Performance of BD Max StaphSR for Screening of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates among a Contemporary and Diverse Collection from 146 Institutions Located in Nine U.S. Census Regions: Prevalence of mecA Dropout Mutants.
ABSTRACT: This study determined the performance of BD Max StaphSR and the rate of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with an unrecognized staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) right-extremity junction (MREJ) region among 907 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and 900 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The rate of mecA/mecC dropout mutants was also evaluated. Only three MRSA isolates (99.7% sensitivity; 904/907) were classified as MSSA by the BD Max StaphSR assay, due to negative results for MREJ. Eight MSSA isolates (99.1% sensitivity; 892/900) were assigned as MRSA. However, six of these MSSA isolates had the mecA gene confirmed by PCR and sequencing (99.8% sensitivity; 898/900). Overall, 7.1% (64/900) of MSSA isolates showed results compatible with a mecA dropout genotype.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a healthcare problem worldwide. There are no reports on the virulence characteristics of MRSA in Northern Cyprus (NC). This study aimed to determine the presence of pvl among MRSA isolates from patients admitted to a university hospital in NC using molecular methods. Fifty S. aureus strains were included in this study. BD Phoenix automated identification system was used for bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Methicillin resistance was confirmed by disc diffusion assay. Presence of nuc and mecA genes was tested by multiplex PCR. Detection of pvl gene was performed by single-target PCR. RESULTS:Out of 50 S. aureus isolates identified as MRSA by BD Phoenix system, 3 were susceptible to cefoxitin with disc diffusion assay and were confirmed as methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). All isolates (n?=?50, 100%) tested positive for the presence nuc gene and 68% (n?=?34/50) were mecA positive. pvl was detected in 27.7% (n?=?13/47) of the MRSA isolates. Among PVL-positive MRSA isolates, 69.2% (9/13) were inpatients. PVL-MRSA was more common in isolates from deep tracheal aspirate (30.8%, 4/13) and abscess/wound (23.1%, 3/13). This represents the first study of PVL presence among MRSA in hospital setting in NC.
Project description:Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) can arise from methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) following partial or complete excision of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). This study investigated whether multiresistant MSSA isolates from Irish hospitals, where MRSA has been endemic for decades, harbor SCCmec DNA. Twenty-five multiresistant MSSA isolates recovered between 2002 and 2006 were tested for SCCmec DNA by PCR and were genotyped by multilocus sequence typing and spa typing. All isolates lacked mecA. Three isolates (12%) harbored SCCmec DNA; two of these (genotype ST8/t190) harbored a 26-kb SCCmec IID (II.3.1.2) remnant that lacked part of mecI and all of mecR1, mecA, and IS431; the third isolate (ST8/t3209) harbored the SCCmec region from dcs to orfX. All three isolates were detected as MRSA using the BD GeneOhm and Cepheid's Xpert MRSA real-time PCR assays. Six isolates (ST8/t190, n = 4; ST5/t088, n = 2), including both isolates with the SCCmec IID remnant, harbored ccrAB4 with 100% identity to ccrAB4 from the Staphylococcus epidermidis composite island SCC-CI. This ccrAB4 gene was also identified in 23 MRSA isolates representative of ST8/t190-MRSA with variant SCCmec II subtypes IIA to IIE, which predominated previously in Irish hospitals. ccrAB4 was located 5,549 bp upstream of the left SCCmec junction in both the MRSA and MSSA isolates with SCCmec elements and remnants and 5,549 bp upstream of orfX in the four MSSA isolates with ccrAB4 only on an SCC-CI homologous region. This is the first description of a large SCCmec remnant with ccr and partial mec genes in MSSA and of the S. epidermidis SCC-CI and ccrAB4 genes in S. aureus.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important causes of hospital infections worldwide. High-level resistance to methicillin is caused by the mecA gene, which encodes an alternative penicillin-binding protein, PBP 2a. To determine the clonal relationships between methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA, we typed 1,069 S. aureus isolates (493 MSSA isolates and 576 MRSA isolates), collected mainly in North American and European hospitals between the 1960s and the year 2000, using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. Of 10 widespread S. aureus lineages recognized, 8 had corresponding mecA-positive strains. Multiresistant MRSA strains are found in hospitals worldwide, while unrelated and more susceptible strains represent less than 1% of the MRSA population. This supports the hypothesis that horizontal transfer plays an important role in the dissemination of the mecA gene in the S. aureus population.
