Geometric reduction of dynamical nonlocality in nanoscale quantum circuits.
ABSTRACT: Nonlocality is a key feature discriminating quantum and classical physics. Quantum-interference phenomena, such as Young's double slit experiment, are one of the clearest manifestations of nonlocality, recently addressed as dynamical to specify its origin in the quantum equations of motion. It is well known that loss of dynamical nonlocality can occur due to (partial) collapse of the wavefunction due to a measurement, such as which-path detection. However, alternative mechanisms affecting dynamical nonlocality have hardly been considered, although of crucial importance in many schemes for quantum information processing. Here, we present a fundamentally different pathway of losing dynamical nonlocality, demonstrating that the detailed geometry of the detection scheme is crucial to preserve nonlocality. By means of a solid-state quantum-interference experiment we quantify this effect in a diffusive system. We show that interference is not only affected by decoherence, but also by a loss of dynamical nonlocality based on a local reduction of the number of quantum conduction channels of the interferometer. With our measurements and theoretical model we demonstrate that this mechanism is an intrinsic property of quantum dynamics. Understanding the geometrical constraints protecting nonlocality is crucial when designing quantum networks for quantum information processing.
Project description:A physical explanation for quantum bounds to nonlocality (Tsirelson's bound) is a fundamental problem in quantum theory, for it is known that no-signaling alone fails to reproduce this limit. Here, information indistinguishability is presented as the indistinguishability of qubits or more general bits, and it suggests an answer to the nonlocality conundrum, ultimately placing it as the origin to quantum limits. Indistinguishability is also connected to exclusivity principle, and it is shown that indistinguishability leads to quantum correlation bounds. This suggests indistinguishability be as fundamental as non-locality and relativistic causality for nonlocal realism.
Project description:Recently quantum nonlocality has been classified into three distinct types: quantum entanglement, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering, and Bell's nonlocality. Among which, Bell's nonlocality is the strongest type. Bell's nonlocality for quantum states is usually detected by violation of some Bell's inequalities, such as Clause-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qubits. Steering is a manifestation of nonlocality intermediate between entanglement and Bell's nonlocality. This peculiar feature has led to a curious quantum phenomenon, the one-way Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering. The one-way steering was an important open question presented in 2007, and positively answered in 2014 by Bowles et al., who presented a simple class of one-way steerable states in a two-qubit system with at least thirteen projective measurements. The inspiring result for the first time theoretically confirms quantum nonlocality can be fundamentally asymmetric. Here, we propose another curious quantum phenomenon: Bell nonlocal states can be constructed from some steerable states. This novel finding not only offers a distinctive way to study Bell's nonlocality without Bell's inequality but with steering inequality, but also may avoid locality loophole in Bell's tests and make Bell's nonlocality easier for demonstration. Furthermore, a nine-setting steering inequality has also been presented for developing more efficient one-way steering and detecting some Bell nonlocal states.
Project description:We study the nonlocality of arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. By computing the maximal violation of a set of multi-setting Bell inequalities, an analytical and computable lower bound has been derived for general two-qubit states. This bound gives the necessary condition that a two-qubit state admits no local hidden variable models. The lower bound is shown to be better than that from the CHSH inequality in judging the nonlocality of some quantum states. The results are generalized to the case of high dimensional quantum states, and a sufficient condition for detecting the non-locality has been presented.
Project description:The mechanism of selectivity in ion channels is still an open question in biology for more than half a century. Here, we suggest that quantum interference can be a solution to explain the selectivity mechanism in ion channels since interference happens between similar ions through the same size of ion channels. In this paper, we simulate two neighboring ion channels on a cell membrane with the famous double-slit experiment in physics to investigate whether there is any possibility of matter-wave interference of ions via movement through ion channels. Our obtained decoherence timescales indicate that the quantum states of ions can only survive for short times, i.e. ?100 picoseconds in each channel and ?17-53 picoseconds outside the channels, giving the result that the quantum interference of ions seems unlikely due to environmental decoherence. However, we discuss our results and raise few points, which increase the possibility of interference.
