The Roles of Cytochrome b 559 in Assembly and Photoprotection of Photosystem II Revealed by Site-Directed Mutagenesis Studies.
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome b 559 (Cyt b 559) is one of the essential components of the Photosystem II reaction center (PSII). Despite recent accomplishments in understanding the structure and function of PSII, the exact physiological function of Cyt b 559 remains unclear. Cyt b 559 is not involved in the primary electron transfer pathway in PSII but may participate in secondary electron transfer pathways that protect PSII against photoinhibition. Site-directed mutagenesis studies combined with spectroscopic and functional analysis have been used to characterize Cyt b 559 mutant strains and their mutant PSII complex in higher plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria. These integrated studies have provided important in vivo evidence for possible physiological roles of Cyt b 559 in the assembly and stability of PSII, protecting PSII against photoinhibition, and modulating photosynthetic light harvesting. This mini-review presents an overview of recent important progress in site-directed mutagenesis studies of Cyt b 559 and implications for revealing the physiological functions of Cyt b 559 in PSII.
Project description:The main cofactors involved in the oxygen evolution activity of Photosystem II (PSII) are located in two proteins, D1 (PsbA) and D2 (PsbD). In Thermosynechococcus elongatus, a thermophilic cyanobacterium, the D1 protein is encoded by either the psbA(1) or the psbA(3) gene, the expression of which is dependent on environmental conditions. It has been shown that the energetic properties of the PsbA1-PSII and those of the PsbA3-PSII differ significantly (Sugiura, M., Kato, Y., Takahashi, R., Suzuki, H., Watanabe, T., Noguchi, T., Rappaport, F., and Boussac, A. (2010) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1797, 1491-1499). In this work the structural stability of PSII upon a PsbA1/PsbA3 exchange was investigated. Two deletion mutants lacking another PSII subunit, PsbJ, were constructed in strains expressing either PsbA1 or PsbA3. The PsbJ subunit is a 4-kDa transmembrane polypeptide that is surrounded by D1 (i.e. PsbA1), PsbK, and cytochrome b(559) (Cyt b(559)) in existing three-dimensional models. It is shown that the structural properties of the PsbA3/?PsbJ-PSII are not significantly affected. The polypeptide contents, the Cyt b(559) properties, and the proportion of PSII dimer were similar to those found for PsbA3-PSII. In contrast, in PsbA1/?PsbJ-PSII the stability of the dimer is greatly diminished, the EPR properties of the Cyt b(559) likely indicates a decrease in its redox potential, and many other PSII subunits are lacking. These results shows that the 21-amino acid substitutions between PsbA1 and PsbA3, which appear to be mainly conservative, must include side chains that are involved in a network of interactions between PsbA and the other PSII subunits.
Project description:Secondary electron transfer in photosystem II (PSII), which occurs when water oxidation is inhibited, involves redox-active carotenoids (Car), as well as chlorophylls (Chl), and cytochrome b 559 (Cyt b 559), and is believed to play a role in photoprotection. CarD2 may be the initial point of secondary electron transfer because it is the closest cofactor to both P680, the initial oxidant, and to Cyt b 559, the terminal secondary electron donor within PSII. In order to characterize the role of CarD2 and to determine the effects of perturbing CarD2 on both the electron-transfer events and on the identity of the redox-active cofactors, it is necessary to vary the properties of CarD2 selectively without affecting the ten other Car per PSII. To this end, site-directed mutations around the binding pocket of CarD2 (D2-G47W, D2-G47F, and D2-T50F) have been generated in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Characterization by near-IR and EPR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that CarD2 is one of the redox-active carotenoids in PSII. There is a specific perturbation of the Car(?+) near-IR spectrum in all three mutated PSII samples, allowing the assignment of the spectral signature of Car D2 (?+) ; Car D2 (?+) exhibits a near-IR peak at 980 nm and is the predominant secondary donor oxidized in a charge separation at low temperature in ferricyanide-treated wild-type PSII. The yield of secondary donor radicals is substantially decreased in PSII complexes isolated from each mutant. In addition, the kinetics of radical formation are altered in the mutated PSII samples. These results are consistent with oxidation of CarD2 being the initial step in secondary electron transfer. Furthermore, normal light levels during mutant cell growth perturb the shape of the Chl(?+) near-IR absorption peak and generate a dark-stable radical observable in the EPR spectra, indicating a higher susceptibility to photodamage further linking the secondary electron-transfer pathway to photoprotection.
