Influence of water biscuit processing and kernel puffing on the phenolic acid content and the antioxidant activity of einkorn and bread wheat.
ABSTRACT: The whole meal flour of wheat is rich in phenolic acids, which provide a relevant antioxidant activity to food products. Aim of this research was to assess the influence of processing on phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of whole meal flour water biscuits and puffed kernels of einkorn and bread wheat. To this end, the evolution of syringaldehyde, ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, and caffeic acids was studied during manufacturing. Overall, from flour to water biscuit, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased slightly in einkorn, while the insoluble bound phenolic acids decreased in all the accessions as a consequence of losses during the mixing step. In the puffed kernels, instead, the total soluble conjugated phenolic acids increased markedly, while the bound phenolics did not show any clear change, evidencing their high thermal stability. The antioxidant activity, measured by FRAP and ABTS, increased during processing and was highest under the most drastic puffing conditions.
Project description:Einkorn wheat (<i>Triticum monococcum</i>) is characterized by high content of proteins, bioactive compounds, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructans, tocols, carotenoids, alkylresorcinols, and phytosterols, and lower <i>?</i>-, <i>?</i>-amylase and lipoxygenase activities compared to polyploid wheat. These features make einkorn flour a good candidate to provide healthier foods. In the present study, we investigated the effects of einkorn bread (EB) on the intestinal physiology and metabolism of the pig model by characterizing the glycemic and insulinemic response, and the microbiota and metabolome profiles. Sixteen commercial hybrid pigs were enrolled in the study; four pigs were used to characterize postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses and twelve pigs underwent a 30-day dietary intervention to assess microbiota and metabolome changes after EB or standard wheat bread (WB) consumption. The postprandial insulin rise after an EB meal was characterized by a lower absolute level, and, as also observed for glucose, by a biphasic shape in contrast to that in response to a WB meal. The consumption of EB led to enrichment in short-chain fatty acid producers (e.g., <i>Blautia</i>, <i>Faecalibacterium,</i> and <i>Oscillospira</i>) in the gut microbiota and to higher metabolic diversity with lower content of succinate, probably related to improved absorption and therefore promoting intestinal gluconeogenesis. The observed changes, at both a compositional and metabolic scale, strongly suggest that EB consumption may support a health-promoting configuration of the intestinal ecosystem.
Project description:In this study, efforts were made to utilize hulless barley (variety BHS352) to enhance the nutritive value of chapatti and biscuit made from wheat flour. Barley flour was added to wheat flour in different ratios (5 to 30%). Antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and β-glucan content were determined both in flour blends and their products. Changes in physical quality and taste of chapatti and biscuits after blending of hulless barley flour with wheat flour were measured. The chapatti quality score decreased by 15% and biscuit spread factor by 33% after 30% barley flour blending. Significant increase in β-glucan content and antioxidant activity of flour blends and their products was observed at 30% blending level. The phenolic content increased from 63 to 135 µg for biscuits and 237 to 287 ug GAE/g for chapatti with blending of 30% barley flour.
Project description:There is strong evidence for health benefits from whole-grain wheat consumption and these have been linked to their higher fibre, antioxidant/(poly)phenolic and mineral contents. However, there is still scientific controversy about the relative effect of wheat species (Triticum aestivum vs T. spelta) and production methods (conventional vs organic) on the nutritional composition of wheat. The retail survey reported here showed that, the use of spelt varieties and organic production results in significantly higher (between 10 and 64%) levels of phenolics and some minerals in wheat flour. However, the relative effect of removing the outer bran and germ during milling was substantially larger; levels of antioxidant activity, and many phenolic compounds and mineral nutrients were 2-5 times higher in whole-grain than white flour. Organic flour contained higher concentrations of the undesirable metals Al and Ni (12% and 81% respectively), and spelt flour had 28% higher concentrations of the toxic metal Cd.
Project description:Biofortified colored wheat (black, blue, and purple) is rich in anthocyanins and phenolic acid compounds that impart positive physiological effects in humans. A large proportion of wheat is consumed in the form of Chapatti in Asian countries. The effect of chapatti cooking on the proximate composition, bioactive compounds (anthocyanins and phenolics), and antioxidant activities of these wheat varieties were checked in this study. Apart from acceptable sensory parameters, good taste, and soft texture of chapatti, biofortified colored wheat chapatti and flour had higher dietary fibers, protein content, and lower carbohydrate content. Higher soluble and insoluble phenolic compounds, anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activity were in the order of black > blue > purple > white. Chapatti making has reduced their antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content in comparison to flour. Moreover, the reduction in antioxidant activity is less as compared to the decrease in anthocyanin content. Our results suggest that colored wheat can be a better alternative to normal wheat for preparing chapatti as it would have additional health-promoting activities.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption.<h4>Methods</h4>Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming <sup>13</sup>C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed.<h4>Results</h4>Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P < 0.005). A clear postprandial increase in plasma conjugated bile acids was observed after both meals.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Substitution of 85 % wheat flour by broken kernels in bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.
