Targeting of Ly9 (CD229) Disrupts Marginal Zone and B1 B Cell Homeostasis and Antibody Responses.
ABSTRACT: Marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells have the capacity to respond to foreign Ags more rapidly than conventional B cells, providing early immune responses to blood-borne pathogens. Ly9 (CD229, SLAMF3), a member of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptors, has been implicated in the development and function of innate T lymphocytes. In this article, we provide evidence that in Ly9-deficient mice splenic transitional 1, MZ, and B1a B cells are markedly expanded, whereas development of B lymphocytes in bone marrow is unaltered. Consistent with an increased number of these B cell subsets, we detected elevated levels of IgG3 natural Abs and a striking increase of T-independent type II Abs after immunization with 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-Ficoll in the serum of Ly9-deficient mice. The notion that Ly9 could be a negative regulator of innate-like B cell responses was supported by the observation that administering an mAb directed against Ly9 to wild-type mice selectively eliminated splenic MZ B cells and significantly reduced the numbers of B1 and transitional 1 B cells. In addition, Ly9 mAb dramatically diminished in vivo humoral responses and caused a selective downregulation of the CD19/CD21/CD81 complex on B cells and concomitantly an impaired B cell survival and activation in an Fc-independent manner. We conclude that altered signaling caused by the absence of Ly9 or induced by anti-Ly9 may negatively regulate development and function of innate-like B cells by modulating B cell activation thresholds. The results suggest that Ly9 could serve as a novel target for the treatment of B cell-related diseases.
Project description:Sjögren's Syndrome (SjS) is a common chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the B cell hyperactivation, lymphocyte infiltration, and tissue damage of exocrine glands. It can also present life-threatening extraglandular manifestations, such as pulmonary and hepatic involvement, renal inflammation and marginal zone (MZ) B cell lymphoma. Several biologic agents have been tested in SjS but none has shown significant efficacy. Here, we report the effects of Ly9 (CD229) antibody targeting, a cell surface molecule that belongs to the SLAM family of immunomodulatory receptors, using NOD.H-2<sup>h4</sup> mice as a model of SjS-like disease. Female mice were treated with anti-Ly9 antibody or isotype control at week 24, when all mice present SjS related autoantibodies, salivary gland infiltrates, and marginal zone (MZ) B cell pool enlargement. Antibody injection depleted key lymphocyte subsets involved in SjS pathology such as MZ, B1, and germinal center B cells in spleen and draining lymph nodes without inducing a general immunosuppression. Importantly, mice receiving anti-Ly9 mAb showed a reduced lymphocyte infiltrate within salivary glands. This reduction may be, in part, explained by the down-regulation of L-selectin and alfa4/beta7 integrin induced by the anti-Ly9 antibody. Furthermore, levels of anti-nuclear autoantibodies were reduced after anti-Ly9 treatment. These data indicate that Ly9 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of SjS.
Project description:Signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptors and the specific adapter signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein modulate the development of innate-like lymphocytes. In this study, we show that the thymus of Ly9-deficient mice contains an expanded population of CD8 single-positive cells with the characteristic phenotype of innate memory-like CD8(+) T cells. Moreover, the proportion of these innate CD8(+) T cells increased dramatically postinfection with mouse CMV. Gene expression profiling of Ly9-deficient mice thymi showed a significant upregulation of IL-4 and promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger. Analyses of Ly9(-/-)IL4ra(-/-) double-deficient mice revealed that IL-4 was needed to generate the thymic innate CD8(+) T cell subset. Furthermore, increased numbers of invariant NKT cells were detected in Ly9-deficient thymi. In wild-type mice, IL-4 levels induced by ?-galactosylceramide injection could be inhibited by a mAb against Ly9. Thus, Ly9 plays a unique role as an inhibitory cell surface receptor regulating the size of the thymic innate CD8(+) T cell pool and the development of invariant NKT cells.
