CCL2 Serum Levels and Adiposity Are Associated with the Polymorphic Phenotypes -2518A on CCL2 and 64ILE on CCR2 in a Mexican Population with Insulin Resistance.
ABSTRACT: Genetic susceptibility has been described in insulin resistance (IR). Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand-2 (CCL2) is overexpressed in white adipose tissue and is the ligand of C-C motif receptor-2 (CCR2). The CCL2 G-2518A polymorphism is known to regulate gene expression, whereas the physiological effects of the CCR2Val64Ile polymorphism are unknown. The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between these polymorphisms with soluble CCL2 levels (sCCL2), metabolic markers, and adiposity. In a cross-sectional study we included 380 Mexican-Mestizo individuals, classified with IR according to Stern criteria. Polymorphism was identified using PCR-RFLP/sequence-specific primers. Anthropometrics and metabolic markers were measured by routine methods and adipokines and sCCL2 by ELISA. The CCL2 polymorphism was associated with IR (polymorphic A+ phenotype frequencies were 70.9%, 82.6%, in individuals with and without IR, resp.). Phenotype carriers CCL2 (A+) displayed lower body mass and fat indexes, insulin and HOMA-IR, and higher adiponectin levels. Individuals with IR presented higher sCCL2 compared to individuals without IR and was associated with CCR2 (Ile+) phenotype. The double-polymorphic phenotype carriers (A+/Ile+) exhibited higher sCCL2 than double-wild-type phenotype carriers (A-/Ile-). The present findings suggest that sCCL2 production possibly will be associated with the adiposity and polymorphic phenotypes of CCL2 and CCR2, in Mexican-Mestizos with IR.
Project description:Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of cancer. Inflammatory chemokines, such as C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), are often present in tumors but their roles in cancer initiation and maintenance are not clear. Here we report that CCL2 promotes mammary carcinoma development in a clinically relevant murine model of breast cancer. Targeted disruption of Ccl2 slowed the growth of activated Her2/neu-driven mammary tumors and prolonged host survival. Disruption of Ccl2 was associated with a decrease in the development and mobilization of endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) which can contribute to tumor neovascularization. In contrast, disruption of Ccr2, which encodes CCL2's sole signaling receptor, accelerated tumor development, shortened host survival, and mobilized EPCs. However, pharmacological inhibition of CCR2 phenocopied Ccl2 disruption rather than Ccr2 disruption, suggesting that the Ccr2-/- phenotype is a consequence of unanticipated alterations not linked to intact CCL2/CCR2 signaling. Consistent with this explanation, Ccr2-/- monocytes are more divergent from wild type monocytes than Ccl2-/- monocytes in their expression of genes involved in key developmental and functional pathways. Taken together, our data suggest a tumor-promoting role for CCL2 acting through CCR2 on the tumor microenvironment and support the targeting of this chemokine/receptor pair in breast cancer.
Project description:The CCL2-CCR2 signaling axis has generated increasing interest in recent years due to its association with the progression of cancer. Although first described as a chemotactic molecule with physiological roles in regulating inflammation, recent studies have revealed a pro-tumorigenic function for CCL2 in favoring cancer development and subsequent metastasis. CCL2 binds the cognate receptor CCR2, and together this signaling pair has been shown to have multiple pro-tumorigenic roles, from mediating tumor growth and angiogenesis to recruiting and usurping host stromal cells to support tumor progression. The importance of CCL2-CCR2 signaling has been further championed by the establishment of clinical trials targeting this signaling pair in solid and metastatic cancers. Here we review the roles of CCL2-CCR2 signaling in the development and progression of cancer metastasis. We further evaluate the outcome of several clinical trials targeting either CCL2 or CCR2, and discuss the prospects and challenges of manipulating CCL2-CCR2 interaction as a potential approach for combating metastatic disease.