Project description:Although light is essential for photosynthesis, when in excess, it may damage the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to a phenomenon known as photoinhibition. Photoinhibition was thought as a light-induced damage to photosystem II; however, it is now clear that even photosystem I may become very vulnerable to light. One main characteristic of light induced damage to photosystem II (PSII) is the increased turnover of the reaction center protein, D1: when rate of degradation exceeds the rate of synthesis, loss of PSII activity is observed. With respect to photosystem I (PSI), an excess of electrons, instead of an excess of light, may be very dangerous. Plants possess a number of mechanisms able to prevent, or limit, such damages by safe thermal dissipation of light energy (non-photochemical quenching, NPQ), slowing-down of electron transfer through the intersystem transport chain (photosynthesis-control, PSC) in co-operation with the Proton Gradient Regulation (PGR) proteins, PGR5 and PGRL1, collectively called as short-term photoprotection mechanisms, and the redistribution of light between photosystems, called state transitions (responsible of fluorescence quenching at PSII, qT), is superimposed to these short term photoprotective mechanisms. In this manuscript we have generated a number of higher order mutants by crossing genotypes carrying defects in each of the short-term photoprotection mechanisms, with the final aim to obtain a direct comparison of their role and efficiency in photoprotection. We found that mutants carrying a defect in the ?pH-dependent photosynthesis-control are characterized by photoinhibition of both photosystems, irrespectively of whether PSBS-dependent NPQ or state transitions defects were present or not in the same individual, demonstrating the primary role of PSC in photoprotection. Moreover, mutants with a limited capability to develop a strong PSBS-dependent NPQ, were characterized by a high turnover of the D1 protein and high values of Y(NO), which might reflect energy quenching processes occurring within the PSII reaction center.
Project description:Contribution of different LHCII antenna carotenoids to protective NPQ (pNPQ) were tested using a range of xanthophyll biosynthesis mutants of Arabidopsis: plants were either devoid of lutein (lut2), violaxanthin (npq2), or synthesized a single xanthophyll species, namely violaxanthin (aba4npq1lut2), zeaxanthin (npq2lut2), or lutein (chy1chy2lut5). A novel pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorescence analysis procedure, that used a gradually increasing actinic light intensity, allowed the efficiency of pNPQ to be tested using the photochemical quenching (qP) parameter measured in the dark (qPd). Furthermore, the yield of photosystem II (?PSII) was calculated, and the light intensity which induces photoinhibition in 50% of leaves for each mutant was ascertained. Photoprotective capacities of each xanthophyll were quantified, taking into account chlorophyll a/b ratios and excitation pressure. Here, light tolerance, pNPQ capacity, and ?PSII were highest in wild type plants. Of the carotenoid mutants, lut2 (lutein-deficient) plants had the highest light tolerance, and the joint the highest ?PSII with violaxanthin only plants. We conclude that all studied mutants possess pNPQ and a more complete composition of xanthophylls in their natural binding sites is the most important factor governing photoprotection, rather than any one specific xanthophyll suggesting a strong structural effect of the molecules upon the LHCII antenna organization and discuss the results significance for future crop development.
Project description:Cytochrome c(550) (cyt c(550)) is a component of photosystem II (PSII) from cyanobacteria, red algae, and some other eukaryotic algae. Its physiological role remains unclear. In the present work, measurements of the midpoint redox potential (E(m)) were performed using intact PSII core complexes preparations from a histidine-tagged PSII mutant strain of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus (T.) elongatus. When redox titrations were done in the absence of redox mediators, an E(m) value of +200 mV was obtained for cyt c(550). This value is ?300 mV more positive than that previously measured in the presence of mediators (E(m) = -80 mV). The shift from the high potential form (E(m) = +200 mV) to the low potential form (E(m) = -80 mV) of cyt c(550) is attributed to conformational changes, triggered by the reduction of a component of PSII that is sequestered and out of equilibrium with the medium, most likely the Mn(4)Ca cluster. This reduction can occur when reduced low potential redox mediators are present or under highly reducing conditions even in the absence of mediators. Based on these observations, it is suggested that the E(m) of +200 mV obtained without mediators could be the physiological redox potential of the cyt c(550) in PSII. This value opens the possibility of a redox function for cyt c(550) in PSII.
Project description:Plants experience low ambient temperature and low red to far-red ratios (L-R/FR) of light due to vegetative shading and longer twilight durations in cool seasons. Low temperature induce photoinhibition through inactivation of the photosynthetic apparatus, however, the role of light quality on photoprotection during cold stress remains poorly understood. Here, we report that L-R/FR significantly prevents the overreduction of the entire intersystem electron transfer chain and the limitation of photosystem I (PSI) acceptor side, eventually alleviating the cold-induced photoinhibition. During cold stress, L-R/FR activated cyclic electron flow (CEF), enhanced protonation of PSII subunit S (PsbS) and de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, and promoted energy-dependent quenching (qE) component of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), enzyme activity of Foyer-Halliwell-Asada cycle and D1 proteins accumulation. However, L-R/FR -induced photoprotection pathways were compromised in tomato PROTON GRADIENT REGULATION5 (PGR5) and PGR5-LIKE PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHENOTYPE1A (PGRL1A) co-silenced plants and NADH DEHYDROGENASE-LIKE COMPLEX M (NDHM) -silenced plants during cold stress. Our results demonstrate that both PGR5/PGRL1- and NDH-dependent CEF mediate L-R/FR -induced cold tolerance by enhancing the thermal dissipation and the repair of photodamaged PSII, thereby mitigating the overreduction of electron carriers and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. The study indicates that there is an anterograde link between photoreception and photoprotection in tomato plants during cold stress.
