Interleukin-1 beta induces the expression and production of stem cell factor by epithelial cells: crucial involvement of the PI-3K/mTOR pathway and HIF-1 transcription complex.
ABSTRACT: Potential crosslinks between inflammation and leukaemia have been discussed for some time, but experimental evidence to support this dogma is scarce. In particular, it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for potential upregulation of proto-oncogenic growth factor expressions by inflammatory mediators. Here, we investigated the ability of the highly inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) to induce the production of stem cell factor (SCF), which is a major hematopoietic growth factor that controls the progression of acute myeloid leukaemia upon malignant transformation of haematopoietic myeloid cells. We found that human IL-1β induced the expression/secretion of SCF in MCF-7 human epithelial breast cancer cells and that this process depended on the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcription complex. We also demonstrated a crucial role of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in IL-1β-induced HIF-1α accumulation in MCF-7 cells. Importantly, mTOR was also found to play a role in IL-1β-induced SCF production. Furthermore, a tendency for a positive correlation of IL-1β and SCF levels in the plasma of healthy human donors was observed. Altogether, our results demonstrate that IL-1β, which normally bridges innate and adaptive immunity, induces the production of the major haematopoietic/proleukaemic growth factor SCF through the PI-3K/mTOR pathway and the HIF-1 transcription complex. These findings strongly support a cross-talk between inflammation and acute myeloid leukaemia.
Project description:The MLL gene is targeted by chromosomal translocations, which give rise to heterologous MLL fusion proteins and are associated with distinct types of acute lymphoid and myeloid leukaemia. To determine how MLL fusion proteins alter the proliferation and/or differentiation of primary haematopoietic progenitors, we introduced the MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL fusion proteins into primary chicken bone marrow cells. Both fusion proteins caused the sustained outgrowth of immature haematopoietic cells, which was strictly dependent on stem cell factor (SCF). The renewing cells have a long in vitro lifespan exceeding the Hayflick limit of avian cells. Analysis of clonal cultures identified the renewing cells as immature, multipotent progenitors, expressing erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid and stem cell surface markers. Employing a two-step commitment/differentiation protocol involving the controlled withdrawal of SCF, the MLL-ENL-transformed progenitors could be induced to terminal erythroid or myeloid differentiation. Finally, in cooperation with the weakly leukaemogenic receptor tyrosine kinase v-Sea, the MLL-ENL fusion protein gave rise to multilineage leukaemia in chicks, suggesting that other activated, receptor tyrosine kinases can substitute for ligand-activated c-Kit in vivo.
Project description:Xanthine oxidase (XOD) is an enzyme which plays a central role in purine catabolism by converting hypoxanthine into xanthine and then further into uric acid. Here we report that XOD is activated in THP-1 human myeloid cells in response to pro-inflammatory and growth factor stimulation. This effect occurred following stimulation of THP-1 cells with ligands of plasma membrane associated TLRs 2 and 4, endosomal TLRs 7 and 8 as well as stem cell growth factor (SCF). Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcription complexes were found to be responsible for XOD upregulation. Importantly, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major myeloid cell translation regulator, was also found to be essential for XOD activation. Specific inhibition of XOD by allopurinol and sodium tungstate led to an increase in intracellular AMP levels triggering downregulation of mTOR activation by phosphorylation of its T2446 residue. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that XOD is not only activated by pro-inflammatory stimuli or SCF but also plays an important role in maintaining mTOR-dependent translational control during the biological responses of human myeloid cells.
Project description:Although many aspects of blood production are well understood, the spatial organization of myeloid differentiation in the bone marrow remains unknown. Here we use imaging to track granulocyte/macrophage progenitor (GMP) behaviour in mice during emergency and leukaemic myelopoiesis. In the steady state, we find individual GMPs scattered throughout the bone marrow. During regeneration, we observe expanding GMP patches forming defined GMP clusters, which, in turn, locally differentiate into granulocytes. The timed release of important bone marrow niche signals (SCF, IL-1?, G-CSF, TGF? and CXCL4) and activation of an inducible Irf8 and ?-catenin progenitor self-renewal network control the transient formation of regenerating GMP clusters. In leukaemia, we show that GMP clusters are constantly produced owing to persistent activation of the self-renewal network and a lack of termination cytokines that normally restore haematopoietic stem-cell quiescence. Our results uncover a previously unrecognized dynamic behaviour of GMPs in situ, which tunes emergency myelopoiesis and is hijacked in leukaemia.