Project description:Engineering, controlling, and simulating quantum dynamics is a strenuous task. However, these techniques are crucial to develop quantum technologies, preserve quantum properties, and engineer decoherence. Earlier results have demonstrated reservoir engineering, construction of a quantum simulator for Markovian open systems, and controlled transition from Markovian to non-Markovian regime. Dephasing is an ubiquitous mechanism to degrade the performance of quantum computers. However, all-purpose quantum simulator for generic dephasing is still missing. Here, we demonstrate full experimental control of dephasing allowing us to implement arbitrary decoherence dynamics of a qubit. As examples, we use a photon to simulate the dynamics of a qubit coupled to an Ising chain in a transverse field and also demonstrate a simulation of nonpositive dynamical map. Our platform opens the possibility to simulate dephasing of any physical system and study fundamental questions on open quantum systems.
Project description:Environment-induced decoherence has long been recognised as being of crucial importance in the study of chaos in quantum systems. In particular, the exact form and strength of the system-environment interaction play a major role in the quantum-to-classical transition of chaotic systems. In this work we focus on the effect of varying monitoring strategies, i.e. for a given decoherence model and a fixed environmental coupling, there is still freedom on how to monitor a quantum system. We show here that there is a region between the deep quantum regime and the classical limit where the choice of the monitoring parameter allows one to control the complex behaviour of the system, leading to either the emergence or suppression of chaos. Our work shows that this is a result from the interplay between quantum interference effects induced by the nonlinear dynamics and the effectiveness of the decoherence for different measurement schemes.
Project description:Significant experimental progresses in recent years have generated continued interest in quantum computation. A practical quantum computer would employ thousands if not millions of coherent qubits, and maintaining coherence in such a large system would be imperative for its utility. As an attempt at understanding the quantum coherence of multiple qubits, here we study decoherence of a multi-spin-qubit state under the influence of hyperfine interaction, and clearly demonstrate that the state structure is crucial to the scaling behavior of n-spin decoherence. Specifically, we find that coherence times of a multi-spin state at most scale with the number of qubits n as √n, while some states with higher symmetries have scale-free coherence with respect to n. Statistically, convergence to these scaling behavior is generally determined by the size of the Hilbert space m, which is usually much larger than n (up to an exponential function of n), so that convergence rate is very fast as we increase the number of qubits. Our results can be extended to other decoherence mechanisms, including in the presence of dynamical decoupling, which allow meaningful discussions on the scalability of spin-based quantum coherent technology.
Project description:Genuine multipartite nonlocality (GMN) has been recognized as the strongest form of multipartite quantum correlation. However, there exist states that cannot violate the Svetlichny inequality derived from the standard definition of GMN, even though they possess GMN properties. The reason is that the standard definition of GMN allows correlations that permit signalling among parties, which is inconsistent with an operational definition. Here, for the first time, we present an experimental test of GMN in the no-signalling scenario, with a three-photon pure state |?<sub>s</sub>? and a noisy W state. The experimental results show that these states cannot violate the Svetlichny inequality. However, our results also demonstrate that they do violate a new inequality derived from the definition of GMN based on the no-signalling principle, i.e., these states can exhibit GMN under the requirement of no-signalling. Our results will be useful for the study and applications of GMN in quantum communications and quantum computation.
Project description:Revivals of quantum correlations in composite open quantum systems are a useful dynamical feature against detrimental effects of the environment. Their occurrence is attributed to flows of quantum information back and forth from systems to quantum environments. However, revivals also show up in models where the environment is classical, thus unable to store quantum correlations, and forbids system-environment back-action. This phenomenon opens basic issues about its interpretation involving the role of classical environments, memory effects, collective effects and system-environment correlations. Moreover, an experimental realization of back-action-free quantum revivals has applicative relevance as it leads to recover quantum resources without resorting to more demanding structured environments and correction procedures. Here we introduce a simple two-qubit model suitable to address these issues. We then report an all-optical experiment which simulates the model and permits us to recover and control, against decoherence, quantum correlations without back-action. We finally give an interpretation of the phenomenon by establishing the roles of the involved parties.
Project description:The decoherence of quantum objects is a critical issue in quantum science and technology. It is generally believed that stronger noise causes faster decoherence. Strikingly, recent theoretical work suggests that under certain conditions, the opposite is true for spins in quantum baths. Here we report an experimental observation of an anomalous decoherence effect for the electron spin-1 of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in high-purity diamond at room temperature. We demonstrate that, under dynamical decoupling, the double-transition can have longer coherence time than the single-transition even though the former couples to the nuclear spin bath as twice strongly as the latter does. The excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical results confirms the controllability of the weakly coupled nuclear spins in the bath, which is useful in quantum information processing and quantum metrology.