Livestock-associated methicillin and multidrug resistant S. aureus in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to explore the association of livestock-associated S. aureus with occupational pig contact and pet contact. In this cross-sectional study, 1,422 participants (including 244 pig workers, 200 pet-owning workers and 978 control workers) responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes, and multilocus sequence type. Compared with controls, the pig workers demonstrated a greater prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.38; 95% CI: 2.07-5.53] and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) (PR = 7.42; 95% CI: 3.71-14.83), but the prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA was similar in pet-owning workers and controls. There was a positive relation of frequency of pig contact with prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA carriage. Only pig workers carried MDRSA CC9 (16 isolates) and MRSA CC9 (16 isolates), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant and absent of IEC genes. These findings suggest that livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA(CC9, IEC-negative, tetracycline-resistant) in humans is associated with occupational pig contact, not pet contact, and support growing concern about antibiotics use in pig farms and raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to opportunistic S. aureus.
Project description:Administration of antibiotics to food animals may select for drug-resistant pathogens of clinical significance, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In the United States, studies have examined prevalence of MRSA carriage among individuals exposed to livestock, but prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) carriage and the association with livestock raised with versus without antibiotic selective pressure remains unclear. We aimed to examine prevalence, antibiotic susceptibility, and molecular characteristics of S. aureus among industrial livestock operation (ILO) and antibiotic-free livestock operation (AFLO) workers and household members in North Carolina.Participants in this cross-sectional study were interviewed and provided a nasal swab for S. aureus analysis. Resulting S. aureus isolates were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, multi-locus sequence type, and absence of the scn gene (a marker of livestock association).Among 99 ILO and 105 AFLO participants, S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was 41% and 40%, respectively. Among ILO and AFLO S. aureus carriers, MRSA was detected in 7% (3/41) and 7% (3/42), respectively. Thirty seven percent of 41 ILO versus 19% of 42 AFLO S. aureus-positive participants carried MDRSA. S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398 was observed only among workers and predominated among ILO (13/34) compared with AFLO (1/35) S. aureus-positive workers. Only ILO workers carried scn-negative MRSA CC398 (2/34) and scn-negative MDRSA CC398 (6/34), and all of these isolates were tetracycline resistant.Despite similar S. aureus and MRSA prevalence among ILO and AFLO-exposed individuals, livestock-associated MRSA and MDRSA (tetracycline-resistant, CC398, scn-negative) were only present among ILO-exposed individuals. These findings support growing concern about antibiotics use and confinement in livestock production, raising questions about the potential for occupational exposure to an opportunistic and drug-resistant pathogen, which in other settings including hospitals and the community is of broad public health importance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Industrial hog operation (IHO) workers may persistently carry antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in their nasal cavities. It is unclear whether IHO work activities can alter IHO workers' and their household members' exposure to these bacteria. OBJECTIVE:Our objective was to investigate the relationship of IHO work activities with persistence of antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage among IHO workers and their household members. METHODS:At biweekly intervals over 4 months, IHO workers and their household members completed questionnaires and provided nasal swabs that were assessed for S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and livestock-associated markers (tetracycline resistance, scn absence, spa type). We examined the association between transient and habitual IHO work activities and S. aureus nasal carriage outcomes. RESULTS:One hundred one IHO workers and 79 household members completed 1,456 study visits. Face mask use (each 25% increase) was associated with reduced odds of nasal carriage of MDRSA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.65 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.92], tetracycline-resistant S. aureus [OR = 0.74 (95% CI: 0.56, 0.97)], and S. aureus clonal complex (CC) 398/CC9 [OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60, 0.99)]. IHO workers who ever (vs. never) gave pigs injections had higher odds of these outcomes. Among household members, living with an IHO worker who consistently ([Formula: see text] of the time) versus sometimes or never used a face mask was associated with reduced odds of carrying scn-negative S. aureus, tetracycline-resistant S. aureus, and S. aureus CC398/CC9 (OR range: 0.12-0.20, all [Formula: see text]), and consistent IHO worker coveralls use was associated with reduced odds of household member MDRSA carriage only. Living with an IHO worker who habitually had contact with [Formula: see text] hogs (vs. [Formula: see text]) was associated with higher odds of household member livestock-associated S. aureus carriage. CONCLUSIONS:Consistent face mask use was associated with reduced exposure to antibiotic-resistant, livestock-associated S. aureus among IHO workers and their household members. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3453.