Project description:For humans, wheat is the most important source of calories, but it is also a source of antioxidant compounds that are involved in the prevention of chronic disease. Among the antioxidant compounds, phenolic acids have great potential to improve human health. In this paper we evaluate the effect of environmental and genetic factors on the phenolics content in the grain of a collection of tritordeums with different cytoplasm and chromosome substitutions. To this purpose, tritordeum flour was used for extraction of the free, conjugates and bound phenolic compounds. These phenolic compounds were identified and quantified by RP-HPLC and the results were analyzed by univariate and multivariate methods. This is the first study that describes the composition of phenolic acids of the amphiploid tritordeum. As in wheat, the predominant phenolic compound is ferulic acid. In tritordeum there is great variability for the content of phenolic compounds and the main factor which determines its content is the genotype followed by the environment, in this case included in the year factor. Phenolic acid content is associated with the substitution of chromosome DS1D(1H(ch)) and DS2D(2H(ch)), and the translocation 1RS/1BL in tritordeum. The results show that there is high potential for further improving the quality and quantity of phenolics in tritordeum because this amphiploid shows high variability for the content of phenolic compounds.
Project description:Fusarium head blight (FHB) epidemics in wheat and contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins has become an increasing problem over the last decades. This prompted the need for non-invasive and non-destructive techniques to screen cereal grains for Fusarium infection, which is usually accompanied by mycotoxin contamination. This study tested the potential of hyperspectral imaging to monitor the infection of wheat kernels and flour with three Fusarium species. Kernels of two wheat varieties inoculated at anthesis with F. graminearum, F. culmorum, and F. poae were investigated. Hyperspectral images of kernels and flour were taken in the visible-near infrared (VIS-NIR) (400-1000 nm) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) (1000-2500 nm) ranges. The fungal DNA and mycotoxin contents were quantified. Spectral reflectance of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) was significantly higher than non-inoculated ones. In contrast, spectral reflectance of flour from non-inoculated kernels was higher than that of FDK in the VIS and lower in the NIR and SWIR ranges. Spectral reflectance of kernels was positively correlated with fungal DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) contents. In the case of the flour, this correlation exceeded r = -0.80 in the VIS range. Remarkable peaks of correlation appeared at 1193, 1231, 1446 to 1465, and 1742 to 2500 nm in the SWIR range.
Project description:The triticale grain has high nutritive value and good technological suitability. Triticale flour can be a valuable raw material for bread-making. The aim of this work was to determine the profile of phenolic acids in triticale grain of selected Polish cultivars and its products. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-PDA-MS/MS) was applied for separation and identification of these constituents. The grain of the examined triticale cultivars contained 13 phenolic acids, of which ferulic acid was determined in the largest amount and was constituted from 42-44% of the total content of phenolic acids in the grain. In addition, due to the large amounts of ferulic, di-ferulic, and sinapic acids, composition of the phenolic acids fraction in triticale grain of the tested cultivars varied in comparison with that of wheat and rye cultivars. In triticale flour, the number of phenolic acids was nearly 4 times lower than in the grain, as phenolic acids were removed along with bran, in which their proportion was almost 9 times higher than in the grain intended for grinding. The application of bran in the bread recipe resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in the fraction of phenolic acids compared to the bread produced from triticale flour without bran addition.
Project description:Buckwheat is a generous source of phenolic compounds, vitamins and essential amino acids. This paper discusses the procedure of obtaining innovative gluten-free, precooked pastas from roasted buckwheat grains flour, a fertile source of natural antioxidants, among them, phenolic acids. The authors also determined the effect of the extruder screw speed and the level of moisture content in the raw material on the quantity of free phenolic acids. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of phenolic acids in pasta was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The chromatographic method was validated. For extracts with the highest total content of free phenolic acids and unprocessed flour from roasted buckwheat grain, the TLC-DPPH test was also performed to determine the antioxidant properties of the tested pasta. The level of moisture in the raw material had an impact on the content of phenolic acids. All pastas made from buckwheat flour moistened up to 32% exhibited a higher total content of free phenolic acids than other mixes moistened to 30 and 34% of water.
Project description:The increasing demand for healthy baked goods boosted studies on sourdough microbiota with beneficial metabolic traits, to be used as potential functional starters. Here, 139 yeasts isolated from cereal-based fermented foods were in vitro characterized for their phytase and antioxidant activities. The molecular characterization at strain level of the best 39 performing isolates showed that they did not derive from cross contamination by baker's yeast. Afterwards, the 39 isolates were in vivo analyzed for their leavening ability, phytase activity and polyphenols content using five different wholegrain flours, obtained from conventional and pigmented common wheat, emmer and hull-less barley. Combining these findings, through multivariate permutation analysis, we identified the 2 best performing strains, which resulted diverse for each flour. Doughs singly inoculated with the selected strains were further analyzed for their antioxidant capacity, phenolic acids, xanthophylls and anthocyanins content. All the selected yeasts significantly increased the total antioxidant activity, the soluble, free and conjugated, forms of phenolic acids and anthocyanins of fermented doughs. This study revealed the importance of a specific selection of yeast strains for wholegrain flours obtained from different cereals or cultivars, in order to enhance the pro-technological, nutritional and nutraceutical traits of fermented doughs.