Incretin-like effects of small molecule trace amine-associated receptor 1 agonists.
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes and obesity are emerging pandemics in the 21st century creating worldwide urgency for the development of novel and safe therapies. We investigated trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) as a novel target contributing to the control of glucose homeostasis and body weight.We investigated the peripheral human tissue distribution of TAAR1 by immunohistochemistry and tested the effect of a small molecule TAAR1 agonist on insulin secretion in vitro using INS1E cells and human islets and on glucose tolerance in C57Bl6, and db/db mice. Body weight effects were investigated in obese DIO mice.TAAR1 activation by a selective small molecule agonist increased glucose-dependent insulin secretion in INS1E cells and human islets and elevated plasma PYY and GLP-1 levels in mice. In diabetic db/db mice, the TAAR1 agonist normalized glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test. Sub-chronic treatment of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice with the TAAR1 agonist resulted in reduced food intake and body weight. Furthermore insulin sensitivity was improved and plasma triglyceride levels and liver triglyceride content were lower than in controls.We have identified TAAR1 as a novel integrator of metabolic control, which acts on gastrointestinal and pancreatic islet hormone secretion. Thus TAAR1 qualifies as a novel and promising target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Project description:The aim of this study was to deeper investigate the mechanisms through which ENPP1, a negative modulator of insulin receptor (IR) activation, plays a role on insulin signaling, insulin secretion and eventually glucose metabolism. ENPP1 cDNA (carrying either K121 or Q121 variant) was transfected in HepG2 liver-, L6 skeletal muscle- and INS1E beta-cells. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation (HepG2, L6, INS1E), Akt-Ser(473), ERK1/2-Thr(202)/Tyr(204) and GSK3-beta Ser(9) phosphorylation (HepG2, L6), PEPCK mRNA levels (HepG2) and 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake (L6) was studied. GLUT 4 mRNA (L6), insulin secretion and caspase-3 activation (INS1E) were also investigated. Insulin-induced IR-autophosphorylation was decreased in HepG2-K, L6-K, INS1E-K (20%, 52% and 11% reduction vs. untransfected cells) and twice as much in HepG2-Q, L6-Q, INS1E-Q (44%, 92% and 30%). Similar data were obtained with Akt-Ser(473), ERK1/2-Thr(202)/Tyr(204) and GSK3-beta Ser(9) in HepG2 and L6. Insulin-induced reduction of PEPCK mRNA was progressively lower in untransfected, HepG2-K and HepG2-Q cells (65%, 54%, 23%). Insulin-induced glucose uptake in untransfected L6 (60% increase over basal), was totally abolished in L6-K and L6-Q cells. GLUT 4 mRNA was slightly reduced in L6-K and twice as much in L6-Q (13% and 25% reduction vs. untransfected cells). Glucose-induced insulin secretion was 60% reduced in INS1E-K and almost abolished in INS1E-Q. Serum deficiency activated caspase-3 by two, three and four folds in untransfected INS1E, INS1E-K and INS1E-Q. Glyburide-induced insulin secretion was reduced by 50% in isolated human islets from homozygous QQ donors as compared to those from KK and KQ individuals. Our data clearly indicate that ENPP1, especially when the Q121 variant is operating, affects insulin signaling and glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle- and liver-cells and both function and survival of insulin secreting beta-cells, thus representing a strong pathogenic factor predisposing to insulin resistance, defective insulin secretion and glucose metabolism abnormalities.
Project description:The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor that plays an important role in natural immunity. It is suggested that mesenchymal cells are the major players during inflammation. Previously, we reported that advanced glycation end products (AGE), known to be one of the ligands of RAGE, inhibited glucose-induced insulin secretion from ex vivo pancreatic islets, although the mechanism responsible remains largely unknown. In the present study, we examined the cascades operating downstream from RAGE using the insulinoma cell line INS1E and primary-cultured pancreatic fibroblasts as in vitro models for parenchymal (?) cells and mesenchymal cells, respectively. Phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase, inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase, and nuclear factor ?B was stimulated by AGE or high mobility group binding 1 (HMGB1) in pancreatic fibroblasts, whereas no such effect was observed in INS1E cells. Expression of the Ccl5, Il-6, and Il-1b genes was increased by AGE/HMGB1 in fibroblasts, but not in INS1E cells. On the other hand, AGE inhibited the secretion of insulin from ex vivo pancreatic islets, and this effect was ameliorated by MK615, a Japanese apricot extract used as an anti-inflammatory agent. Glucose-induced insulin secretion from INS1E cells was not affected by direct administration of AGE/HMGB1, but was inhibited by fibroblast-conditioned medium. These results suggest that AGE suppresses glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic islets through indirect mesenchymal RAGE signaling.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We used the db/db mouse to determine the nature of the secretory defect in intact islets. METHODS: Glucose tolerance was compared in db/db and wild-type (WT) mice. Isolated islets were used: to measure insulin secretion and calcium in a two-photon assay of single-insulin-granule fusion; and for immunofluorescence of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment proteins (SNAREs). RESULTS: The 13-18-week-old db/db mice showed a diabetic phenotype. Isolated db/db islets showed a 77% reduction in insulin secretion induced by 15 mmol/l glucose and reductions in the amplitude and rise-time of the calcium response to glucose. Ionomycin-induced insulin secretion in WT but not db/db islets. Immunofluorescence showed an increase in the levels of the SNAREs synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) and vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (VAMP2) in db/db islets, but reduced syntaxin-1A. Therefore, db/db islets have both a compromised calcium response to glucose and a compromised secretory response to calcium. Two-photon microscopy of isolated islets determined the number and distribution of insulin granule exocytic events. Compared with WT, db/db islets showed far fewer exocytic events (an 83% decline at 15 mmol/l glucose). This decline was due to a 73% loss of responding cells and, in the remaining responsive cells, a 50% loss of exocytic responses per cell. An assay measuring granule re-acidification showed evidence for more recaptured granules in db/db islets compared with WT. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We showed that db/db islets had a reduced calcium response to glucose and a reduction in syntaxin-1A. Within the db/db islets, changes were manifest as both a reduction in responding cells and a reduction in fusing insulin granules per cell.