Project description:Inflammation and tumor hypoxia are intimately linked and breast cancer provides a typical example of an inflammation-linked malignant disease. Indeed, breast cancer progression is actively supported by inflammatory components, including IL-1β, and by the hypoxia-inducible factor- (HIF-) 1α. In spite of many attempts where the role of either IL-1β or HIF-1α was evaluated, detailed mechanisms for their effects on breast cancer cell migration under hypoxia are still unclear. We here report that IL-1β increased MDAMB231 cell migration under hypoxic conditions along with HIF-1α accumulation and upregulation of CXCR1, which is transcriptionally regulated by HIF-1α, as well as an increased expression of CXCL8 and NFκB. In addition, IL-1β-induced cell migration in hypoxia was not affected when HIF-1α was inhibited by either siRNA or Topotecan, well known for its inhibitory effect on HIF-1α. Of interest, HIF-1α inhibition did not reduce NFκB and CXCL8 expression and the reduction of IL-1β-induced cell migration under hypoxia was achieved only by pharmacological inhibition of NFκB. Our findings indicate that inhibition of HIF-1α does not prevent the migratory program activated by IL-1β in hypoxic MDAMB231 cells. They also suggest a potential compensatory role of NFκB/CXCL8 pathway in IL-1β-induced MDAMB231 cell migration in a hypoxic microenvironment.
Project description:Glioblastoma is the most common brain tumor in adults. Advanced glioblastomas normally contain hypoxic areas. The primary cellular responses to hypoxia are generally mediated by the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a cytokine that is often present in the glioblastoma microenvironment and is known to be a modulator of glioblastoma progression. However, the role of IL-1β in regulating glioblastoma progression is still controversial. In this study, we found that in the human glioblastoma cell lines U87MG and U138MG, IL-1β inhibits the transactivation activity of HIF-1 by promoting the ubiquitin-independent proteasomal degradation of the oxygen-labile α-subunit of HIF-1 and downregulates the expression of the HIF-1 target gene adrenomedullin (AM). Apoptosis and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assays showed that AM protects glioblastoma cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, in the presence of IL-1β more glioblastoma cells undergo hypoxia-induced cell death. Our findings suggest that when estimating the influence of IL-1β on the prognosis of glioblastoma patients, factors such as the degree of hypoxia, the expression levels of HIF-1 and AM should be taken into consideration. For the AM-producing glioblastoma cells, IL-1β represents a potent apoptosis inducer.
Project description:Cells of the osteoblast lineage affect the homing and the number of long-term repopulating haematopoietic stem cells, haematopoietic stem cell mobilization and lineage determination and B cell lymphopoiesis. Osteoblasts were recently implicated in pre-leukaemic conditions in mice. However, a single genetic change in osteoblasts that can induce leukaemogenesis has not been shown. Here we show that an activating mutation of ?-catenin in mouse osteoblasts alters the differentiation potential of myeloid and lymphoid progenitors leading to development of acute myeloid leukaemia with common chromosomal aberrations and cell autonomous progression. Activated ?-catenin stimulates expression of the Notch ligand jagged 1 in osteoblasts. Subsequent activation of Notch signalling in haematopoietic stem cell progenitors induces the malignant changes. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signalling ameliorates acute myeloid leukaemia and demonstrates the pathogenic role of the Notch pathway. In 38% of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukaemia, increased ?-catenin signalling and nuclear accumulation was identified in osteoblasts and these patients showed increased Notch signalling in haematopoietic cells. These findings demonstrate that genetic alterations in osteoblasts can induce acute myeloid leukaemia, identify molecular signals leading to this transformation and suggest a potential novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to acute myeloid leukaemia.
Project description:Bacterial pneumonia is a common risk factor for acute lung injury and sepsis-mediated death, but the mechanisms underlying the overt inflammation and accompanying pathology are unclear. Infiltration of immature myeloid cells and necrotizing inflammation mediate severe pathology and death during pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis. However, eliciting mature myeloid cells provides protection. Yet, the host factors responsible for this pathologic immature myeloid cell response are unknown. Here, we report that while the influx of both mature and immature myeloid cells is strictly MyD88 dependent, the interleukin 1 (IL-1) receptor mediates an important dual function via its ligands IL-1α and IL-1β. Although IL-1β favors the appearance of bacteria-clearing mature myeloid cells, IL-1α contributes to lung infiltration by ineffective and pathologic immature myeloid cells. Finally, IL-1α and IL-1β are not the sole factors involved, but myeloid cell responses during acute pneumonia were largely unaffected by lung levels of interleukin 10, interleukin 17, CXCL1, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.
