Testis-enriched heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2): Adaptive advantages of the birds with internal testes over the mammals with testicular descent.
ABSTRACT: The molecular chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2), a member of the 70?kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) family, plays an important role in spermatogenesis and male fertility. Although HSPA2 is evolutionarily highly conserved across the metazoan lineages, the observation of striking differences in temperature-sensitive expressions, testicular physiology, spermatogenesis, as well as its role in male fertility indicates that avian and mammalian HSPA2 may exhibit distinct evolutionary trajectory. The present study reports that while mammalian HSPA2 is constrained by intense purifying selection, avian HSPA2 has been subjected to positive selection. The majority of the positively selected amino acid residues fall on the ?-helix and ?-sheets of the peptide-binding domain located at the carboxyl-terminal region of the avian HSPA2. The detection of positively selected sites at the helix and ?-sheets, which are less tolerant to molecular adaptation, indicates an important functional consequence and contribution to the structural and functional diversification of the avian HSPA2. Collectively, avian HSPA2 may have an adaptive advantage over the mammals in response to heat stress, and therefore, mammals with testicular descent may be at a greater risk in the event of scrotal temperature rise.
Project description:The HSPA2 gene is a poorly characterized member of the HSPA (HSP70) family. HSPA2 was originally described as testis-specific and expressed at the highest level in pachytene spermatocytes of rodents, the expression of which is not induced by heat shock. HSPA2 is crucial for male fertility. However, recent advances have shown that HSPA2 is expressed in various tumors and in certain types of somatic tissues. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the HSPA2 expression pattern, including information on transcriptional, translational, posttranslational, and epigenetic mechanisms which regulate HSPA2 expression. We also present and discuss the current views concerning the functions of the HSPA2 protein in spermatogenetic, somatic, and cancer cells. The knowledge of the properties of HSPA2, although limited, shows this protein as a unique member of the HSPA family. However, understanding whether this protein could become a relevant cancer biomarker or a therapeutically applicable target requires extensive further studies.
Project description:Heat shock protein A2 (HspA2) expression was quantitatively measured in human testis and its relationship with the spermatogenetic status and laboratory outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) was investigated.Testicular tissues of azoospermia men were divided into four groups according to histopahtology: normal spermatogenesiss, hypospermatogenesis, maturation arrest and Sertoli cell-only syndrome (SCOS). HspA2 immunostaining was measured by Image Pro-Plus (IPP) and laboratory outcomes were calculated. The regression analysis between HspA2 expression and Johnsen score of as well as fertilization, cleavage and high quality embryo rate was performed.HspA2 was strongly present in the cytoplasm of spermatocytes and spermatides in normal testis. However, hypospermatogenesis and maturation arrest testicular tissues demonstrated light staining and no staining for SCOS. Quantitative image analysis showed that there were significant differences among groups (P?=?0.000 & P?=?0.001). HspA2 exspression was founded significantly correlated spermatogenetic status (R(2)?=?0.726, P?=?0.000) as well as fertilization rate in ICSI (R(2)?=?0.569, P?=?0.000).The fertilization rate with ICSI is associated with HspA2 expression in the testis from which sperm retrieved and the alteration of HspA2 expression has been involved in spermatogenic impairment.
Project description:Heat Shock Protein A2 (HSPA2) is a member of the HSPA (HSP70) chaperone family and has a critical role for male fertility. HSPA2 is present in a number of somatic organs. Limited evidence suggests that HSPA2 may be involved in regulating epithelial cell differentiation. HSPA2 also emerged as a cancer-related chaperone; however, no consensus on its functional significance has been reached so far. In this study, we compared the phenotypic effects of HSPA2 deficit in non-transformed human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC), and in lung, breast, and cervical cancer cells. We used various techniques to inhibit the HSPA2 gene expression in order to examine the impact of HSPA2 deficiency on cell growth, migration, adhesion, and invasion. Our results show that HBEC but not cancer cells are sensitive to HSPA2 deficit. HSPA2 knockdown in HBEC cells impaired their clone-forming ability and adhesiveness. Thus, our results indicate that epithelial cells can rely on a specific activity of HSPA2, but such dependence can be lost in epithelial cells that have undergone malignant transformation.