Project description:Microglia and macrophages are recruited to sites of retinal degeneration where local cytokines and chemokines determine protective or neurotoxic microglia responses. Defining the role of Ccl2-Ccr2 and Cx3cl1-Cx3cr1 signalling for retinal pathology is of particular interest because of its potential role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Ccl2, Ccr2, and Cx3cr1 signalling defects impair macrophage trafficking, but have, in several conflicting studies, been reported to show different degrees of age-related retinal degeneration. Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout (CCDKO) mice show an early onset retinal degeneration and have been suggested as a model for AMD. In order to understand phenotypic discrepancies in different chemokine knockout lines and to study how defects in Ccl2 and/or Cx3cr1 signalling contribute to the described early onset retinal degeneration, we defined primary and secondary pathological events in CCDKO mice. To control for genetic background variability, we compared the original phenotype with that of single Ccl2, Cx3cr1 and Ccl2/Cx3cr1 double knockout mice obtained from backcrosses of CCDKO with C57Bl/6 mice. We found that the primary pathological event in CCDKO mice develops in the inferior outer nuclear layer independently of light around postnatal day P14. RPE and vascular lesions develop secondarily with increasing penetrance with age and are clinically similar to retinal telangiectasia not to choroidal neovascularisation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a third autosomal recessive gene causes the degeneration in CCDKO mice and in all affected re-derived lines and subsequently demonstrated co-segregation of the naturally occurring RD8 mutation in the Crb1 gene. By comparing CCDKO mice with re-derived CCl2(-/-)/Crb1(Rd8/RD8), Cx3cr1(-/-)/Crb1(Rd8/RD8) and CCl2(-/-)/Cx3cr1(-/-)/Crb1(Rd8/RD8) mice, we observed a differential modulation of the retinal phenotype by genetic background and both chemokine signalling pathways. These findings indicate that CCDKO mice are not a model of AMD, but a model for an inherited retinal degeneration that is differentially modulated by Ccl2-Ccr2 and Cx3cl1-Cx3cr1 chemokine signalling.
Project description:Perineural invasion is a form of cancer progression where cancer cells invade along nerves. This behavior is associated with poor clinical outcomes; therefore, it is critical to identify novel ligand-receptor interactions between nerves and cancer cells that support the process of perineural invasion. A proteomic profiler chemokine array was used to screen for nerve-derived factors secreted from tissue explants of dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and CCL2 was identified as a lead candidate. Prostate cancer cell line expression of CCR2, the receptor to CCL2, correlated closely with MAPK and Akt pathway activity and cell migration towards CCL2 and DRG. In vitro nerve and cancer coculture invasion assays of perineural invasion demonstrated that cancer cell CCR2 expression facilitates perineural invasion. Perineural invasion is significantly diminished in coculture assays when using DRG harvested from CCL2(-/-) knockout mice as compared with control CCL2(+/+) mice, indicating that CCR2 is required for perineural invasion in this murine model of perineural invasion. Furthermore, 20 of 21 (95%) patient specimens of prostate adenocarcinoma with perineural invasion exhibited CCR2 expression by immunohistochemistry, while just 3 of 13 (23%) lacking perineural invasion expressed CCR2. In summary, nerve-released CCL2 supports prostate cancer migration and perineural invasion though CCR2-mediated signaling.These results reveal CCL2-CCR2 signaling as a key ligand-receptor mechanism that mediates cancer cell communication with nerves during perineural invasion and highlight a potential future therapeutic target.
Project description:Foetal microchimeric cells (FMCs) traffic into maternal circulation during pregnancy and persist for decades after delivery. Upon maternal injury, FMCs migrate to affected sites where they participate in tissue healing. However, the specific signals regulating the trafficking of FMCs to injury sites had to be identified. Here we report that, in mice, a subset of FMCs implicated in tissue repair displays CD11b+ CD34+ CD31+ phenotype and highly express C-C chemokine receptor 2 (Ccr2). The Ccr2 ligand chemokine ligand 2 (Ccl2) enhances the recruitment of FMCs to maternal wounds where these cells transdifferentiate into endothelial cells and stimulate angiogenesis through Cxcl1 secretion. Ccl2 administration improves delayed maternal wound healing in pregnant and postpartum mice but never in virgin ones. This role of Ccl2/Ccr2 signalling opens new strategies for tissue repair through natural stem cell therapy, a concept that can be later applied to other types of maternal diseases.
