Differential Toxicity of Bare and Hybrid ZnO Nanoparticles in Green Pea (Pisum sativum L.): A Life Cycle Study.
ABSTRACT: The effect of surface or lattice modification of nanoparticles (NPs) on terrestrial plants is poorly understood. We investigated the impact of different zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs on green pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the highest consumed legumes globally. Pea plants were grown for 65 d in soil amended with commercially available bare ZnO NPs (10 nm), 2 wt% alumina doped (Al2O3@ZnO NPs, 15 nm), or 1 wt% aminopropyltriethoxysilane coated NPs (KH550@ZnO NP, 20 nm) at 250 and 1000 mg NP/kg soil inside a greenhouse. Bulk (ZnO) and ionic Zn (zinc chloride) were included as controls. Plant fresh and dry biomass, changes in leaf pigment concentrations, elements (Zn, Al, Si), and protein and carbohydrate profile of green pees were quantified upon harvest at 65 days. With the exception of the coated 1000 mg/kg NP treatment, fresh and dry weight were unaffected by Zn exposure. Although, all treated plants showed higher tissue Zn than controls, those exposed to Al2O3@ZnO NPs at 1000 mg/kg had greater Zn concentration in roots and seeds, compared to bulk Zn and the other NP treatments, keeping Al and Si uptake largely unaffected. Higher Zn accumulation in green pea seeds were resulted in coated ZnO at 250 mg/kg treatments. In leaves, Al2O3@ZnO NP at 250 mg/kg significantly increased Chl-a and carotenoid concentrations relative to the bulk, ionic, and the other NP treatments. The protein and carbohydrate profiles remained largely unaltered across all treatments with the exception of Al2O3@ZnO NPs at 1000 mg/kg where sucrose concentration of green peas increased significantly, which is likely a biomarker of stress. Importantly, these findings demonstrate that lattice and surface modification can significantly alter the fate and phytotoxic effects of ZnO NPs in food crops and seed nutritional quality. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a life cycle study on comparative toxicity of bare, coated, and doped ZnO NPs on a soil-grown food crop.
Project description:Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) hold promise as novel fertilizer nutrients for crops. However, their ultra-small size could hinder large-scale field application due to potential for drift, untimely dissolution or aggregation. In this study, urea was coated with ZnO-NPs (1%) or bulk ZnO (2%) and evaluated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a greenhouse, under drought (40% field moisture capacity; FMC) and non-drought (80% FMC) conditions, in comparison with urea not coated with ZnO (control), and urea with separate ZnO-NP (1%) or bulk ZnO (2%) amendment. Plants were exposed to ? 2.17 mg/kg ZnO-NPs and ? 4.34 mg/kg bulk-ZnO, indicating exposure to a higher rate of Zn from the bulk ZnO. ZnO-NPs and bulk-ZnO showed similar urea coating efficiencies of 74-75%. Drought significantly (p ? 0.05) increased time to panicle initiation, reduced grain yield, and inhibited uptake of Zn, nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P). Under drought, ZnO-NPs significantly reduced average time to panicle initiation by 5 days, irrespective of coating, and relative to the control. In contrast, bulk ZnO did not affect time to panicle initiation. Compared to the control, grain yield increased significantly, 51 or 39%, with ZnO-NP-coated or uncoated urea. Yield increases from bulk-ZnO-coated or uncoated urea were insignificant, compared to both the control and the ZnO-NP treatments. Plant uptake of Zn increased by 24 or 8% with coated or uncoated ZnO-NPs; and by 78 or 10% with coated or uncoated bulk-ZnO. Under non-drought conditions, Zn treatment did not significantly reduce panicle initiation time, except with uncoated bulk-ZnO. Relative to the control, ZnO-NPs (irrespective of coating) significantly increased grain yield; and coated ZnO-NPs enhanced Zn uptake significantly. Zn fertilization did not significantly affect N and P uptake, regardless of particle size or coating. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that coating urea with ZnO-NPs enhances plant performance and Zn accumulation, thus potentiating field-scale deployment of nano-scale micronutrients. Notably, lower Zn inputs from ZnO-NPs enhanced crop productivity, comparable to higher inputs from bulk-ZnO. This highlights a key benefit of nanofertilizers: a reduction of nutrient inputs into agriculture without yield penalities.