Project description:Splenic transitional B-cells (T1 and T2) are selected to avoid self-reactivity and to safeguard against autoimmunity, then differentiate into mature follicular (FO-I and FO-II) and marginal zone (MZ) subsets. Transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq of the five B-cell subsets revealed T1 cell signature genes included RAG suggesting a potential for receptor revision. T1 to T2 B-cell differentiation was marked by a switch from Myb to Myc, increased expression of the PI3K adapter DAP10 and MHC class II. FO-II may be an intermediate in FO-I differentiation and may also become MZ B-cells as suggested by principle component analysis. MZ B-cells possessed the most distinct transcriptome including down-regulation of CD45 phosphatase-associated protein (CD45-AP/PTPRC-AP), as well as upregulation of IL-9R and innate molecules TLR3, TLR7, and bactericidal Perforin-2 (MPEG1). Among the endosomal TLRs, stimulation via TLR3 further enhanced Perforin-2 expression exclusively in MZ B-cells. Using gene-deleted and overexpressing transgenic mice we show that IL-9/IL-9R interaction resulted in rapid activation of STAT1, 3, and 5, primarily in MZ B-cells. Importantly, CD45-AP mutant mice had reduced transitional and increased mature MZ and FO B-cells, suggesting that it prevents premature entry of transitional B-cells to the mature B-cell pool or their survival and proliferation. Together, these findings suggest, developmental plasticity among splenic B-cell subsets, potential for receptor revision in peripheral tolerance whereas enhanced metabolism coincides with T2 to mature B-cell differentiation. Further, unique core transcriptional signatures in MZ B-cells may control their innate features.
Project description:The Signaling Lymphocyte Activation Molecule Family (SLAMF) genes, which encode cell-surface receptors that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses, lay within a genomic region of human and mouse chromosome 1 that confers a predisposition for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Herein, we demonstrate that the SLAMF member Ly9 arises as a novel receptor contributing to the reinforcement of tolerance. Specifically, Ly9-deficient mice spontaneously developed features of systemic autoimmunity such as the production of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA), -dsDNA, and -nucleosome autoantibodies, independently of genetic background [(B6.129) or (BALB/c.129)]. In aged (10- to 12-month-old) Ly9 (-/-) mice key cell subsets implicated in autoimmunity were expanded, e.g., T follicular helper (Tfh) as well as germinal center (GC) B cells. More importantly, in vitro functional experiments showed that Ly9 acts as an inhibitory receptor of IFN-? producing CD4(+) T cells. Taken together, our findings reveal that the Ly9 receptor triggers cell intrinsic safeguarding mechanisms to prevent a breach of tolerance, emerging as a new non-redundant inhibitory cell-surface receptor capable of disabling autoantibody responses.
Project description:Innate-like splenic marginal zone (MZ) and peritoneal cavity B1 B lymphocytes share critical responsibilities in humoral responses but have divergent B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling features. A discrete marker of these subsets with tyrosine-based dual regulatory potential termed "Fc receptor-like 5" (FCRL5) was investigated to explore this discrepancy. Although FCRL5 repressed the robust BCR activity that is characteristic of MZ B cells, it had no influence on antigen receptor stimulation that is blunted in peritoneal cavity-derived B1 B cells. The molecular basis for the receptor's inhibitory function derived from recruitment of the Src homology-2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) to a cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif. Surprisingly, mutagenesis of this docking site unearthed coactivation properties for FCRL5 that were orchestrated by independent association of the Lyn Src-family kinase with an intracellular immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-like sequence. FCRL5's unique binary regulation directly correlated with SHP-1 and Lyn activity, which, like BCR function, differed between MZ and B1 B cells. These findings collectively imply a specialized counterregulatory role for FCRL molecules at the intersection of innate and adaptive immunity.
Project description:Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells develop into three subsets (NKT1, NKT2, and NKT17) expressing a distinct transcription factor profile, which regulates cytokine secretion upon activation. iNKT cell development in the thymus is modulated by signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family (SLAMF) receptors. In contrast to other SLAMF members, Ly9 (SLAMF3) is a non-redundant negative regulator of iNKT cell development. Here, we show that Ly9 influences iNKT cell lineage differentiation. Ly9-deficient mice on a BALB/c background contained a significantly expanded population of thymic NKT2 cells, while NKT1 cells were nearly absent in BALB/c.Ly9-/- thymus. Conversely, the number of peripheral NKT1 cells in BALB/c.Ly9-/- mice was comparable to that in wild-type mice, indicating that the homeostasis of the different iNKT cell subsets may have distinct requirements depending on their tissue localization. Importantly, Ly9 absence also promoted NKT2 cell differentiation in the NKT1-skewed C57BL/6 background. Furthermore, treatment of wild-type mice with an agonistic monoclonal antibody directed against Ly9 impaired IL-4 and IFN-? production and reduced by half the number of spleen iNKT cells, with a significant decrease in the proportion of NKT2 cells. Thus, anti-Ly9 targeting could represent a novel therapeutic approach to modulate iNKT cell numbers and activation.
