Structural Based Analyses of the JC Virus T-Antigen F258L Mutant Provides Evidence for DNA Dependent Conformational Changes in the C-Termini of Polyomavirus Origin Binding Domains.
ABSTRACT: The replication of human polyomavirus JCV, which causes Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy, is initiated by the virally encoded T-antigen (T-ag). The structure of the JC virus T-ag origin-binding domain (OBD) was recently solved by X-ray crystallography. This structure revealed that the OBD contains a C-terminal pocket, and that residues from the multifunctional A1 and B2 motifs situated on a neighboring OBD molecule dock into the pocket. Related studies established that a mutation in a pocket residue (F258L) rendered JCV T-ag unable to support JCV DNA replication. To establish why this mutation inactivated JCV T-ag, we have solved the structure of the F258L JCV T-ag OBD mutant. Based on this structure, it is concluded that the structural consequences of the F258L mutation are limited to the pocket region. Further analyses, utilizing the available polyomavirus OBD structures, indicate that the F258 region is highly dynamic and that the relative positions of F258 are governed by DNA binding. The possible functional consequences of the DNA dependent rearrangements, including promotion of OBD cycling at the replication fork, are discussed.
Project description:JC virus is a member of the Polyomavirus family of DNA tumor viruses and the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). PML is a disease that occurs primarily in people who are immunocompromised and is usually fatal. As with other Polyomavirus family members, the replication of JC virus (JCV) DNA is dependent upon the virally encoded protein T-antigen. To further our understanding of JCV replication, we have determined the crystal structure of the origin-binding domain (OBD) of JCV T-antigen. This structure provides the first molecular understanding of JCV T-ag replication functions; for example, it suggests how the JCV T-ag OBD site-specifically binds to the major groove of GAGGC sequences in the origin. Furthermore, these studies suggest how the JCV OBDs interact during subsequent oligomerization events. We also report that the OBD contains a novel "pocket"; which sequesters the A1 & B2 loops of neighboring molecules. Mutagenesis of a residue in the pocket associated with the JCV T-ag OBD interfered with viral replication. Finally, we report that relative to the SV40 OBD, the surface of the JCV OBD contains one hemisphere that is highly conserved and one that is highly variable.
Project description:Polyomavirus origins of replication contain multiple occurrences of G(A/G)GGC, the high-affinity binding element for the viral initiator T-antigen (T-ag). The site I regulatory region of simian virus 40, involved in the repression of transcription and the enhancement of DNA replication initiation, contains two GAGGC sequences arranged head to tail and separated by a 7-bp AT-rich sequence. We have solved a 3.2-Å costructure of the SV40 origin-binding domain (OBD) bound to site I. We have also established that T-ag assembly on site I is limited to the formation of a single hexamer. These observations have enabled an analysis of the role(s) of the OBDs bound to the site I pentanucleotides in hexamer formation. Of interest, they reveal a correlation between the OBDs bound to site I and a pair of OBD subunits in the previously described hexameric spiral structure. Based on these findings, we propose that spiral assembly is promoted by pentanucleotide pairs arranged in a head-to-tail manner. Finally, the possibility that spiral assembly by OBD subunits accounts for the heterogeneous distribution of pentanucleotides found in the origins of replication of polyomaviruses is discussed.
Project description:The origin-binding domain (OBD) of simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen (T-Ag) is essential for many of T-Ag's interactions with DNA. Nevertheless, many important issues related to DNA binding, for example, how single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) transits along the T-Ag OBD, have yet to be established. Therefore, X-ray crystallography was used to determine the costructure of the T-Ag OBD bound to DNA substrates such as the single-stranded region of a forked oligonucleotide. A second structure of the T-Ag OBD crystallized in the presence of poly(dT)(12) is also reported. To test the conclusions derived from these structures, residues identified as being involved in binding to ssDNA by crystallography or by an earlier nuclear magnetic resonance study were mutated, and their binding to DNA was characterized via fluorescence anisotropy. In addition, these mutations were introduced into full-length T-Ag, and these mutants were tested for their ability to support replication. When considered in terms of additional homology-based sequence alignments, our studies refine our understanding of how the T-Ag OBDs encoded by the polyomavirus family interact with ssDNA, a critical step during the initiation of DNA replication.
Project description:Previous studies have demonstrated that the JC virus (JCV) late regulatory protein agnoprotein is phosphorylated by the serine/threonine-specific protein kinase-C (PKC) and mutants of this protein at the PKC phosphorylation sites exhibit defects in the viral replication cycle. We have now investigated whether agnoprotein phosphorylation is regulated by PP2A, a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase and whether JCV small t antigen (Sm t-Ag) is involved in this regulation. Protein-protein interaction studies demonstrated that PP2A associates with agnoprotein and dephosphorylates it at PKC-specific sites. Sm t-Ag was also found to interact with PP2A and this interaction inhibited the dephosphorylation of agnoprotein by PP2A. The interaction domains of Sm t-Ag and agnoprotein with PP2A were mapped, as were the interaction domains of Sm t-Ag with agnoprotein. The middle portion of Sm t-Ag (aa 82-124) was found to be critical for the interaction with both agnoprotein and PP2A and the N-terminal region of agnoprotein for interaction with Sm t-Ag. To further understand the role of Sm t-Ag in JCV regulation, a stop codon was introduced at Ser90 immediately after splice donor site of the JCV early gene and the functional consequences of this mutation were investigated. The ability of this mutant virus to replicate was substantially reduced compared to WT. Next, the functional significance of PP2A in JCV replication was examined by siRNA targeting. Downregulation of PP2A caused a significant reduction in the level of JCV replication. Moreover, the impact of Sm t-Ag on agnoprotein phosphorylation was investigated by creating a double mutant of JCV, where Sm t-Ag stop codon mutant was combined with an agnoprotein triple phosphorylation mutant (Ser7, Ser11 and Thr21 to Ala). Results showed that double mutant behaves much like the triple phosphorylation mutant of agnoprotein during viral replication cycle, which suggests that agnoprotein might be an important target of Sm t-Ag with respect to the regulation of its phosphorylation. Collectively, these results suggest that there is an interplay between agnoprotein, Sm t-Ag and PP2A with respect to the regulation of JCV life cycle and this could be important for the progression of the JCV-induced disease, PML.