Project description:The estrogen receptor ? (ER?) is emerging as an important player in the physiology of the endocrine pancreas. We evaluated the role and antidiabetic actions of the ER? selective agonist WAY200070 as an insulinotropic molecule. We demonstrate that WAY200070 enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion both in mouse and human islets. In vivo experiments showed that a single administration of WAY200070 leads to an increase in plasma insulin levels with a concomitant improved response to a glucose load. Two-week treatment administration increased glucose-induced insulin release and pancreatic ?-cell mass and improved glucose and insulin sensitivity. In addition, streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic mice treated with WAY200070 exhibited a significant improvement in plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance as well as a regeneration of pancreatic ?-cell mass. Studies performed in db/db mice demonstrated that this compound restored first-phase insulin secretion and enhanced pancreatic ?-cell mass. We conclude that ER? agonists should be considered as new targets for the treatment of diabetes.
Project description:Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) describes a group of metabolic disorders characterized by defects in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells is an important factor in the etiology of T2DM, though the complex regulation and mechanisms of insulin secretion from ?-cells remains to be fully elucidated. High plasma levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) have been reported in T2DM patients, though the potential effect on insulin secretion is unclear. However, it is known that the 5-HT receptor 2C (5-HT(2C)R) agonist, mCPP, decreases plasma insulin concentration in mice. As such, we aimed to investigate the expression of the 5-HT(2C)R in pancreatic islets of diabetic mice and the role of 5-HT(2C)R signaling in insulin secretion from pancreatic ?-cells. We found that 5-HT(2C)R expression was significantly increased in pancreatic islets of db/db mice. Furthermore, treatment with a 5-HT(2C)R antagonist (SB242084) increased insulin secretion from pancreatic islets isolated from db/db mice in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect in islets from control mice. The effect of a 5-HT(2C)R agonist (mCPP) and antagonist (SB242084) were further studied in isolated pancreatic islets from mice and Min-6 cells. We found that mCPP significantly inhibited insulin secretion in Min-6 cells and isolated islets in a dose-dependent manner, which could be reversed by SB242084 or RNA interference against 5-HT(2C)R. We also treated Min-6 cells with palmitic acid for 24 h, and found that the expression of 5-HT(2C)R increased in a dose-dependent manner; furthermore, the inhibition of insulin secretion in Min-6 cells induced by palmitic acid could be reversed by SB242084 or RNA interference against 5-HT(2C)R. Taken together, our data suggests that increased expression of 5-HT(2C)R in pancreatic ?-cells might inhibit insulin secretion. This unique observation increases our understanding of T2DM and suggests new avenues for potential treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:GPR142, which is highly expressed in pancreatic islets, has recently been deorphanized as a receptor for aromatic amino acids; however, its physiological role and pharmacological potential is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS:We find that GPR142 is expressed not only in ?- but also in ?-cells of the islets as well as in enteroendocrine cells, and we confirm that GPR142 is a highly selective sensor of essential aromatic amino acids, in particular Trp and oligopeptides with N-terminal Trp. GPR142 knock-out mice displayed a very limited metabolic phenotype but demonstrated that L-Trp induced secretion of pancreatic and gut hormones is mediated through GPR142 but that the receptor is not required for protein-induced hormone secretion. A synthetic GPR142 agonist stimulated insulin and glucagon as well as GIP, CCK, and GLP-1 secretion. In particular, GIP secretion was sensitive to oral administration of the GPR142 agonist an effect which in contrast to the other hormones was blocked by protein load. Oral administration of the GPR142 agonist increased [3H]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in muscle and fat depots mediated through insulin action while it lowered liver glycogen conceivably mediated through glucagon, and, consequently, it did not lower total blood glucose. Nevertheless, acute administration of the GPR142 agonist strongly improved oral glucose tolerance in both lean and obese mice as well as Zucker fatty rat. Six weeks in-feed chronic treatment with the GPR142 agonist did not affect body weight in DIO mice, but increased energy expenditure and carbohydrate utilization, lowered basal glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity. CONCLUSIONS:GPR142 functions as a sensor of aromatic amino acids, controlling GIP but also CCK and GLP-1 as well as insulin and glucagon in the pancreas. GPR142 agonists could have novel interesting potential in modifying metabolism through a balanced action of gut hormones as well as both insulin and glucagon.
