ABSTRACT: Metal-oxide-based resistive switching memory device has been studied intensively due to its potential to satisfy the requirements of next-generation memory devices. Active research has been done on the materials and device structures of resistive switching memory devices that meet the requirements of high density, fast switching speed, and reliable data storage. In this study, resistive switching memory devices were fabricated with nano-template-assisted bottom up growth. The electrochemical deposition was adopted to achieve the bottom-up growth of nickel nanodot electrodes. Nickel oxide layer was formed by oxygen plasma treatment of nickel nanodots at low temperature. The structures of fabricated nanoscale memory devices were analyzed with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope (AFM). The electrical characteristics of the devices were directly measured using conductive AFM. This work demonstrates the fabrication of resistive switching memory devices using self-assembled nanoscale masks and nanomateirals growth from bottom-up electrochemical deposition.
Project description:A facile and versatile scheme is demonstrated to fabricate nanoscale resistive switching memory devices that exhibit reliable bipolar switching behavior. A solution process is used to synthesize the copper oxide layer into 250-nm via-holes that had been patterned in Si wafers. Direct bottom-up filling of copper oxide can facilitate fabrication of nanoscale memory devices without using vacuum deposition and etching processes. In addition, all materials and processes are CMOS compatible, and especially, the devices can be fabricated at room temperature. Nanoscale memory devices synthesized on wafers having 250-nm via-holes showed reproducible resistive switching programmable memory characteristics with reasonable endurance and data retention properties. This integration strategy provides a solution to overcome the scaling limit of current memory device fabrication methods.
Project description:The bottom-up approach using self-assembled materials/processes is thought to be a promising solution for next-generation device fabrication, but it is often found to be not feasible for use in real device fabrication. Here, we report a feasible and versatile way to fabricate high-density, nanoscale memory devices by direct bottom-up filling of memory elements. An ordered array of metal/oxide/metal (copper/copper oxide/copper) nanodots was synthesized with a uniform size and thickness defined by self-organized nanotemplate mask by sequential electrochemical deposition (ECD) of each layer. The fabricated memory devices showed bipolar resistive switching behaviors confirmed by conductive atomic force microscopy. This study demonstrates that ECD with bottom-up growth has great potential to fabricate high-density nanoelectronic devices beyond the scaling limit of top-down device fabrication processes.
Project description:The data included in this article provides additional supplementary information on our recent publication describing "Inducing tunable switching behavior in a single memristor" . Analyses of micro/nano-structural and compositional changes induced in a resistive oxide memory during resistive switching are carried out. Chromium doped strontium titanate based resistance change memories are fabricated in a capacitor-like metal-insulator-metal structure and subjected to different biasing conditions to set memory states. Transmission electron microscope based cross-sectional analyses of the memory devices in different memory states are collected and presented.
Project description:A kind of devices Pt/Ag/ZnO:Li/Pt/Ti with high resistive switching behaviors were prepared on a SiO<sub>2</sub>/Si substrate by using magnetron sputtering method and mask technology, composed of a bottom electrode (BE) of Pt/Ti, a resistive switching layer of ZnO:Li thin film and a top electrode (TE) of Pt/Ag. To determine the crystal lattice structure and the Li-doped concentration in the resulted ZnO thin films, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) tests were carried out. Resistive switching behaviors of the devices with different thicknesses of Li-doped ZnO thin films were studied at different set and reset voltages based on analog and digital resistive switching characteristics. At room temperature, the fabricated devices represent stable bipolar resistive switching behaviors with a low set voltage, a high switching current ratio and a long retention up to 10<sup>4</sup> s. In addition, the device can sustain an excellent endurance more than 10<sup>3</sup> cycles at an applied pulse voltage. The mechanism on how the thicknesses of the Li-doped ZnO thin films affect the resistive switching behaviors was investigated by installing conduction mechanism models. This study provides a new strategy for fabricating the resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device used in practice.
Project description:Downscaling limitations and limited write/erase cycles in conventional charge-storage based non-volatile memories stimulate the development of emerging memory devices having enhanced performance. Resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices are recognized as the next-generation memory devices for employment in artificial intelligence and neuromorphic computing, due to their smallest cell size, high write/erase speed and endurance. Unipolar and bipolar resistive switching characteristics in graphene oxide (GO) have been extensively studied in recent years, whereas the study of non-polar and complementary switching is scarce. Here we fabricated GO-based RRAM devices with gold nanoparticles (Au Nps). Diverse types of switching behavior are observed by changing the processing methods and device geometry. Tri-layer GO-based devices illustrated non-polar resistive switching, which is a combination of unipolar and bipolar switching. Five-layer GO-based devices depicted complementary resistive switching having the lowest current values ~12?µA; and this structure is capable of resolving the sneak path issue. Both devices show good retention and endurance performance. Au Nps in tri-layer devices assisted the conducting path, whereas in five-layer devices, Au Nps layer worked as common electrodes between co-joined cells. These GO-based devices with Au Nps comprising different configuration are vital for practical applications of emerging non-volatile resistive memories.