Project description:The large difference in phenotypes among tumour populations may stem from the stochastic origin of tumours from distinct cells - tumour cells are assumed to retain the phenotypes of the cells from which they derive. Yet, functional studies addressing the cellular origin of leukaemia are lacking. Here we show that the cells of origin of both, BCR/ABL-induced chronic myeloid (CML) and B-cell acute lymphoid leukaemia (B-ALL), resemble long-term haematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs). During disease-maintenance, CML LT-HSCs persist to function as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that maintain leukaemia and require signalling by the transcription factor STAT5. In contrast, B-ALL LT-HSCs differentiate into CSCs that correspond to pro-B cells. This transition step requires a transient IL-7 signal and is lost in IL-7R?-deficient cells. Thus, in BCR/ABLp185(+) B-ALL and BCR/ABLp210(+) CML, the final phenotype of the tumour as well as the abundance of CSCs is dictated by diverging differentiation fates of their common cells of origin.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Oral lichen planus (OLP) is known as a chronic inflammatory disease. Our recent studies have suggested that vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling exerts its protective effects on oral keratinocyte apoptosis by regulating microRNA-802 and p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), but its roles in oral epithelial inflammatory responses in OLP are still unknown. Herein, we identify lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is able to enhance interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) productions in human oral keratinocytes (HOKs) dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). METHODS:HIF-1α and cytokines levels in HOKs were investigated by real-time PCR and western blotting after LPS challenge. The effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 on LPS-induced HIF-1α and cytokines were tested by real-time PCR, western blotting, siRNA-interference and plasmids transfection techniques. The roles of 1,25(OH)2D3 in regulating HIF-1α levels were investigated using western blotting, siRNA-interference, plasmids transfection and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. Finally, HIF-1α, IFNγ and IL-1β expressions in oral epithelia derived from mice and individuals were measured by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. RESULTS:As a critical regulator, vitamin D suppresses LPS-induced HIF-1α to block IFNγ and IL-1β productions. Mechanistically, vitamin D inactivates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and up-regulates von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) levels, leading to HIF-1α reduction. Moreover, HIF-1α status of oral epithelia is elevated in VDR-/- mie as well as in VDR-deficient human biopsies, accompanied with increased IFNγ and IL-1β. CONCLUSION:Collectively, this study uncovers an unrecognized roles of vitamin D/VDR signaling in regulating cytokines in oral keratinocytes and reveals the molecular basis of it.
Project description:Although Hif-2α is a master regulator of catabolic factor expression in osteoarthritis development, Hif-2α inhibitors remain undeveloped. The aim of this study was to determine whether Cirsium japonicum var. maackii (CJM) extract and one of its constituents, apigenin, could attenuate the Hif-2α-induced cartilage destruction implicated in osteoarthritis progression. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that CJM reduced the IL-1β-, IL-6, IL-17- and TNF-α-induced up-regulation of MMP3, MMP13, ADAMTS4, ADAMTS5 and COX-2 and blocked osteoarthritis development in a destabilization of the medial meniscus mouse model. Activation of Hif-2α, which directly up-regulates MMP3, MMP13, ADAMTS4, IL-6 and COX-2 expression, is inhibited by CJM extract. Although cirsimarin, cirsimaritin and apigenin are components of CJM and can reduce inflammation, only apigenin effectively reduced Hif-2α expression and inhibited Hif-2α-induced MMP3, MMP13, ADAMTS4, IL-6 and COX-2 expression in articular chondrocytes. IL-1β induction of JNK phosphorylation and IκB degradation, representing a critical pathway for Hif-2α expression, was completely blocked by apigenin in a concentration-dependent manner. Collectively, these effects indicate that CJM and one of its most potent constituents, apigenin, can lead to the development of therapeutic agents for blocking osteoarthritis development as novel Hif-2α inhibitors.