Project description:Following corneal injury, coordinated cellular and protein interactions occur at the wound site to restore tissue homeostasis. Regulation of this response is required to prevent the development of chronic inflammation, abnormal neovascularization, and fibrosis. The chemokine CCL2 and its primary receptor CCR2 are key regulators of the inflammatory and neovascular responses to injury. In this study, we investigated the role of macrophage-associated matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) in the regulation of CCL2 and CCR2 after corneal wounding. Using two corneal injury models, we examined the temporal and spatial expression of CCL2 and CCR2 in Mmp12-/- and wild-type (WT) mice. Our data showed that MMP12 downregulated CCL2 and CCR2 expression in a manner dependent on the timing and mechanism of injury. We also examined the effect of CCL2 on the injury response in Mmp12-/- and WT corneas. We found that macrophage infiltration and neovascularization following CCL2 blockade was significantly reduced in Mmp12-/- corneas as compared with WT corneas. These findings indicate that MMP12 inhibits corneal inflammation and neovascularization after injury through its regulation of CCL2.
Project description:While various monocyte chemokine systems are increased in expression in osteoarthritis (OA), the hierarchy of chemokines and chemokine receptors in mediating monocyte/macrophage recruitment to the OA joint remains poorly defined. Here, we investigated the relative contributions of the CCL2/CCR2 versus CCL5/CCR5 chemokine axes in OA pathogenesis.Ccl2-, Ccr2-, Ccl5- and Ccr5-deficient and control mice were subjected to destabilisation of medial meniscus surgery to induce OA. The pharmacological utility of blocking CCL2/CCR2 signalling in mouse OA was investigated using bindarit, a CCL2 synthesis inhibitor, and RS-504393, a CCR2 antagonist. Levels of monocyte chemoattractants in synovial tissues and fluids from patients with joint injuries without OA and those with established OA were investigated using a combination of microarray analyses, multiplexed cytokine assays and immunostains.Mice lacking CCL2 or CCR2, but not CCL5 or CCR5, were protected against OA with a concomitant reduction in local monocyte/macrophage numbers in their joints. In synovial fluids from patients with OA, levels of CCR2 ligands (CCL2, CCL7 and CCL8) but not CCR5 ligands (CCL3, CCL4 and CCL5) were elevated. We found that CCR2+ cells are abundant in human OA synovium and that CCR2+ macrophages line, invade and are associated with the erosion of OA cartilage. Further, blockade of CCL2/CCR2 signalling markedly attenuated macrophage accumulation, synovitis and cartilage damage in mouse OA.Our findings demonstrate that monocytes recruited via CCL2/CCR2, rather than by CCL5/CCR5, propagate inflammation and tissue damage in OA. Selective targeting of the CCL2/CCR2 system represents a promising therapeutic approach for OA.
Project description:Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) has been associated with inflammation and apoptosis. The CCL2-CCR2 chemotactic system is one of the major signaling pathways that induce inflammation and apoptosis. However, its role on ICH has not been investigated. We subjected wild-type, CCL2(-/-) , and CCR2(-/-) mice to collagenase-induced ICH, and assessed histological and behavioral outcomes. Lack of CCL2 or CCR2 decreased the hematoma volume early after collagenase-induced ICH but delayed its recovery. The hematoma size was accompanied by brain edema, neuronal death, and neurological scores. Although microglia activation/migration was attenuated in CCL2(-/-) or CCR2(-/-) mice 1 day after injury, more microglia were present at later time points, suggesting that alternative signaling pathways had been activated to recruit them. On the contrary, leukocyte and neutrophil infiltration were decreased in these mice, suggesting a tighter/recovered blood-brain barrier. In addition, we also found that FL- and K104Stop-CCL2 were able to restore the changes found in CCL2(-/-) mice, but K104A-CCL2 failed to do so. These results suggest that plasmin-mediated truncation of CCL2 may be an indispensable step to fully activate the chemokine in vivo. The data also indicate that CCL2-CCR2 signaling pathway may be a molecular target for the treatment of ICH.