Project description:Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being rapidly developed for use in consumer products, wastewater treatment and chemotherapy providing several possible routes for ZnO NP exposure to humans and aquatic organisms. Recent studies have shown that ZnO NPs undergo rapid dissolution to Zn+2, but the relative contribution of Zn+2 to ZnO NP bioavailability and toxicity is not clear. Gene expression profiling of D. magna exposed to ZnO NPs or ZnSO4 at equitoxic concentrations demonstrated that the particles cause toxicity through a distinct mechanism compared with Zn+2. D. magna were also exposed to a SiO NPs as a particle control at equimolar concentrations. The SiO NPs resulted in few differentially expressed genes and there was very little overlap between the genes affected by the ZnO NPs and the SiO NPs, suggesting that ZnO NPs cause a distinct pattern of differentially expressed genes. In the ZnO NP exposures, effects were observed to genes involved in cytoskeletal transport, cellular respiration and reproduction. Three biomarker genes including a multi-cystatin, ferritin and a C1q containing gene were confirmed as differentially expressed in a specific pattern by ZnO NP and provide a suite of biomarkers for identifying environmental exposure to ZnO NP and differentiating between NP and ionic exposure. Overall design: We exposed Daphnia magna to the 1/10 LC50 and LC25 of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn++ as ZnSO4 for 24-h. For each exposure condition, we performed 3 exposures and 2 technical replicates (as dye swap) for each exposure (6 microarrays total). All exposures were compared to a unexposed laboratory control
Project description:Zinc Oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are being rapidly developed for use in consumer products, wastewater treatment and chemotherapy providing several possible routes for ZnO NP exposure to humans and aquatic organisms. Recent studies have shown that ZnO NPs undergo rapid dissolution to Zn+2, but the relative contribution of Zn+2 to ZnO NP bioavailability and toxicity is not clear. Gene expression profiling of D. magna exposed to ZnO NPs or ZnSO4 at equitoxic concentrations demonstrated that the particles cause toxicity through a distinct mechanism compared with Zn+2. D. magna were also exposed to a SiO NPs as a particle control at equimolar concentrations. The SiO NPs resulted in few differentially expressed genes and there was very little overlap between the genes affected by the ZnO NPs and the SiO NPs, suggesting that ZnO NPs cause a distinct pattern of differentially expressed genes. In the ZnO NP exposures, effects were observed to genes involved in cytoskeletal transport, cellular respiration and reproduction. Three biomarker genes including a multi-cystatin, ferritin and a C1q containing gene were confirmed as differentially expressed in a specific pattern by ZnO NP and provide a suite of biomarkers for identifying environmental exposure to ZnO NP and differentiating between NP and ionic exposure. We exposed Daphnia magna to the 1/10 LC50 and LC25 of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn++ as ZnSO4 for 24-h. For each exposure condition, we performed 3 exposures and 2 technical replicates (as dye swap) for each exposure (6 microarrays total). All exposures were compared to a unexposed laboratory control
Project description:Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used widely in consumer and industrial products, however, their influence on gut microbiota and metabolism and their mutual interactions are not fully understood. In this study, the effects of ZnO NPs on ileal bacterial communities, plasma metabolites, and correlations between them were investigated. Hens were fed with different concentrations of ZnO NPs [based on Zn; 0 mg/kg (control), 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg] for 9 weeks. Subsequently, ileal digesta and blood plasma were collected for analysis of microflora and metabolites, respectively. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene of ileal digesta microbiota was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. The predominant bacterial community in the ileum belongs to the phylum Firmicutes. The richness of the bacterial community was negatively correlated with increasing amounts of ZnO NPs (r = -0.636, P < 0.01); when ZnO NP levels were at 100 mg/kg, microbiota diversity was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The community structure determined by LEfSe analysis indicated that Bacilli, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria were changed, and Lactobacillus was reduced by ZnO NPs. Moreover, metabolism as analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) indicated that glucose, some amino acids, and other metabolites were changed by ZnO NPs. Choline, lactate, and methionine were positively correlated with bacterial richness. In summary, ZnO NPs could influence the levels of microflora in ileal digesta, particularly Lactobacillus. Furthermore, the richness of the microbiota was related to changes in choline, lactate, and methionine metabolism.
