Migratory CD103+ dendritic cells suppress helminth-driven type 2 immunity through constitutive expression of IL-12.
ABSTRACT: CD8?(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) play a central role in the development of type 1 immune responses. However, their role in type 2 immunity remains unclear. We examined this issue using Batf3(-/-) mice, in which both of these DC subsets are missing. We found that Th2 cell responses, and related events such as eosinophilia, alternative macrophage activation, and immunoglobulin class switching to IgG1, were enhanced in Batf3(-/-) mice responding to helminth parasites. This had beneficial or detrimental consequences depending on the context. For example, Batf3 deficiency converted a normally chronic intestinal infection with Heligmosomoides polygyrus into an infection that was rapidly controlled. However, liver fibrosis, an IL-13-mediated pathological consequence of wound healing in chronic schistosomiasis, was exacerbated in Batf3(-/-) mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Mechanistically, steady-state production of IL-12 by migratory CD103(+) DCs, independent of signals from commensals or TLR-initiated events, was necessary and sufficient to exert the suppressive effects on Th2 response development. These findings identify a previously unrecognized role for migratory CD103(+) DCs in antagonizing type 2 immune responses.
Project description:DCs are necessary and sufficient for induction of allergic airway inflammation. CD11b+ DCs direct the underlying Th2 immunity, but debate surrounds the function of CD103+ DCs in lung immunity and asthma after an allergic challenge. We challenged Batf3-/- mice, which lacked lung CD103+ DCs, with the relevant allergen house dust mite (HDM) as a model to ascertain their role in asthma. We show that acute and chronic HDM exposure leads to defective Th1 immunity in Batf3-deficient mice. In addition, chronic HDM challenge in Batf3-/- mice results in increased Th2 and Th17 immune responses and exacerbated airway inflammation. Mechanistically, Batf3 absence does not affect induction of Treg or IL-10 production by lung CD4+ T cells following acute HDM challenge. Batf3-dependent CD103+ migratory DCs are the main source of IL-12p40 in the mediastinal lymph node DC compartment in the steady state. Moreover, CD103+ DCs selectively increase their IL-12p40 production upon HDM administration. In vivo IL-12 treatment reverts exacerbated allergic airway inflammation upon chronic HDM challenge in Batf3-/- mice, restraining Th2 and Th17 responses without triggering Th1 immunity. These results suggest a protective role for lung CD103+ DCs to HDM allergic airway inflammation through the production of IL-12.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for defense against a variety of pathogens and the formation of adaptive immune responses. The transcription factor Batf3 is critical for the development of CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs, which promote IL-12-dependent protective immunity during viral and parasitic infections, dampen Th2 immunity during helminthic infection, and exert detrimental effects during bacterial infection. Whether CD103(+) DCs modulate immunity during systemic or mucosal fungal disease remains unknown. Herein, we report that Batf3 is critical for accumulation of CD103(+) DCs in the kidney and tongue at steady state, for their expansion during systemic and oropharyngeal candidiasis, and for tissue-specific production of IL-12 in kidney but not tongue during systemic and oropharyngeal candidiasis, respectively. Importantly, deficiency of CD103(+) DCs does not impair survival or fungal clearance during systemic or oropharyngeal candidiasis, indicating that Batf3-dependent CD103(+) DC accumulation mediates pathogen- and tissue-specific immune effects.
Project description:The role of different DC subsets in priming and maintenance of immunity against Leishmania major (L. major) infection is debated. The transcription factor basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 3 (Batf3) is essential for the development of mouse CD103(+) DCs and some functions of CD8?(+) DCs. We found that CD103(+) DCs were significantly reduced in the dermis of Batf3-deficient C57BL/6 mice. Batf3(-/-) mice developed exacerbated and unresolved cutaneous pathology following a low dose of intradermal L. major infection in the ear pinnae. Parasite load was increased 1000-fold locally and expanded systemically. Batf3 deficiency did not affect L. major antigen presentation to T cells, which was directly exerted by CD8?(-) conventional DCs (cDCs) in the skin draining LN. However, CD4(+) T-cell differentiation in the LN and skin was skewed to nonprotective Treg- and Th2-cell subtypes. CD103(+) DCs are major IL-12 producers during L. major infection. Local Th1 immunity was severely hindered, correlating with impaired IL-12 production and reduction in CD103(+) DC numbers. Adoptive transfer of WT but not IL-12p40(-/-) Batf3-dependent DCs significantly improved anti-L. major response in infected Batf3(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that IL-12 production by Batf3-dependent CD103(+) DCs is crucial for maintenance of local Th1 immunity against L. major infection.