Project description:In mammalian spermatocytes, cell division cycle protein 2 (CDC2)/cyclin B1 and the chaperone heat shock protein A2 (HSPA2) are required for the G2-->M transition in prophase I. Here, we demonstrate that in primary spermatocytes, linker histone chaperone testis/embryo form of nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein (tNASP) binds the heat shock protein HSPA2, which localizes on the synaptonemal complex of spermatocytes. Significantly, the tNASP-HSPA2 complex binds linker histones and CDC2, forming a larger complex. We demonstrate that increasing amounts of tNASP favor tNASP-HSPA2-CDC2 complex formation. Binding of linker histones to tNASP significantly increases HSPA2 ATPase activity and the capacity of tNASP to bind HSPA2 and CDC2, precluding CDC2/cyclin B1 complex formation and, consequently, decreasing CDC2/cyclin B1 kinase activity. Linker histone binding to NASP controls the ability of HSPA2 to activate CDC2 for CDC2/cyclin B1 complex formation; therefore, tNASP's role is to provide the functional link between linker histones and cell cycle progression during meiosis.
Project description:The present study sought novel changes to the hamster testicular transcriptome during modulation of fertility by well-characterized photoperiodic stimuli. Transition from long days (LD, 14 h light/day) to short days (SD, 10h light/day) triggered testicular regression (61% reduction of testis weight, relative to LD) in SD-sensitive (SD-S) hamsters within 16 weeks. After 22 weeks of SD exposure, a third cohort of hamsters became SD-refractory (SD-R), and exhibited testicular recrudescence (137% testis weight gain, relative to SD-S). Partial interrogation of the testicular transcriptome by annealing-control-primer-modified differential display PCR provided several candidates for regulation of testicular functions. Multiple linear regression modeling indicated the best correlation for aquaporin 11 (Aqp11) with changes in testis weight. Correlations were also strongest for Aqp11 with expression levels of reference cDNAs that control spermatogenesis (Hspa2 and Tnp2), steroidogenesis (Cox2, 3?Hsd, and Srebp2), sperm motility (Catsper1, Pgk2, and Tnp2), inflammation (Cox2), and apoptosis (Bax and Bcl2). Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of testicular Aqp11 mRNA and protein reduced Hspa2 and Tnp2 mRNA levels, and it increased 3?Hsd mRNA levels. It also reduced mRNA levels for Sept12, which is a testis-specific inducer of spermatogenesis. These results suggest a central role for testicular Aqp11 signaling in the coordinate regulation of crucial components of fertility.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) constitute a major part of the molecular chaperone system and play a fundamental role in cell proteostasis. The HSPA (HSP70) family groups twelve highly homologous HSPA proteins. Certain HSPAs are regarded as important cancer-related proteins, prospective therapeutic targets for cancer treatment, and also as potential cancer biomarkers. Heat Shock Protein A2 (HSPA2), a testis-enriched chaperone and one of the least characterized members of the HSPA family, has recently emerged as an important cancer-relevant protein with potential biomarker significance. Nevertheless, conflicting conclusions have been recently drawn both according to HSPA2 role in cancer cells, as well as to its prognostic value. In this work we have shown that one of the serious limitations in HSPA2 protein research is cross-reactivity of antibodies marketed as specific for HSPA2 with one or more other HSPA(s). Among non-specific antibodies were also those recently used for HSPA2 detection in functional and biomarker studies. We showed how using non-specific antibodies can generate misleading conclusions on HSPA2 expression in non-stressed cancer cells and tumors, as well as in cancer cells exposed to proteotoxic stress. Our findings addressed concerns on some published studies dealing with HSPA2 as a cancer-related protein.
Project description:In the present study we determined the expression pattern of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in various normal human tissues by tissue-microarray based immunohistochemical analysis. Both proteins belong to the HSPA (HSP70) family of heat shock proteins. The HSPA2 is encoded by the gene originally defined as testis-specific, while HSPA1 is encoded by the stress-inducible genes (HSPA1A and HSPA1B). Our study revealed that both proteins are expressed only in some tissues from the 24 ones examined. HSPA2 was detected in adrenal gland, bronchus, cerebellum, cerebrum, colon, esophagus, kidney, skin, small intestine, stomach and testis, but not in adipose tissue, bladder, breast, cardiac muscle, diaphragm, liver, lung, lymph node, pancreas, prostate, skeletal muscle, spleen, thyroid. Expression of HSPA1 was detected in adrenal gland, bladder, breast, bronchus, cardiac muscle, esophagus, kidney, prostate, skin, but not in other tissues examined. Moreover, HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins were found to be expressed in a cell-type-specific manner. The most pronounced cell-type expression pattern was found for HSPA2 protein. In the case of stratified squamous epithelia of the skin and esophagus, as well as in ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium lining respiratory tract, the HSPA2 positive cells were located in the basal layer. In the colon, small intestine and bronchus epithelia HSPA2 was detected in goblet cells. In adrenal gland cortex HSPA2 expression was limited to cells of zona reticularis. The presented results clearly show that certain human tissues constitutively express varying levels of HSPA1 and HSPA2 proteins in a highly differentiated way. Thus, our study can help designing experimental models suitable for cell- and tissue-type-specific functional differences between HSPA2 and HSPA1 proteins in human tissues.