Project description:The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS-PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.
Project description:The human polyomavirus JC (JCV) infects glial cells in immunosuppressed individuals, leading to progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Polyomavirus JC can also infect neurons in patients with JCV granule cell neuronopathy and JCV encephalopathy. CD8-positive T cells play a crucial role in viral containment and outcome in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, but whether CD8-positive T cells can also recognize JCV-infected neurons is unclear. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the prevalence of T cells in neuron-rich areas of archival brain samples from 77 patients with JCV CNS infections and 94 control subjects. Neurons predominantly sustained a restrictive infection with expression of JCV regulatory protein T antigen (T Ag), whereas glial cells were productively infected and expressed both T Ag and the capsid protein VP1. T cells were more prevalent near JCV-infected cells with intact nuclei expressing both T Ag and VP1 compared with those expressing either protein alone. CD8-positive T cells also colocalized more with JCV-infected glial cells than with JCV-infected neurons. Major histocompatibility complex class I expression was upregulated in JCV-infected areas but could only be detected in rare neurons interspersed with infected glial cells. These results suggest that isolated neurons harboring restrictive JCV infection do not upregulate major histocompatibility complex class I and thus may escape recognition by CD8-positive T cells.
Project description:DNA helicases are essential for DNA metabolism; however, at the molecular level little is known about how they assemble or function. Therefore, as a model for a eukaryotic helicase, we are analyzing T antigen (T-ag) the helicase encoded by simian virus 40. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) methods were used to investigate the transit of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) through the T-ag origin-binding domain (T-ag OBD). When the residues that interact with ssDNA are viewed in terms of the structure of a hexamer of the T-ag OBD, comprised of residues 131 to 260, they indicate that ssDNA passes over one face of the T-ag OBD and then transits through a gap in the open ring structure. The NMR-based conclusions are supported by an analysis of previously described mutations that disrupt critical steps during the initiation of DNA replication. These and related observations are discussed in terms of the threading of DNA through T-ag hexamers and the initiation of viral DNA replication.
Project description:Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a lethal brain disease caused by uncontrolled replication of JC polyomavirus (JCV). JCV strains recovered from the brains of PML patients carry mutations that prevent the engagement of sialylated glycans, which are thought to serve as receptors for the infectious entry of wild-type JCV. In this report, we show that non-sialylated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) can serve as alternative attachment receptors for the infectious entry of both wild-type and PML mutant JCV strains. After GAG-mediated attachment, PML mutant strains engage non-sialylated non-GAG co-receptor glycans, such as asialo-GM1. JCV-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies isolated from patients who recovered from PML appear to block infection by preventing the docking of post-attachment co-receptor glycans in an apical pocket of the JCV major capsid protein. Identification of the GAG-dependent/sialylated glycan-independent alternative entry pathway should facilitate the development of infection inhibitors, including recombinant neutralizing antibodies.
Project description:The double-stranded DNA polyomavirus Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive but rare human skin cancer that most often affects immunosuppressed and elderly persons. As in other polyomaviruses, the large T-antigen of MCV recognizes the viral origin of replication by binding repeating G(A/G)GGC pentamers. The spacing, number, orientation, and necessity of repeats for viral replication differ, however, from other family members such as SV40 and murine polyomavirus. We report here the 2.9 Å crystal structure of the MCV large T-antigen origin binding domain (OBD) in complex with a DNA fragment from the MCV origin of replication. Consistent with replication data showing that three of the G(A/G)GGC-like binding sites near the center of the origin are required for replication, the crystal structure contains three copies of the OBD. This stoichiometry was verified using isothermal titration calorimetry. The affinity for G(A/G)GGC-containing double-stranded DNA was found to be ~740 nM, approximately 8-fold weaker than the equivalent domain in SV40 for the analogous region of the SV40 origin. The difference in affinity is partially attributable to DNA-binding residue Lys331 (Arg154 in SV40). In contrast to SV40, a small protein-protein interface is observed between MCV OBDs when bound to the central region of the origin. This protein-protein interface is reminiscent of that seen in bovine papilloma virus E1 protein. Mutational analysis indicates, however, that this interface contributes little to DNA binding energy.
Project description:The human JC polyomavirus (JCV) causes a fatal demyelinating disease, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), in immunocompromised individuals. Current treatment options for PML are inadequate. Sialylated oligosaccharides and the serotonin receptor are known to be necessary for JCV entry, but the molecular interactions underlying JCV attachment remain unknown. Using glycan array screening and viral infectivity assays, we identify a linear sialylated pentasaccharide with the sequence NeuNAc-?2,6-Gal-?1,4-GlcNAc-?1,3-Gal-?1,4-Glc (LSTc) present on host glycoproteins and glycolipids as a specific JCV recognition motif. The crystal structure of the JCV capsid protein VP1 was solved alone and in complex with LSTc. It reveals extensive interactions with the terminal sialic acid of the LSTc motif and specific recognition of an extended conformation of LSTc. Mutations in the JCV oligosaccharide-binding sites abolish cell attachment, viral spread, and infectivity, further validating the importance of this interaction. Our findings provide a powerful platform for the development of antiviral compounds.