelled with [14C]leucine. The degradation of protein was studied under conditions of basal proteolysis in the presence of 10% pig serum. After a lag of about 6 h a time- and dose-dependent inhibition of protein degradation was observed, up to a maximum of about 40%. 2. The inhibitor entered the cells with kinetics consistent with entry by pinocytosis, giving access to the lysosomal system. 3. Intracellular cathepsin B was almost completely inactivated after 90 min of exposure of the culture to 0.1 mm-inhibitor. 4. The inhibition of proteolysis and of cathepsin B was reversed virtually completely within 24 h, when the inhibitor was removed from the medium. Since the inhibitor forms a covalent bond with the enzyme, the recovery of cathepsin B activity presumably reflects production of new molecules of active enzyme. 5. The inhibitory effects of pepstatin, the carboxyl proteinase inhibitor, were under some circumstances additive with those Z-Phe-Ala-CHN2, and were also largely reversible. 6. It is concluded that thiol proteinases play a major role in lysosomal proteolysis in cultured macrophages.
Project description:1. Because of the proposed role of cathepsin D in a variety of biological and pathological processes, the characteristics of inhibition by the potentially useful agent, pepstatin, were determined. 2. The beta and gamma forms of human cathepsin D, separated by isoelectric focusing, have identical specific extinction coefficients and specific activity in the degradation of haemoglobin. 3. Cathepsin D showed tight binding of 1 mol of pepstatin per 43000 g of protein, indicating that titration with the inhibitor represents a useful method for determination of absolute concentrations of the enzyme. 4. The titration curves were used to determine apparent dissociation constants (KD) for the binding of pepstatin and pepstatin methyl ester at pH3.5; values of approx. 5 X 10(-10)M were obtained. 5. Pepstatinyl-[3H]glycine was synthesized and shown to have a KD similar to that of pepstatin. Gel-chromatographic experiments showed that the binding of pepstatin and its derivatives is strongly pH-dependent. 6. The effect of pH on the KD for pepstatinyl-glycine was determined by equilibrium dialysis. As the pH was raised from 5.0 to 6.4, KD rose from 5 X 10(-10)M to 2 X 10(-6)M. 7. The catalytic activity of cathepsin D declines essentially to zero on going from pH5.0 to pH7.0, and we suggest that the binding site for substrate and pepstatin is abolished by a conformational change in the enzyme molecule. 8. The data indicate that, in biological experiments near neutral pH, large molar excesses of pepstatin over cathepsin D will be required for efficient inhibition.
Project description:To investigate the role of intralysosomal redox-active iron in oxidative stress-induced damage in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells.Chronic oxidative stress was applied using the hyperoxic model; acute oxidative stress was applied with H(2)O(2). Microarray analysis was performed using microarrays. mRNA and protein levels were quantified by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. Redox-active iron was monitored using calcein-AM. Apoptosis was quantified using double staining. DNA damage was evaluated by single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. Lysosomal permeabilization was monitored using uptake and acridine orange relocation techniques. Intracellular ROS production was quantified using H(2)DCFDA. Cytosolic translocation of cathepsins was visualized with pepstatin-A-BODIPY-FL. Chemical inhibition of cathepsins was achieved with leupeptin and pepstatin A. Silencing of cathepsin expression was accomplished with miRNA sequences. Lysosomal iron chelation was achieved with desferrioxamine.Chronically stressed TM cells showed elevated levels of redox-active iron and altered expression of genes involved in intracellular iron homeostasis. Although iron increased ROS production and lipofuscin levels and sensitized TM cells to H(2)O(2), intralysosomal iron chelation completely protected the cells against H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and apoptosis. The protective effect of desferrioxamine was mediated by the prevention of lysosomal ROS generation and the rupture of lysosomal membrane, with the subsequent release of cathepsin D into the cytosol.These results indicate that the generation of intralysosomal ROS induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the release of cathepsin D into the cytosol, leading to TM cell death. Here, the authors propose a mechanism by which oxidative stress might contribute to the decrease in cellularity reported in the TM tissue with both aging and disease.
Project description:Extracellular cathepsin D has been observed by various cytochemical methods at sites of tissue injury. However, the role of this enzyme in connective tissue matrix degradation is uncertain because there are no histochemical methods for determining whether or not the cathepsin D is active at such sites in living tissues. We considered that the combined use of a labelled tight-binding inhibitor with immunoprecipitation of the enzymes might overcome this problem. We have explored the application of derivatives of the inhibitor pepstatin, as only active cathepsin D binds pepstatin tightly. A series of N-pepstatinyl-N'-dinitrophenyl-alpha, omega-diaminoalkanes were synthesized with alkyl-chain lengths of two, four and six carbon atoms. These compounds were tight-binding inhibitors of human cathepsin D. In fluorescence-quenching titrations the dinitrophenyl groups were also fully available to bind high-affinity anti-dinitrophenyl antibody. It was shown by immunodiffusion in gels and by gel permeation chromatography that N-pepstatinyl-N'-dinitrophenyl-1,6-diaminohexane was a bifunction inhibitor able to bind cathepsin D and anti-dinitrophenyl antibody at the same time.