Project description:A mecC (mecALGA251)-adapted multiplex PCR-based methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) detection assay was evaluated using an international, spa-typed Staphylococcus aureus collection comprising 51 mecC-positive MRSA, 240 mecA-positive MRSA, and 50 mecA- and mecC-negative methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. The assay showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for S. aureus species identification as well as for mecA and mecC detection.
Project description:The key genetic component of methicillin resistance, the mecA determinant, is not native to Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the evolution of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) must have begun with the acquisition of the mecA determinant from an unknown heterologous source some time before the first reported appearance of MRSA isolates in clinical specimens in the U.K. and Denmark (in the early 1960s). We compared the genetic backgrounds and phenotypes of a group of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates to the properties of MRSA strains isolated in Denmark and the U.K. during the same time period, and also to the genetic profiles of contemporary epidemic clones of MRSA. All early MRSA isolates resembled a large group of the early MSSA blood isolates in phenotypic and genetic properties, including phage group, antibiotype (resistance to penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern, and spaA type and multilocus sequence type, strongly suggesting that the early MSSA examined here represented the progeny of a strain that served as one of the first S. aureus recipients of the methicillin-resistance determinant in Europe. The genetic background of this group of early MSSA isolates was also very similar to that of the widely disseminated contemporary "Iberian clone" of MRSA, suggesting that genetic determinants present in early MSSA and essential for some aspects of the epidemicity and/or virulence of these strains may have been retained by this highly successful contemporary MRSA lineage.
Project description:Prevalence, drug resistance and genetic characteristics were analysed for a total of 128 clinical isolates of staphylococci obtained from a tertiary hospital in Myanmar. The dominant species were S. aureus (39%) and S. haemolyticus (35%), followed by S. epidermidis (6%) and S. saprophyticus (5%). The majority of S. haemolyticus isolates (71.1%) harboured mecA, showing high resistance rates to ampicillin, cephalosporins, erythromycin and levofloxacin, while methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was only 8% (four isolates) among S. aureus with type IV SCCmec. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genes were detected in 20 isolates of S. aureus (40%), among which only one isolate was MRSA belonging to sequence type (ST) 88/agr-III/coa-IIIa, and the other 19 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates were classified into six STs (ST88, ST121, ST1153, ST1155, ST1930, ST3206). An ST1153 MSSA isolate with PVL was revealed to belong to a novel coa type, XIIIa. ST121 S. aureus was the most common in the PVL-positive MSSA (47%, 9/19), harbouring genes of bone sialoprotein and variant of elastin binding protein as a distinctive feature. Although PVL-positive MSSA was susceptible to most of the antimicrobial agents examined, ST1930 isolates were resistant to erythromycin and levofloxacin. ST59 PVL-negative MRSA and MSSA had more resistance genes than other MRSA and PVL-positive MSSA, showing resistance to more antimicrobial agents. This study indicated higher prevalence of mecA associated with multiple drug resistance in S. haemolyticus than in S. aureus, and dissemination of PVL genes to multiple clones of MSSA, with ST121 being dominant, among hospital isolates in Myanmar.
Project description:Here, 210 healthy participants including community personnel (70), clinical students (68), and healthcare workers (HCWs) (72) from the eastern region of Saudi Arabia were studied. Sixty-three Staphylococcus aureus isolates were obtained from the nares of 37% of the community personnel and 26% of the clinical students and HCWs. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was found in 16% (10 isolates) of the 63 isolates; six were from HCWs. Molecular characterization revealed high clonal diversity among the isolates, with 19 different spa types, 12 clonal complexes (CCs), and seven sequence types (STs) detected. The most common strain type was USA900, CC15, and t084, seen in 11 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) isolates. Moreover, three novel spa types in six isolates and one novel ST in two isolates were identified, most from HCWs. Interestingly, 29 isolates were mecA positive by PCR, whereas only 10 isolates were MRSA by disk diffusion (cefoxitin resistant). Of the 19 MSSA mecA-positive isolates, 16 were PBP2a negative, leaving three unique isolates from HCWs that were mecA and PBP2a positive yet cefoxitin susceptible. Our findings highlight the importance of phenotypically and genotypically characterizing S. aureus strains isolated from healthy communities to monitor the risk of possible cross-transmission to hospitalized patients. The identified strains showed a clonal lineage relationship with previously reported S. aureus and MRSA strains acquired from hospital settings.