Project description:The xanthophyll zeaxanthin is synthesized in chloroplasts upon high light exposure of plants and serves central photoprotective functions. The reconversion of zeaxanthin to violaxanthin is catalyzed by the zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP). ZEP shows highest activity after short and moderate high light periods, but becomes gradually down-regulated in response to increasing high light stress along with down-regulation of photosystem II (PSII) activity. ZEP activity and ZEP protein levels were studied in response to high light stress in four plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Pisum sativum, Nicotiana benthamiana and Spinacia oleracea. In all species, ZEP protein was degraded during photoinhibition of PSII in parallel with the D1 protein of PSII. In the presence of streptomycin, an inhibitor of chloroplast protein synthesis, photoinhibition of PSII and ZEP activity as well as degradation of D1 and ZEP protein was strongly increased, indicating a close correlation of ZEP regulation with PSII photoinhibition and repair. The concomitant high light-induced inactivation/degradation of ZEP and D1 prevents the reconversion of zeaxanthin during photoinhibition and repair of PSII. This regulation of ZEP activity supports a coordinated degradation of D1 and ZEP during photoinhibition/repair of PSII and an essential photoprotective function of zeaxanthin during the PSII repair cycle.
Project description:Photoinhibition, exacerbated by elevated temperatures, underlies coral bleaching, but sensitivity to photosynthetic loss differs among various phylotypes of Symbiodinium, their dinoflagellate symbionts. Symbiodinium is a common symbiont in many cnidarian species including corals, jellyfish, anemones, and giant clams. Here, we provide evidence that most members of clade A Symbiodinium, but not clades B-D or F, exhibit enhanced capabilities for alternative photosynthetic electron-transport pathways including cyclic electron transport (CET). Unlike other clades, clade A Symbiodinium also undergo pronounced light-induced dissociation of antenna complexes from photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers. We propose these attributes promote survival of most cnidarians with clade A symbionts at high light intensities and confer resistance to bleaching conditions that conspicuously impact deeper dwelling corals that harbor non-clade A Symbiodinium.
Project description:Bisphenol A (BPA), a widely distributed pollutant, suppresses photosynthesis in leaves. In previous studies on higher plants, the plants were treated by BPA through irrigation to root. This method cannot distinguish whether the BPA directly suppresses photosynthesis in leaves, or indirectly influences photosynthesis through affecting the function of root. Here, only the leaves but not the roots of cucumber were infiltrated with BPA solution. The photosystem II and I (PSII, PSI) were insensitive to BPA under darkness. BPA aggravated the PSII but not the PSI photoinhibition under light. BPA also inhibited CO2 assimilation, and the effect of BPA on PSII photoinhibition disappeared when the CO2 assimilation was blocked. The H2O2 accumulated in BPA-treated leaves under light. And the BPA-caused PSII photoinhibition was prevented under low (2%) O2. We also proved that the BPA-caused PSII photoinhibition depend on the turnover of D1 protein. In conclusion, this study proved that BPA could directly suppress photosynthesis in leaves, however, BPA does not damage PSII directly, but inhibits CO2 assimilation and over-reduces the electron transport chain under light, which increases the production of reactive oxygen species (H2O2), the over-accumulated ROS inhibits the turnover of D1 protein and consequently aggravates PSII photoinhibition.
Project description:The aim of the study was to examine the role of root abscisic acid (ABA) in protecting photosystems and photosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke against salt stress. Potted plants were pretreated by a specific ABA synthesis inhibitor sodium tungstate and then subjected to salt stress (150 mM NaCl). Tungstate did not directly affect root ABA content and photosynthetic parameters, whereas it inhibited root ABA accumulation and induced a greater decrease in photosynthetic rate under salt stress. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) significantly declined in tungstate-pretreated plants under salt stress, suggesting photosystem II (PSII) photoinhibition appeared. PSII photoinhibition did not prevent PSI photoinhibition by restricting electron donation, as the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSI (?MR/MR?) was lowered. In line with photoinhibition, elevated H?O? concentration and lipid peroxidation corroborated salt-induced oxidative stress in tungstate-pretreated plants. Less decrease in ?MR/MR? and Fv/Fm indicated that PSII and PSI in non-pretreated plants could maintain better performance than tungstate-pretreated plants under salt stress. Consistently, greater reduction in PSII and PSI reaction center protein abundance confirmed the elevated vulnerability of photosystems to salt stress in tungstate-pretreated plants. Overall, the root ABA signal participated in defending the photosystem's photoinhibition and protecting photosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke under salt stress.