Project description:Cystatin F is a cysteine protease inhibitor that is selectively expressed in immune cells and unlike other cystatin family members is targeted to a significant extent to intracellular compartments. Initially made as an inactive glycosylated disulfide-linked dimer, cystatin F is converted to an active monomer by proteolytic cleavage following transport to the endosomal/lysosomal system. This active form of cystatin F targets cathepsin C/DPPI and probably other cathepsins in immune cells. We show that efficient targeting of cystatin F to the endocytic pathway is dependent not on its unique dimeric conformation but rather on its oligosaccharide chains. We demonstrate the unusual addition of N-linked sugars to an Asn-X-Cys motif in cystatin F and provide evidence that the mannose 6-phosphate sorting machinery is used to divert cystatin F from the secretory pathway and to mediate its uptake from extracellular pools. These studies identify a function for the oligosaccharides on cystatin F and raise the possibility that cystatin F might regulate proteases in trans by secretion in an inactive form by one cell and subsequent internalization and activation by another cell.
Project description:Cysteine proteases have been shown to be essential virulence factors and drug targets in trypanosomatids and an attractive antidisease vaccine candidate for Trypanosoma congolense. Here, we describe an important amplification of genes encoding cathepsin B-like proteases unique to T. congolense. More than 13 different genes were identified, whereas only one or two highly homologous genes have been identified in other trypanosomatids. These proteases grouped into three evolutionary clusters: TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and TcoCBc6, which possess the classical catalytic triad (Cys, His, and Asn), and TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13, which contains an unusual catalytic site (Ser, Xaa, and Asn). Expression profiles showed that members of the TcoCBc1 to TcoCBc5 and the TcoCBs7 to TcoCBs13 groups are expressed mainly in bloodstream forms and localize in the lysosomal compartment. The expression of recombinant representatives of each group (TcoCB1, TcoCB6, and TcoCB12) as proenzymes showed that TcoCBc1 and TcoCBc6 are able to autocatalyze their maturation 21 and 31 residues, respectively, upstream of the predicted start of the catalytic domain. Both displayed a carboxydipeptidase function, while only TcoCBc1 behaved as an endopeptidase. TcoCBc1 exhibited biochemical differences regarding inhibitor sensitivity compared to that of other cathepsin B-like proteases. Recombinant pro-TcoCBs12 did not automature in vitro, and the pepsin-matured enzyme was inactive in tests with cathepsin B fluorogenic substrates. In vivo inhibition studies using CA074Me (a cell-permeable cathepsin B-specific inhibitor) demonstrated that TcoCB are involved in lysosomal protein degradation essential for survival in bloodstream form. Furthermore, TcoCBc1 elicited an important immune response in experimentally infected cattle. We propose this family of proteins as a potential therapeutic target and as a plausible antigen for T. congolense diagnosis.
Project description:1. Pepstatinyl-cystamine was synthesized. The disulphide bond was cleaved and the pepstatin-bound thiol was made to react with monobromobimane. The fluorescent N-pepstatinyl-S-bimanyl-2-aminoethanethiol was purified. 2. Human cathepsin D showed tight binding of the bimane-labelled pepstatin at pH 3.5. The titration curves were used to determine the apparent dissociation constant, KD; values of approx. 1 x 10(-10) M were obtained. 3. Gel-chromatographic experiments showed that, like that of pepstatin, the binding of N-pepstatinyl-S-bimanyl-1-aminoethanethiol to cathepsin D was strongly pH-dependent. Binding was seen at pH 5.0, but could not be demonstrated at pH 7.4. 4. Cultured human synovial cells were fixed and incubated with the fluorescent inhibitor at pH 5.0 or pH 7.4. When examined by fluorescence microscopy the cells stained at pH 5.0 showed a punctate perinuclear distribution of bimane fluorescence. By contrast, the cells stained at pH 7.4 showed no fluorescence. 5. The distribution of cathepsin D, determined by indirect immunofluorescence at pH 7.4, closely resembled that of the fluorescent inhibitor seen at pH 5.0. 6. We conclude that N-pepstatinyl-S-bimanyl-2-aminoethanethiol is a fluorescent probe selective for the active conformation of cathepsin D.