Project description:Antibiotic use in industrial hog operations (IHOs) can support the emergence of antibiotic-resistant (ABR) Staphylococcus aureus. The extent of ABR S. aureus exposure in IHO workers and children living in their households remains unclear.We investigated ABR S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence among adults with versus without occupational exposure to IHOs and among children living in their households.In total, 198 IHO worker-child household pairs and 202 community referent (CR) adult-child household pairs completed a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab which was analyzed for S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), absence of scn (putative marker of livestock association), and spa type.S. aureus nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO (53%) compared with CR (31%) adults [adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR): 1.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07, 1.83], but MRSA nasal carriage prevalence was uncommon (2-3%) in IHO and CR adults. MDRSA nasal carriage prevalence was similar among IHO workers and CR adults (12% vs. 8%; aPR: 1.14; 95% CI: 0.56, 2.29). Nasal carriage prevalence was higher among IHO compared with CR children for S. aureus (49% vs. 31%; aPR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.99), MRSA (14% vs. 6%; aPR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.14, 4.92), and MDRSA (23% vs. 8%; aPR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.47, 4.75). We also found suggestive evidence of a higher prevalence of S. aureus, MRSA, and MDRSA among children living with an IHO worker who did versus did not report taking personal protective equipment (PPE) home from the IHO. Livestock-associated S. aureus nasal carriage predominated among IHO workers.Our findings support the importance of further research on the prevalence and potential sources of exposure to ABR S. aureus among children living with IHO workers.
Project description:Livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus (LA-SA) has been documented worldwide. However, much remains unknown about LA-SA colonization and infection, especially in rural environments.We conducted a large-scale prospective study of 1342 Iowans, including individuals with livestock contact and a community-based comparison group. Nasal and throat swabs were collected to determine colonization at enrollment, and skin infection swabs over 17 months were assessed for S. aureus. Outcomes included carriage of S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), tetracycline-resistant S. aureus (TRSA), multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA), and LA-SA.Of 1342 participants, 351 (26.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 23.8%-28.6%) carried S. aureus. MRSA was isolated from 34 (2.5%; 95% CI, 1.8%-3.5%) and LA-SA from 131 (9.8%; 95% CI, 8.3%-11.5%) of the 1342 participants. Individuals with current swine exposure were significantly more likely to carry S. aureus (prevalence ratio [PR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.2), TRSA (PR, 8.4; 95% CI, 5.6-12.6), MDRSA (PR, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.8-10.0), and LA-SA (PR, 5.8; 95% CI, 3.9-8.4) than those lacking exposure. Skin infections (n = 103) were reported from 67 individuals, yielding an incidence rate of 6.6 (95% CI, 4.9-8.9) per 1000 person-months.Current swine workers are 6 times more likely to carry MDRSA than those without current swine exposure. We observed active infections caused by LA-SA. This finding suggests that individuals with livestock contact may have a high prevalence of exposure to, and potentially infection with, antibiotic-resistant S. aureus strains, including LA-SA strains.
Project description:Swine production work is a risk factor for nasal carriage of livestock-associated (LA-) Staphylococcus aureus and also for skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). However, whether LA-S. aureus nasal carriage is associated with increased risk of SSTI remains unclear. We aimed to examine S. aureus nasal carriage and recent (?3 months prior to enrollment) SSTI symptoms among industrial hog operation (IHO) workers and their household contacts. IHO workers and their household contacts provided a nasal swab and responded to a questionnaire assessing self-reported personal and occupational exposures and recent SSTI symptoms. Nasal swabs were analyzed for S. aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), multidrug-resistant-S. aureus (MDRSA), absence of scn (livestock association), and spa type. S. aureus with at least one indicator of LA was observed among 19% of 103 IHO workers and 6% of 80 household members. Prevalence of recent SSTI was 6% among IHO workers and 11% among 54 minor household members (0/26 adult household members reported SSTI). Among IHO workers, nasal carriers of MDRSA and scn-negative S. aureus were 8.8 (95% CI: 1.8, 43.9) and 5.1 (95% CI: 1.2, 22.2) times as likely to report recent SSTI as non-carriers, respectively. In one household, both an IHO worker and child reported recent SSTI and carried the same S. aureus spa type (t4976) intranasally. Prevalence of scn-negative S. aureus (PR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.2, 21.4) was elevated among IHO workers who reported never versus always wearing a face mask at work. Although few SSTI were reported, this study of IHO workers and their household contacts is the first to characterize a relation between nasal carriage of antibiotic-resistant LA-S. aureus and SSTI. The direction and temporality of this relation and IHO workers' use of face masks to prevent nasal carriage of these bacteria warrant further investigation.