Project description:Chemokines mediate immune cell trafficking during tissue development, wound healing and infection. The chemokine CCL2 is best known to regulate macrophage recruitment during wound healing, infection and inflammatory diseases. While the importance of CCL2/CCR2 signaling in macrophages during cancer progression is well documented, we recently showed that CCL2-mediated breast cancer progression depends on CCR2 expression in carcinoma cells. Using 3D Matrigel: Collagen cultures of SUM225 and DCIS.com breast cancer cells, this study characterized the mechanisms of CCL2/CCR2 signaling in cell growth and invasion. SUM225 cells, which expressed lower levels of CCR2 than DCIS.com cells, formed symmetrical spheroids in Matrigel: Collagen, and were not responsive to CCL2 treatment. DCIS.com cells formed asymmetric cell clusters in Matrigel: Collagen. CCL2 treatment increased growth, decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased TWIST1 expression. CCR2 overexpression in SUM225 cells increased responsiveness to CCL2 treatment, enhancing growth and invasion. These phenotypes corresponded to increased expression of Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1A1 (ALDH1A1) and decreased expression of the mitochondrial serine protease HTRA2. CCR2 deficiency in DCIS.com cells inhibited CCL2-mediated growth and invasion, corresponding to decreased ALDH1A1 expression and increased HTRA2 expression. ALDH1A1 and HTRA2 expression were modulated in CCR2-deficient and CCR2-overexpressing cell lines. We found that ALDH1A1 and HTRA2 regulates CCR2-mediated breast cancer cell growth and cellular invasion in a CCL2/CCR2 context-dependent manner. These data provide novel insight on the mechanisms of chemokine signaling in breast cancer cell growth and invasion, with important implications on targeted therapeutics for anti-cancer treatment.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
Project description:Objective: The present study investigated the roles and underlying mechanism of CCL2/CCR2 axis in the interactions between tumor cells and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) during the progression of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC). Methods: Immunohistochemical staining and survival analysis were performed to study the correlation and clinical value of CD68, CD163, CCL2, and CCR2 expression in SACC cases. CCL2 silencing by RNA interference and CCR2 blocking by CCR2 specific antagonist (RS504393) were performed. ELISA, qRT-PCR, western blot, immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, CCK8, scratch wound healing, and transwell assays were used to explore the functional roles and possible mechanism of CCL2/CCR2 axis in the interactions between SACC cells and TAMs. The effects of targeting TAMs by blocking the CCL2/CCR2 axis were investigated in a xenograft mice model with SACC cells. Results: The high infiltration of TAMs marked by CD68 and high infiltration of M2 TAMs marked by CD163 were significantly correlated with the expression of CCL2 and CCR2 in SACC tissues. Notably, the high infiltration of TAMs and the overexpression of CCL2 were obviously associated with the clinical progression and poor prognosis of SACC. SACC cells derived CCL2 could activate its receptor CCR2 expression in TAMs in vitro. The in vitro results further indicated that the SACC cells derived CCL2 was involved in the recruitment, M2 polarization, and GDNF expression of TAMs through the CCL2/CCR2 axis. Meanwhile, TAMs derived GDNF promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of SACC cells through the GDNF/p-RET pathway. Treating immunodeficient mice with the CCR2 antagonist (RS504393) greatly inhibited the infiltration of TAMs and the tumorigenicity of SACC cells. Conclusion: These new findings indicated that the CCL2/CCR2 axis promoted the progression of SACC cells via recruiting and reprogramming TAMs. Targeting TAMs by blocking the CCL2/CCR2 axis might be a prospective strategy for SACC therapy.