Project description:Tolerance to harmless exogenous antigens is the default immune response in the gastrointestinal tract. Although extensive studies have demonstrated the importance of the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) and intestinal CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in driving small intestinal tolerance to protein antigen, the structural and immunological basis of colonic tolerance remain poorly understood. We show here that the caudal and iliac lymph nodes (ILNs) are inductive sites for distal colonic immune responses and that colonic T cell-mediated tolerance induction to protein antigen is initiated in these draining lymph nodes and not in MLNs. In agreement, colonic tolerance induction was not altered by mesenteric lymphadenectomy. Despite tolerance development, CD103(+)CD11b(+) DCs, which are the major migratory DC population in the MLNs, and the tolerance-related retinoic acid-generating enzyme RALDH2 were virtually absent from the ILNs. Administration of ovalbumin (OVA) to the distal colon did increase the number of CD11c(+)MHCII(hi) migratory CD103(-)CD11b(+) and CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs in the ILNs. Strikingly, colonic tolerance was intact in Batf3-deficient mice specifically lacking CD103(+)CD11b(-) DCs, suggesting that CD103(-) DCs in the ILNs are sufficient to drive tolerance induction after protein antigen encounter in the distal colon. Altogether, we identify different inductive sites for small intestinal and colonic T-cell responses and reveal that distinct cellular mechanisms are operative to maintain tolerance at these sites.
Project description:Although CD103-expressing dendritic cells (DCs) are widely present in nonlymphoid tissues, the transcription factors controlling their development and their relationship to other DC subsets remain unclear. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 have a defect in the development of CD8alpha+ conventional DCs (cDCs) within lymphoid tissues. We demonstrate that Batf3(-/-) mice also lack CD103+CD11b- DCs in the lung, intestine, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), dermis, and skin-draining lymph nodes. Notably, Batf3(-/-) mice displayed reduced priming of CD8 T cells after pulmonary Sendai virus infection, with increased pulmonary inflammation. In the MLNs and intestine, Batf3 deficiency resulted in the specific lack of CD103+CD11b- DCs, with the population of CD103+CD11b+ DCs remaining intact. Batf3(-/-) mice showed no evidence of spontaneous gastrointestinal inflammation and had a normal contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response, despite previous suggestions that CD103+ DCs were required for immune homeostasis in the gut and CHS. The relationship between CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs implied by their shared dependence on Batf3 was further supported by similar patterns of gene expression and their shared developmental dependence on the transcription factor Irf8. These data provide evidence for a developmental relationship between lymphoid organ-resident CD8alpha+ cDCs and nonlymphoid CD103+ DCs.
Project description:Allergic asthma stems largely from the actions of T helper 2 (Th2) cells, but the pathways that initiate Th2 responses to inhaled allergens are not fully understood. In the lung, there are two major subsets of dendritic cells (DCs), displaying CD11b or CD103. We found that after taking up inhaled ovalbumin in vivo, purified CD103(+) DCs from the lung or lung-draining lymph nodes primed Th2 differentiation ex vivo. Th2 induction by CD103(+) DCs was also seen when cockroach or house dust mite allergens were used. In contrast, CD11b(hi) DCs primed Th1 differentiation. Moreover, mice lacking CD103(+) DCs displayed diminished Th2 priming to various inhaled allergens and did not develop asthma-like responses following subsequent allergen challenge. Low-level antigen presentation by CD103(+) DCs was necessary, but not sufficient for Th2 priming. Together, these findings show that CD103(+) DCs have a significant role in priming Th2 responses to inhaled allergens.
Project description:Kidney dendritic cells (DCs) regulate nephritogenic T cell responses. Most kidney DCs belong to the CD11b+ subset and promote crescentic GN (cGN). The function of the CD103+ subset, which represents <5% of kidney DCs, is poorly understood. We studied the role of CD103+ DCs in cGN using several lines of genetically modified mice that allowed us to reduce the number of these cells. In all lines, we detected a reduction of FoxP3+ intrarenal regulatory T cells (Tregs), which protect against cGN. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 had a more profound reduction of CD103+ DCs and Tregs than did the other lines used, and showed the most profound aggravation of cGN. The conditional reduction of CD103+ DC numbers by 50% in Langerin-DTR mice halved Treg numbers, which did not suffice to significantly aggravate cGN. Mice lacking the cytokine Flt3L had fewer CD103+ DCs and Tregs than Langerin-DTR mice but exhibited milder cGN than did Batf3-/- mice presumably because proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs were somewhat depleted as well. Conversely, Flt3L supplementation increased the number of CD103+ DCs and Tregs, but also of proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs. On antibody-mediated removal of CD11b+ DCs, Flt3L supplementation ameliorated cGN. Mechanistically, CD103+ DCs caused cocultured T cells to differentiate into Tregs and produced the chemokine CCL20, which is known to attract Tregs into the kidney. Our findings show that CD103+ DCs foster intrarenal FoxP3+ Treg accumulation, thereby antagonizing proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs. Thus, increasing CD103+ DC numbers or functionality might be advantageous in cGN.