Project description:Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a large group of chaperones considered critical for maintaining cellular proteostasis. Their aberrant expression in tumors can modulate the course of processes defined as hallmarks of cancer. Previously, we showed that both stress-inducible HSPA1 and testis-enriched HSPA2, highly homologous members of the HSPA (HSP70) family, are often overexpressed in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). HSPA1 is among the best characterized cancer-related chaperones, while the significance of HSPA2 for cancer remains poorly understood. Previously we found that in primary NSCLC, HSPA1 was associated with good prognosis while HSPA2 correlated with bad prognosis, suggesting possible different roles of these proteins in cancer. Therefore, in this work we investigated the impact of HSPA1 and HSPA2 on NSCLC cell phenotype. We found that neither paralog-selective nor simultaneous knockdown of HSPA1 and HSPA2 gene expression reduced growth and chemoresistance of NSCLC cells. Only blocking of HSPA proteins using pan-HSPA inhibitors, VER-155008 or JG-98, exerted potent anticancer effect on NSCLC cells, albeit the final outcome was cell type-dependent. Pan-HSPA inhibition sensitized NSCLC cells to bortezomib, but not to platinum derivates. Our result suggests the inhibitors of proteasome and HSPAs seem an effective drug combination for pre-clinical development in highly aggressive NSCLC.
Project description:A common defect encountered in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients is an idiopathic failure of sperm-egg recognition. In order to resolve the molecular basis of this condition we have compared the proteomic profiles of spermatozoa exhibiting an impaired capacity for sperm-egg recognition with normal cells using label free mass spectrometry (MS)-based quantification. This analysis indicated that impaired sperm-zona binding was associated with reduced expression of the molecular chaperone, heat shock 70 kDa protein 2 (HSPA2), from the sperm proteome. Western blot analysis confirmed this observation in independent patients and demonstrated that the defect did not extend to other members of the HSP70 family. HSPA2 was present in the acrosomal domain of human spermatozoa as a major component of 5 large molecular mass complexes, the most dominant of which was found to contain HSPA2 in close association with just two other proteins, sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1) and arylsulfatase A (ARSA), both of which that have previously been implicated in sperm-egg interaction. The interaction between SPAM1, ARSA and HSPA2 in a multimeric complex mediating sperm-egg interaction, coupled with the complete failure of this process when HSPA2 is depleted in infertile patients, provides new insights into the mechanisms by which sperm function is impaired in cases of male infertility.
Project description:Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) comprise a broad class of small noncoding RNAs that function as an endogenous defense system against transposable elements. Here we show that the putative DExD-box helicase MOV10-like-1 (MOV10L1) is essential for silencing retrotransposons in the mouse male germline. Mov10l1 is specifically expressed in germ cells with increasing expression from gonocytes/type A spermatogonia to pachytene spermatocytes. Primary spermatocytes of Mov10l1(-/-) mice show activation of LTR and LINE-1 retrotransposons, followed by cell death, causing male infertility and a complete block of spermatogenesis at early prophase of meiosis I. Despite the early expression of Mov10l1, germline stem cell maintenance appears unaffected in Mov10l1(-/-) mice. MOV10L1 interacts with the Piwi proteins MILI and MIWI. MOV10L1 also interacts with heat shock 70-kDa protein 2 (HSPA2), a testis-enriched chaperone expressed in pachytene spermatocytes and also essential for male fertility. These studies reveal a crucial role of MOV10L1 in male fertility and piRNA-directed retrotransposon silencing in male germ cells and suggest that MOV10L1 functions as a key component of a safeguard mechanism for the genetic information in male germ cells of mammals.