Project description:Uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) may regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The current study investigated the effects of berberine, an alkaloid found in many medicinal plants, on oxidative stress and insulin secretion through restoration of UCP2 expression in high glucose (HG)-treated INS-1E cells and rat islets or in db/db mouse islets.Mouse and rat pancreatic islets were isolated. Nitrotyrosine, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and UCP2 expression and AMPK phosphorylation were examined by Western blotting. Insulin secretion was measured by ELISA. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was detected by confocal microscopy.Incubation of INS-1E cells and rat islets with HG (30 mmol·L(-1); 8 h) elevated nitrotyrosine level, reduced SOD-1 and UCP2 expression and AMPK phosphorylation, and inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. HG also increased mitochondrial ROS in INS-1E cells. Co-treatment with berberine inhibited such effects. The AMPK inhibitor compound C, the UCP2 inhibitor genipin and adenovirus ucp2 shRNA inhibited these protective effects of berberine. Furthermore, compound C normalized berberine-stimulated UCP2 expression but genipin did not affect AMPK phosphorylation. Islets from db/db mice exhibited elevated nitrotyrosine levels, reduced expression of SOD-1 and UCP2 and AMPK phosphorylation, and decreased insulin secretion compared with those from db/m(+) mice. Berberine also improved these defects in diabetic islets and genipin blocked the effects of berberine.Berberine inhibited oxidative stress and restored insulin secretion in HG-treated INS-IE cells and diabetic mouse islets by activating AMPK and UCP2. UCP2 is an important signalling molecule in mediating anti-diabetic effects of berberine.
Project description:GPR40 (FFA1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor, primarily expressed in pancreatic islets, the activation of which elicits increased insulin secretion only in the presence of elevated glucose levels. A potent, orally bioavailable small molecule GPR40 agonist is hypothesized to be an effective antidiabetic posing little or no risk of hypoglycemia. We recently reported the discovery of AMG 837 (1), a potent partial agonist of GPR40. Herein, we present the optimization from the GPR40 partial agonist 1 to the structurally and pharmacologically distinct GPR40 full agonist AM-1638 (21). Moreover, we demonstrate the improved in vivo efficacy that GPR40 full agonist 21 exhibits in BDF/DIO mice as compared to partial agonist 1.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is important in glucose, lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. However, it remains unknown whether FGF21 is involved in insulin expression and secretion that are dysregulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we found that FGF21 was down-regulated in pancreatic islets of db/db mice, a mouse model of T2DM, along with decreased insulin expression, suggesting the possible involvement of FGF21 in maintaining insulin homeostasis and islet ?-cell function. Importantly, FGF21 knockout exacerbated palmitate-induced islet ?-cell failure and suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Pancreatic FGF21 overexpression significantly increased insulin expression, enhanced GSIS, improved islet morphology and reduced ?-cell apoptosis in db/db mice. Mechanistically, FGF21 promoted expression of insulin gene transcription factors and soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, the major regulators of insulin secretion, as well as activating phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in islets of db/db mice. In addition, pharmaceutical inhibition of PI3K/Akt signaling effectively suppressed FGF21-induced expression of insulin gene transcription factors and SNARE proteins, suggesting an essential role of PI3K/Akt signaling in FGF21-induced insulin expression and secretion. Taken together, our results demonstrate a protective role of pancreatic FGF21 in T2DM mice through inducing PI3K/Akt signaling-dependent insulin expression and secretion.
Project description:C57Bl/6 mice develop obesity and mild hyperglycemia when fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Although diet-induced obesity (DIO) is a widely studied model of type 2 diabetes, little is known about beta-cell failure in these mice.DIO mice were separated in two groups according to body weight gain: low- and high-HFD responders (LDR and HDR). We examined whether mild hyperglycemia in HDR mice is due to reduced beta-cell mass or function and studied islet metabolism and signaling.HDR mice were more obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant, and hyperglycemic and showed a more altered plasma lipid profile than LDR. LDR mice largely compensated insulin resistance, whereas HDR showed perturbed glucose homeostasis. Neither LDR nor HDR mice showed reduced beta-cell mass, altered islet glucose metabolism, and triglyceride deposition. Insulin secretion in response to glucose, KCl, and arginine was impaired in LDR and almost abolished in HDR islets. Palmitate partially restored glucose- and KCl-stimulated secretion. The glucose-induced rise in ATP was reduced in both DIO groups, and the glucose-induced rise in Ca(2+) was reduced in HDR islets relatively to LDR. Glucose-stimulated lipolysis was decreased in LDR and HDR islets, whereas fat oxidation was increased in HDR islets only. Fatty acid esterification processes were markedly diminished, and free cholesterol accumulated in HDR islets.beta-Cell failure in HDR mice is not due to reduced beta-cell mass and glucose metabolism or steatosis but to a secretory dysfunction that is possibly due to altered ATP/Ca(2+) and lipid signaling, as well as free cholesterol deposition.