Project description:The occurrence of livestock-associated (LA) MRSA (ST398) in pig herds has emerged as a threat to occupational safety in many parts of the world. Recently, an outbreak of skin lesions due to MRSA occurred in workers at a pig farm in regional Australia and both the humans and pigs were shown to have a high prevalence of carriage of either the human-strain ST93 or porcine strain ST398. This study closely scrutinises this outbreak to determine factors associated with MRSA carriage amongst the workers.Information on potential risk factors was collected from employees by means of a questionnaire. The carriage status of MRSA by workers was assessed by nasal swabs processed using standard laboratory techniques with confirmed isolates subjected to sequence typing. Associations between MRSA carriage in workers and their questionnaire responses were investigated using univariable and multivariable logistic regression.Nasal carriage of MRSA was identified in 60% (31/52) of participants. Workers having contact with pigs had 24 times the odds of MRSA carriage compared to workers with no direct contact (OR 23.6; CI 5.2-172.8). In addition, the probability of MRSA carriage in workers was significantly (P < 0.001) associated with the number of hours in contact with pigs and each hour of contact-time per day increased the risk of MRSA carriage by 1.44 times (CI 1.14-1.96). These associations were significant (P < 0.001) for both strains, ST398 and ST93, present on this farm. Using a multivariable logistic regression model that incorporated human exposure to five different pig age groups (dry sows, farrowing, weaner, grower, and finisher) as fixed effects, a significant (P = 0.027) increased odds of MRSA carriage was found for persons working with farrowing sows compared with those who did not (OR 6.39, CI 1.23-39.36).This study shows that workers in close contact with pigs on a pig farm where MRSA is present had a higher risk of MRSA carriage as the number of hours of direct contact with pigs increased. Since we have detected a significant association for the human-derived CA-MRSA ST93, similar to the pig-adapted LA-MRSA ST398, we consider ST93 as a potential occupational risk for piggery workers. The risk of MRSA carriage is greatest when working with the farrowing group; therefore, an emphasis is required on personal protective equipment while working in the farrowing house. The study has ramifications for the conduct of surveillance for MRSA in people exposed to pigs.
Project description:Carriage of animal-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clonal complex 398 (CC398) is common among pig farmers. This study was conducted (i) to investigate whether pig farmers are colonized with pig-specific S. aureus genotypes other than CC398 and (ii) to survey antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolates from pigs and pig farmers. Forty-eight S. aureus isolates from pig farmers and veterinarians and 130 isolates from pigs collected in Western Switzerland were genotyped by spa typing and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined for representative sample of the isolates. The data obtained earlier on healthy S. aureus carriers without exposure to agriculture were used for comparison. The genotype composition of S. aureus isolates from pig farmers and veterinarians was similar to isolates from pigs with predominant AFLP clusters CC398, CC9, and CC49. The resistance to tetracycline and macrolides (clarithromycin) was common among the isolates from farmers and veterinarians (52 and 21%, respectively) and similar to resistance levels in isolates from pigs (39 and 23%, respectively). This was in contrast to isolates from persons without contact with agriculture, where no (0/128) isolates were resistant to tetracycline and 3% of the isolates were resistant to clarithromycin. MRSA CC398 was isolated from pigs (n = 11) and pig farmers (n = 5). These data imply that zoonotic transmission of multidrug-resistant S. aureus from pigs to farmers is frequent, and well-known MRSA transmission merely represents the tip of the iceberg for this phenomenon. We speculate that the relatively low frequency of MRSA isolation is related to lower antimicrobial use in Switzerland compared to, for example, the Netherlands.