Project description:Black mustard (Brassica nigra) was grown in pots amended with 41 nm ZnO (200-600 mg/kg soil) and 47 nm CuO (12.5-50 mg/kg soil) nanoparticles (NPs) to analyze growth response and yield characteristics. B. nigra seed germination was not affected by CuO NPs, but significant toxicity was observed by ZnO NP treatment. Both NPs significantly increased the growth profile of B. nigra, i.e., the stem height, number of leaves, average leaf area, number of branches, and number of nodes per plant. Application of ZnO and CuO NPs brought a significant dose-dependent decrease in primary root length; however, the number of secondary roots increased in the presence of CuO NPs. The average number of flowers and pods per plant significantly increased in the presence of CuO NPs. The seed yield, average seed weight per plant, and seed diameter parameters were observed to be better in the presence of CuO NPs as compared with ZnO NPs. Total protein contents and glucosinolates increased in the seeds grown in the NP-amended soil, while total oil contents decreased. Oil analysis depicted that oleic acid and linolenic acid percentage decreased while erucic acid percentage increased in seeds in the presence of both NPs in the soil. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer showed accumulation of Cu and Zn in B. nigra in the following order: root > stem > leaves > seeds. The study concludes that CuO and ZnO NPs have detrimental effect on the B. nigra plant and yield. The release of NPs and type of metal in NPs might also have a positive effect on the plant; however, their concentration in the soil also matters.
Project description:Fagopyrum esculentum commonly named as buckwheat plant is pseudocereal food crops and healthy herbs but is not known as a bioindicator of environmental condition. In the present study, the effects of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and microparticles (MPs) on plant growth, bioaccumulation, and antioxidative enzyme activity in buckwheat were estimated under hydroponic culture. The significant biomass reduction at concentrations of 10-2,000 mg/L was 7.7-26.4 % for the ZnO NP and 11.4-23.5 % for the ZnO MP treatment, (p < 0.05). ZnO NPs were observed in root cells and root cell surface by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Zn bioaccumulation in plant increased with increasing treatment concentrations. The upward translocation (translocation factor <0.2) of Zn in plant was higher with the ZnO NP treatment than that with the ZnO MP treatment. Additionally, reactive oxygen species generation by ZnO NPs was estimated as the reduced glutathione level and catalase activity, which would be a predictive biomarker of nanotoxicity. The results are the first study to evaluate the phytotoxicity of ZnO NPs to medicinal plant. F. esculentum can be as a good indicator of plant species in NP-polluted environment.
Project description:Manufactured Zn oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) are extensively used world-wide in personal care and industrial products and are important contaminants of aquatic environments. To understand the overall impact of ZnO-NP contamination on aquatic ecosystems, investigation of their toxicity on aquatic biofilms is of particular consequence, given biofilms are known sinks for NP contaminants. In order to assess alterations in the functional activity of river microbial biofilm communities as a result of environmentally-relevant ZnO-NP exposure, biofilms were exposed to ionic zinc salt or ZnOPs that were uncoated (hydrophilic), coated with silane (hydrophobic) or stearic acid (lipophilic), at a total concentration of 188 ?g l-1 Zn. ICP-MS analyses of biofilms indicated ZnO-NP concentrated in the biofilms, with hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and lipophilic treatments reaching 0.310, 0.250, and 0.220 ?g Zn cm-2 of biofilm, respectively, while scanning transmission X-ray microspectroscopy (STXM) analyses of biofilms confirmed that Zn was extensively- and differentially-sorbed to biofilm material. Microbial community composition, based on taxonomic affiliation of mRNA sequences and enumeration of protozoa and micrometazoa, was not affected by these treatments, and the total transcriptional response of biofilms to all experimental exposures was not indicative of a global toxic-response, as cellular processes involved in general cell maintenance and housekeeping were abundantly transcribed. Transcripts related to major biological processes, including photosynthesis, energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, lipid metabolism, membrane transport, antibiotic resistance and xenobiotic degradation, were differentially expressed in Zn-exposures relative to controls. Notably, transcripts involved in nitrogen fixation and photosynthesis were decreased in abundance in response to Zn-exposure, while transcripts related to lipid degradation and motility-chemotaxis were increased, suggesting a potential role of Zn in biofilm dissolution. ZnO-NP and ionic Zn exposures elicited generally overlapping transcriptional responses, however hydrophilic and hydrophobic ZnO-NPs induced a more distinct effect than that of lipophilic ZnO-NPs, which had an effect similar to that of low ionic Zn exposure. While the physical coating of ZnO-NP may not induce specific toxicity observable at a community level, alteration of ecologically important processes of photosynthesis and nitrogen cycling are an important potential consequence of exposure to ionic Zn and Zn oxides.