Project description:Owing to the increasing interest in the nonvolatile memory devices, resistive switching based on hybrid nanocomposite of a 2D material, molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is explored in this work. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated the fabrication of a memory device with the configuration of PET/Ag/MoS2-PVA/Ag via an all printed, hybrid, and state of the art fabrication approach. Bottom Ag electrodes, active layer of hybrid MoS2-PVA nanocomposite and top Ag electrode are deposited by reverse offset, electrohydrodynamic (EHD) atomization and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) patterning respectively. The fabricated device displayed characteristic bistable, nonvolatile and rewritable resistive switching behavior at a low operating voltage. A decent off/on ratio, high retention time, and large endurance of 1.28?×?10(2), 10(5)?sec and 1000 voltage sweeps were recorded respectively. Double logarithmic curve satisfy the trap controlled space charge limited current (TCSCLC) model in high resistance state (HRS) and ohmic model in low resistance state (LRS). Bendability test at various bending diameters (50-2?mm) for 1500 cycles was carried out to show the mechanical robustness of fabricated device.
Project description:TiO<sub>x</sub>-based resistive switching devices have recently attracted attention as a promising candidate for next-generation non-volatile memory devices. A number of studies have attempted to increase the structural density of resistive switching devices. The fabrication of a multi-level switching device is a feasible method for increasing the density of the memory cell. Herein, we attempt to obtain a non-volatile multi-level switching memory device that is highly transparent by embedding SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles (NPs) into the TiO<sub>x</sub> matrix (TiO<sub>x</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs). The fully transparent resistive switching device is fabricated with an ITO/TiO<sub>x</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs/ITO structure on glass substrate, and it shows transmittance over 95% in the visible range. The TiO<sub>x</sub>@SiO<sub>2</sub> NPs device shows outstanding switching characteristics, such as a high on/off ratio, long retention time, good endurance, and distinguishable multi-level switching. To understand multi-level switching characteristics by adjusting the set voltages, we analyze the switching mechanism in each resistive state. This method represents a promising approach for high-performance non-volatile multi-level memory applications.
Project description:Here, we present evidence of self-compliant and self-rectifying bipolar resistive switching behavior in Ni/SiNx/n⁺ Si and Ni/SiNx/n++ Si resistive-switching random access memory devices. The Ni/SiNx/n++ Si device's Si bottom electrode had a higher dopant concentration (As ion > 1019 cm-3) than the Ni/SiNx/n⁺ Si device; both unipolar and bipolar resistive switching behaviors were observed for the higher dopant concentration device owing to a large current overshoot. Conversely, for the device with the lower dopant concentration (As ion < 1018 cm-3), self-rectification and self-compliance were achieved owing to the series resistance of the Si bottom electrode.
Project description:Phototunable biomaterial-based resistive memory devices and understanding of their underlying switching mechanisms may pave a way toward new paradigm of smart and green electronics. Here, resistive switching behavior of photonic biomemory based on a novel structure of metal anode/carbon dots (CDs)-silk protein/indium tin oxide is systematically investigated, with Al, Au, and Ag anodes as case studies. The charge trapping/detrapping and metal filaments formation/rupture are observed by in situ Kelvin probe force microscopy investigations and scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy microanalysis, which demonstrates that the resistive switching behavior of Al, Au anode-based device are related to the space-charge-limited-conduction, while electrochemical metallization is the main mechanism for resistive transitions of Ag anode-based devices. Incorporation of CDs with light-adjustable charge trapping capacity is found to be responsible for phototunable resistive switching properties of CDs-based resistive random access memory by performing the ultraviolet light illumination studies on as-fabricated devices. The synergistic effect of photovoltaics and photogating can effectively enhance the internal electrical field to reduce the switching voltage. This demonstration provides a practical route for next-generation biocompatible electronics.
Project description:Resistive random-access memory devices with atomic layer deposition HfO2 and radio frequency sputtering TiOx as resistive switching layers were fabricated successfully. Low-power characteristic with 1.52??W set power (1??A@1.52?V) and 1.12??W reset power (1??A@1.12?V) was obtained in the HfO2/TiOx resistive random-access memory (RRAM) devices by controlling the oxygen content of the TiOx layer. Besides, the influence of oxygen content during the TiOx sputtering process on the resistive switching properties would be discussed in detail. The investigations indicated that "soft breakdown" occurred easily during the electrical forming/set process in the HfO2/TiOx RRAM devices with high oxygen content of the TiOx layer, resulting in high resistive switching power. Low-power characteristic was obtained in HfO2/TiOx RRAM devices with appropriately high oxygen vacancy density of TiOx layer, suggesting that the appropriate oxygen vacancy density in the TiOx layer could avoid "soft breakdown" through the whole dielectric layers during forming/set process, thus limiting the current flowing through the RRAM device and decreasing operating power consumption.