Project description:Clonal complex (CC) 398 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) are associated with carriage and infection among animals and humans but only a single case of CC398 MRSA has been reported in the Republic of Ireland (ROI). The present study investigated the molecular epidemiology of CC398 MRSA (n = 22) and MSSA (n = 10) from animals and humans in the ROI from 2010-2014. Isolates underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, spa typing, DNA microarray profiling and PCR for CC398-associated resistance genes. All MRSA underwent SCCmec IV or V subtyping. Four distinct CC398-MRSA incidents were identified from (i) a man in a nursing home (spa type t011-SCCmec IVa, immune evasion complex (IEC) negative), (ii) a horse and veterinarian who had recently travelled to Belgium (t011-IVa, IEC positive), (iii) pigs (n = 9) and farm workers (n = 9) on two farms, one which had been restocked with German gilts and the other which was a finisher farm (t034-VT, IEC negative, 3/9 pigs; t011-VT, IEC negative, 6/9 pigs & 9/9 farm workers), and (iv) a child who had worked on a pig farm in the UK (t034-VT, IEC negative). Isolates also carried different combinations of multiple resistance genes including erm(A), erm(B), tet(K), tet(M) & tet(L), fexA, spc, dfrG, dfrK aacA-aphD and aadD further highlighting the presence of multiple CC398-MRSA strains. CC398 MSSA were recovered from pigs (n = 8) and humans (n = 2). CC398 MSSA transmission was identified among pigs but zoonotic transmission was not detected with animal and human isolates exhibiting clade-specific traits. This study highlights the importation and zoonotic spread of CC398 MRSA in the ROI and the spread of CC398 MSSA among pigs. Increased surveillance is warranted to prevent further CC398 MRSA importation and spread in a country that was considered CC398 MRSA free.
Project description:Occupational contact with livestock is an established risk factor for exposure to livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly among industrial swine workers. While S. aureus is known to infect cattle, livestock-associated S. aureus carriage among workers in the beef production chain has received limited attention. Beefpacking workers, who slaughter, butcher and process cattle, have intensified exposure to potentially infectious animal materials and may be at risk of livestock-associated S. aureus exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study of beefpacking workers (n = 137) at an industrial slaughterhouse in the Midwestern United States to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of S. aureus nasal colonization, specifically the absence of the scn gene to identify putative association with livestock, antibiotic susceptibility, presence of Panton-Valentin leukocidin (PVL) genes lukS-PV and lukF-PV, and spa type. Overall prevalence of S. aureus nasal carriage was 27.0%. No workers carried livestock-associated MRSA. Methicillin-sensitive S. aureus isolates (MSSA) recovered from five workers (3.6%) lacked the scn gene and were considered putative livestock-associated S. aureus (pLA-SA). Among pLA-SA isolates, spa types t338, t748, t1476 and t2379 were identified. To our knowledge, these spa types have not previously been identified as associated with livestock. Prevalence of human-adapted MRSA carriage in workers was 3.6%. MRSA isolates were identified as spa types t002, t008 and t024, and four of five MRSA isolates were PVL-positive. To date, this is the first study to indicate that industrial beefpacking workers in the United States may be exposed to livestock-associated S. aureus, notably MSSA, and to spa types not previously identified in livestock and livestock workers. Occupational exposure to livestock-associated S. aureus in the beef production chain requires further epidemiologic investigation.
Project description:Since its emergence in the early 2000s, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 398 (LA-MRSA CC398) has led to an increasing number of human infections in Denmark and other European countries with industrial pig production. LA-MRSA CC398 is primarily associated with skin infections among pig farm workers but is also increasingly recognized as a cause of life-threatening disease among elderly and immunocompromised people. Pig farm workers may serve as vehicles for the spread of LA-MRSA CC398 and other farm-origin bacteria between farms and into the general population. Yet, little is known about the bacterial community dynamics in pig farm workers and other persons with long- and short-term exposure to the pig farm environment. To gain insight into this, we investigated the nasal microbiomes in pig farm workers during a workweek on four LA-MRSA CC398-positive pig farms, as well as in short-term visitors two hours before, immediately after, and 48 hours after a 1-hour visit to another LA-MRSA CC398-positive pig farm. S. aureus and LA-MRSA CC398 carriage was quantified by means of culture, and the composition of the bacterial communities was investigated through sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Pig farm workers often carried LA-MRSA CC398 and other bacteria from the pig farm environment, both at work and at home, although at lower levels at home. In contrast, short-term visitors were subject to a less dramatic and rapidly reversible change in the nasal bacterial community composition. These results suggest that pig farm workers may be an important source of LA-MRSA CC398 and perhaps other pathogens of human and veterinary relevance.