Project description:The effects of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) on heavy metal fate and biotoxicity in farmland soil are mostly unknown. A flooding-drying simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of three typical metal oxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs, ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs) on the chemical speciation of heavy metals and micronutrient bioavailability in paddy soil. The results showed that the addition of ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs caused significant increases in soil pH, Eh and EC after a 90-d flooding-drying process. ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs addition caused clearly increase in the Zn and Cu concentrations in the acid-soluble fraction, Fe/Mn oxides-bound fraction and organic-bound fraction, leading to higher bioavailability in the soil. DTPA-extractable Zn and Cu increased to 184.6 mg kg-1 and 145.3 mg kg-1 in the maximum ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs concentration treatments (500 mg kg-1). TiO2-NPs promoted the transformation of Mn from a Fe/Mn oxides-bound fraction to an acid-soluble fraction. Soil Cd bioavailability obviously decreased in the TiO2-NPs treatment but increased in the ZnO-NPs and CuO-NPs treatments.
Project description:The toxicity and accumulation of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), ZnO microparticles (ZnO-MPs) and Zn ions were evaluated after long-term feeding with zinc-replenished food (1600 mg zinc equivalent per kg food) for 270 consecutive days. It was difficult for ZnO-NPs, ZnO-MPs and Zn ions were difficult to pass through the intestine barrier, and most of them were excreted mainly through feces. The distribution results showed that there was no noticeable difference among the distribution profiles of ZnO-NPs, ZnO-MPs and Zn ions in mice. Zn accumulated only in the digestive tract organs after the exposure to all three samples. However, the biomedical parameters and pathological investigations showed liver lesions induced by ZnO-MPs, but fewer by ZnO-NPs or Zn ions. The reason for the remarkably low <i>in vivo</i> toxicity of ZnO-NPs is discussed. Our findings suggest that ZnO-NPs are relatively biocompatible as the nutritional additive at the commonly used dose.
Project description:Proteins are the most important component in sludge extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and play a crucial role in the formation of sludge flocs, adsorption performance of sludge, and flocculation ability of sludge. This research is aimed at exploring the changes in proteins in EPS extracted from concentrated sludge after various nanoparticle (NP) treatments. The results showed that the protein content in EPS decreased by 40% after nanoalumina (Al2O3 NPs) treatment but increased at varying degrees after nanoferric oxide (Fe3O4 NPs), nanozinc oxide (ZnO NPs), and nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2 NPs) treatments. The four kinds of nanoparticles not only affected the protein content in EPS but also influenced the types and structures of proteins. The results of three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the tyrosine-like protein content in soluble EPS (SEPS) decreased after treatments with four kinds of NPs. Infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that the absorption intensity of amide I and amide II weakened after Al2O3 NP treatment, whereas that of amide I enhanced after Fe3O4 NP, ZnO NP, and TiO2 NP treatments. Further analysis of the secondary structure of proteins in the infrared range of 1700-1600?cm-1 demonstrated that the value of ?-helix/(?-sheet+random coil) decreased from 0.513 to 0.383 in SEPS after TiO2 NP treatment. For the samples treated by Fe3O4 NPs, the percentage of ?-helix significantly increased and that of ?-sheet slightly decreased in proteins from SEPS and loosely bound EPS.