Project description:The balance of type 1 and type 2 immune responses plays a crucial role in anti-helminth immunity and can either support chronic infection or drive type 2 mediated expulsion of the parasite. Helminth antigens and secreted molecules directly influence this balance and induce a favorable immunological environment for the parasite's survival. However, less is known if the site of infection also influences the balance of type 1 and type 2 immunity. Here, we report that tissue-specific immune responses are mounted against helminth antigens, which elicited strong IL-4 responses when injected into the skin, while the same antigen, delivered into the intestinal subserosa, induced increased IFN-? and reduced Th2 responses. Immune responses in individual mesenteric lymph nodes that drain defined regions of the intestine furthermore displayed a site-specific pattern of type 1 and type 2 immunity after Schistosoma mansoni or Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection. S. mansoni egg-specific Th2 responses were detectable in all mesenteric lymph nodes but Th1 responses were only present in those draining the colon, while H. polygyrus infection elicited mixed Th1 and Th2 responses in the lymph nodes associated with the site of infection. Similar site-specific type 1 and type 2 immune responses were observed in the draining lymph nodes after the controlled delivery of S. mansoni eggs into different segments of the small and large intestine using microsurgical techniques. Different subsets of intestinal dendritic cells were hereby responsible for the uptake and priming of Th1 and Th2 responses against helminth antigens. Migratory CD11b+CD103- and especially CD11b+CD103+ DC2s transported S. mansoni egg antigens to the draining lymph nodes to induce Th1 and Th2 responses, while CD103+ DC1s induced only IFN-? responses. In contrast, H. polygyrus antigens were predominantly transported by CD11b+CD103- DC2s and CD103+ DC1s and all DC subsets induced similar Th1 but weaker Th2 responses, compared to S. mansoni egg antigens. The development of adaptive anti-helminth immune responses is therefore influenced by the antigen itself, the uptake and priming characteristics of antigen-positive dendritic cell subsets and the site of infection, which shape the level of Th1 and Th2 responses in order to create a favorable immunological environment for the parasite.
Project description:Dendritic cells (DCs) have critical roles in the induction of the adaptive immune response. The transcription factors Id2, Batf3 and Irf-8 are required for many aspects of murine DC differentiation including development of CD8?(+) and CD103(+) DCs. How they regulate DC subset specification is not completely understood. Using an Id2-GFP reporter system, we show that Id2 is broadly expressed in all cDC subsets with the highest expression in CD103(+) and CD8?(+) lineages. Notably, CD103(+) DCs were the only DC able to constitutively cross-present cell-associated antigens in vitro. Irf-8 deficiency affected loss of development of virtually all conventional DCs (cDCs) while Batf3 deficiency resulted in the development of Sirp-?(-) DCs that had impaired survival. Exposure to GM-CSF during differentiation induced expression of CD103 in Id2-GFP(+) DCs. It did not restore cross-presenting capacity to Batf3(-/-) or CD103(-)Sirp-?(-)DCs in vitro. Thus, Irf-8 and Batf3 regulate distinct stages in DC differentiation during the development of cDCs. Genetic mapping DC subset differentiation using Id2-GFP may have broad implications in understanding the interplay of DC subsets during protective and pathological immune responses.
Project description:Cells undergoing programmed cell death (apoptosis) are removed in situ by macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) through a specialized form of phagocytosis (efferocytosis). In the lung, there are two primary DC subsets with the potential to migrate to the local lymph nodes (LNs) and initiate adaptive immune responses. In this study, we show that only CD103(+) DCs were able to acquire and transport apoptotic cells to the draining LNs and cross present apoptotic cell-associated antigen to CD8 T cells. In contrast, both the CD11b(hi) and the CD103(+) DCs were able to ingest and traffic latex beads or soluble antigen. CD103(+) DCs selectively exhibited high expression of TLR3, and ligation of this receptor led to enhanced in vivo cytotoxic T cell responses to apoptotic cell-associated antigen. The selective role for CD103(+) DCs was confirmed in Batf3(-/-) mice, which lack this DC subtype. Our findings suggest that CD103(+) DCs are the DC subset in the lung that captures and presents apoptotic cell-associated antigen under homeostatic and inflammatory conditions and raise the possibility for more focused immunological targeting to CD8 T cell responses.