Project description:We previously reported that selective ablation of certain ?? T cell subsets, rather than removal of all ?? T cells, strongly affects serum Ab levels in nonimmunized mice. This type of manipulation also changed T cells, including residual ?? T cells, revealing some interdependence of ?? T cell populations. For example, in mice lacking V?4(+) and V?6(+) ?? T cells (B6.TCR-V?4(-/-)/6(-/-)), we observed expanded V?1(+) cells, which changed in composition and activation and produced more IL-4 upon stimulation in vitro, increased IL-4 production by ?? T cells as well as spontaneous germinal center formation in the spleen, and elevated serum Ig and autoantibodies. We therefore examined B cell populations in this and other ??-deficient mouse strains. Whereas immature bone marrow B cells remained largely unchanged, peripheral B cells underwent several changes. Specifically, transitional and mature B cells in the spleen of B6.TCR-V?4(-/-)/6(-/-) mice and other peripheral B cell populations were diminished, most of all splenic marginal zone (MZ) B cells. However, relative frequencies and absolute numbers of Ab-producing cells, as well as serum levels of Abs, IL-4, and BAFF, were increased. Cell transfers confirmed that these changes are directly dependent on the altered ?? T cells in this strain and on their enhanced potential of producing IL-4. Further evidence suggests the possibility of direct interactions between ?? T cells and B cells in the splenic MZ. Taken together, these data demonstrate the capability of ?? T cells of modulating size and productivity of preimmune peripheral B cell populations.
Project description:Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) regulate stromal cells, epithelial cells and cells of the immune system, but their effect on B cells remains unclear. Here we identified ROR?t(+) ILCs near the marginal zone (MZ), a splenic compartment that contains innate-like B cells highly responsive to circulating T cell-independent (TI) antigens. Splenic ILCs established bidirectional crosstalk with MAdCAM-1(+) marginal reticular cells by providing tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) and lymphotoxin, and they stimulated MZ B cells via B cell-activation factor (BAFF), the ligand of the costimulatory receptor CD40 (CD40L) and the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 (DLL1). Splenic ILCs further helped MZ B cells and their plasma-cell progeny by coopting neutrophils through release of the cytokine GM-CSF. Consequently, depletion of ILCs impaired both pre- and post-immune TI antibody responses. Thus, ILCs integrate stromal and myeloid signals to orchestrate innate-like antibody production at the interface between the immune system and circulatory system.
Project description:Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) controls T lymphocyte egress from lymphoid organs by regulating sphingosin-1 phosphate receptor 1 (S1Pr1). Here we show that this is not the case for B cells. Instead, KLF2 controls homeostasis of B cells in peripheral lymphatic organs and homing of plasma cells to the bone marrow, presumably by controlling the expression of ?(7)-integrin. In mice with a B cell-specific deletion of KLF2, S1Pr1 expression on B cells was only slightly affected. Accordingly, all splenic B cell subsets including B1 cells were present, but their numbers were increased with a clear bias for marginal zone (MZ) B cells. In contrast, fewer peyers patches harboring fewer B cells were found, and fewer B1 cells in the peritoneal cavity as well as recirculating B cells in the bone marrow were detected. Upon thymus-dependent immunization, IgG titers were diminished, and antigen-specific plasma cells were absent in the bone marrow, although numbers of antigen-specific splenic plasmablasts were normal. KLF2 plays also a role in determining the identity of follicular B cells, as KLF2-deficient follicular B cells showed calcium responses similar to those of MZ B cells and failed to down-regulate MZ B cell signature genes, such as CD21 and CXCR7.
Project description:Neutrophils use immunoglobulins to clear antigen, but their role in immunoglobulin production is unknown. Here we identified neutrophils around the marginal zone (MZ) of the spleen, a B cell area specialized in T cell-independent immunoglobulin responses to circulating antigen. Neutrophils colonized peri-MZ areas after postnatal mucosal colonization by microbes and enhanced their B cell-helper function after receiving reprogramming signals, including interleukin 10 (IL-10), from splenic sinusoidal endothelial cells. Splenic neutrophils induced immunoglobulin class switching, somatic hypermutation and antibody production by activating MZ B cells through a mechanism that involved the cytokines BAFF, APRIL and IL-21. Neutropenic patients had fewer and hypomutated MZ B cells and a lower abundance of preimmune immunoglobulins to T cell-independent antigens, which indicates that neutrophils generate an innate layer of antimicrobial immunoglobulin defense by interacting with MZ B cells.