Project description:Food-borne methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is involved in two-fold higher mortality rate compared to methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Eventhough Mysuru recognized as cleanest city in the world, prevalence of food contamination is not detailed. The aim is to screen food samples from Mysuru area and to characterize MRSA strain, employing MALDI-Biotyper, multiplex PCR to distinguish between MRSA and MSSA by PCR-coupled single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Of all the food-borne pathogens, S. aureus contamination accounts for 94.37?±?0.02% (P?<?0.01), strains characterized by means of nuc genes, followed by species specific identification by Coa, Eap and SpA genes and multiplex PCR to confirm the presence of three methicillin resistant staphylococcal species simultaneously using nuc and phoP genes. Amplification of mecA gene in 159 isolates confirmed that all strains are methicillin resistant, except UOM160 (MSSA) and multi-drug resistant (MDR) in 159 isolates confirmed by 22 sets of ?-lactam antibiotics. MSSA and MDR-MRSA were discriminated by PCR-SSCP using nuc gene for the first time. From the present studies, compared to conventional methods MALDI-Biotyper emerged as an effective, sensitive (>99%), robust (<2?min), and alternative tool for pathogen identification, and we developed a PCR-SSCP technique for rapid detection of MSSA and MRSA strains.
Project description:Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a serious pathogen in clinical settings and early detection is critical. Here, we investigated the MRSA discrimination potential of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) using 320 clinical S. aureus isolates obtained in 2005-2014 and 181 isolates obtained in 2018. We conducted polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and MALDI-TOF MS to find specific markers for methicillin resistance. We identified 21 peaks with significant differences between MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), as determined by mecA and SCCmec types. Each specific peak was sufficient to discriminate MRSA. We developed two methods for simple discrimination according to these peaks. First, a decision tree for MRSA based on six MRSA-specific peaks, three MSSA-specific peaks, and two SCCmec type IV peaks showed a sensitivity of 96.5%. Second, simple discrimination based on four MRSA-specific peaks and one MSSA peak had a maximum sensitivity of 88.3%. The decision tree applied to 181 S. aureus isolates from 2018 had a sensitivity of 87.6%. In conclusion, we used specific peaks to develop sensitive MRSA identification methods. This rapid and easy MALDI-TOF MS approach can improve patient management.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a main cause of bovine mastitis and a major pathogen affecting human health. The emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a significant concern for both animal health and public health. This study investigated the incidence of MRSA in milk samples collected from dairy cows with clinical mastitis and characterized the MRSA isolates using antimicrobial susceptibility tests and genetic typing methods. In total, 103 S. aureus isolates were obtained from dairy farms in 4 different provinces in China, including Gansu, Shanghai, Sichuan, and Guizhou. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of these isolates revealed that the resistance rates to penicillin and sulfamethoxazole were high, while the resistance rates to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin were low. Among the 103 isolates, 49 (47.6%) were found to be mecA-positive, indicating the high incidence of MRSA. However, 37 of the 49 mecA-positive isolates were susceptible to oxacillin as determined by antimicrobial susceptibility assays and were thus classified as oxacillin-susceptible mecA-positive S. aureus (OS-MRSA). These isolates could be misclassified as methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) if genetic detection of mecA was not performed. Molecular characterization of selected mecA-positive isolates showed that they were all negative with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), but belonged to different spa types and SCCmec types. These results indicate that OS-MRSA is common in bovine mastitis in China and underscore the need for genetic methods (in addition to phenotypic tests) to accurately identify MRSA.