Cell mediated immune responses following revaccination with an influenza A/H5N1 vaccine.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:The study aims were to determine whether inactivated influenza A/H5N1 vaccine administration elicited cell mediated immune (CMI) responses and the impact of adjuvant, vaccine dose and subject age on these responses. METHODS:Adults who were previously primed with either adjuvanted or unadjuvanted, inactivated, A/H5N1/Vietnam/1203/2004 (Clade 1) vaccine or unprimed (received placebo) in previous vaccine studies were randomized to receive one (primed) or two (unprimed) 15- or 90-mcg doses of inactivated, A/H5N1/Indonesia/05/05 (Clade 2) vaccine. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected and analyzed from a subset of vaccinees to assess CMI responses using IFN-? and granzyme B ELISPOT assays. Cytokine measurements were performed on PBMC supernatants after stimulation with H5N1 virus. RESULTS:PBMCs were available from 177 participants; 88 and 89 received 15-mcg and 90-mcg of unadjuvanted clade 2 vaccine, respectively. Following H5N1 clade 1 stimulation, IFN-? but not granzyme B normalized spot-forming cell numbers had statistically significant increased numbers at each of the post-vaccination timepoints compared to baseline in pooled analyses of all vaccine doses and age groups. Clade 2 stimulation resulted in statistically significant increased numbers of IFN-? cells only 180 days following the last vaccination. Responses were similar among younger and older study participants, as were responses among those primed with alum-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted clade 1 H5N1 vaccines. The dosage of clade 2 vaccine did not impact CMI responses among primed subjects, but responses were statistically significantly greater in unprimed recipients of the 90-mcg dosage compared to unprimed recipients of the 15-mcg dosage. IFN-? levels in the supernatants of stimulated PBMC were strongly correlated with IFN-? ELISPOT results. CONCLUSION:CMI responses occur in adults administered influenza A/H5N1 inactivated influenza vaccine.
Project description:Proactive priming before the next pandemic could induce immune memory responses to novel influenza antigens. In an open-label study, we analyzed B cell memory and antibody responses of 54 adults who received 2 7.5-microg doses of MF59-adjuvanted A/Vietnam/1194/2004 clade 1 (H5N1) vaccine. Twenty-four subjects had been previously primed with MF59-adjuvanted or plain clade 0-like A/duck/Singapore/1997 (H5N3) vaccine during 1999-2001. The prevaccination frequency of circulating memory B cells reactive to A/Vietnam/1194/2004 was low in both primed and unprimed individuals. However, at day 21 after boosting, MF59-adjuvanted primed subjects displayed a higher frequency of H5N1-specific memory B cells than plain-primed or unprimed subjects. The immune memory was rapidly mobilized by a single vaccine administration and resulted in high titers of neutralizing antibodies to antigenically diverse clade 0, 1, and 2 H5N1 viruses already at day 7. In general, postvaccination antibody titers were significantly higher in primed subjects than in unprimed subjects. Subjects primed with MF59-adjuvanted vaccine responded significantly better than those primed with plain vaccine, most notably in early induction and duration of cross-reacting antibody responses. After 6 months, high titers of cross-reactive antibody remained detectable among MF59-primed subjects. We conclude that distant priming with clade 0-like H5N3 induces a pool of cross-reactive memory B cells that can be boosted rapidly years afterward by a mismatched MF59-adjuvanted vaccine to generate high titers of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies rapidly. These results suggest that pre-pandemic vaccination strategies should be considered.
Project description:In an open label clinical study (2007), MF59-adjuvanted hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine from H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (clade 1) was administered to subjects previously vaccinated (primed) with clade 0 H5N3 (A/duck/Singapore/97) vaccine at least 6 years earlier (in 1999 or 2001). The primed individuals responded rapidly and generated high neutralizing antibody titers against the H5N1-Vietnam strain within 7 days of a single booster vaccination. Furthermore, significant cross-neutralization titers were measured against H5N1 clade 0, 1, and 2 viruses. In the current study, the impact of MF59 adjuvant during heterologous priming on the quality of humoral polyclonal immune response in different vaccine arms were further evaluated using real time kinetics assay by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Total anti-H5N1 HA1 polyclonal sera antibody binding from the heterologous prime-boost groups after a single MF59-H5N1 boost was significantly higher compared with sera from unprimed individuals that received two MF59-H5N1 vaccinations. The antigen-antibody complex dissociation rates (surrogate for antibody affinity) of the polyclonal sera against HA1 of H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 from the MF59-H5N3 primed groups were significantly higher compared to sera from unadjuvanted primed groups or unprimed individuals that received two MF59-H5N1 vaccines. Furthermore, strong inverse correlations were observed between the antibody dissociation off-rates of the immune sera against HA1 (but not HA2) and the virus neutralization titers against H5 vaccine strains and heterologous H5N1 strains. These findings supports the use of oil-in-water-adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccines to elicit long term memory B cells with high affinity BCR capable of responding to potential variant pandemic viruses likely to emerge and adapt to human transmissions.
Project description:Three phase II randomized trials evaluated the safety/immunogenicity of two formulations of live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus (TDEN) vaccine in dengue-endemic (Puerto Rico, Thailand) and non-endemic (US) regions (NCT00350337/NCT00370682/NCT00468858). We describe cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses; safety and humoral responses were reported previously. Participants received two doses of vaccine or control (placebo or the precursor live-attenuated TDEN vaccine) 6 months apart. Selected US participants received a booster 5-12 months post-dose 2. Evaluated subsets of the per-protocol cohorts included 75 primarily dengue virus (DENV)-unprimed US adults, 69 primarily flavivirus-primed Thai adults, and 100 DENV-primed or DENV-unprimed Puerto Rican adults/adolescents/children. T-cell responses were quantified using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS; DENV-infected cell-lysate or DENV-1/DENV-2 peptide-pool stimulation) or IFN-? ELISPOT (DENV-2 peptide-pool stimulation). Memory B-cell responses were quantified using B-cell ELISPOT. Across populations and age strata, DENV serotype-specific CD4+ T-cell responses were slightly to moderately increased (medians ?0.18% [ICS]), DENV-2-biased, and variable for both formulations. Responses in unprimed subjects were primarily detected post-dose 1. Response magnitudes in primed subjects were similar between doses. Multifunctional CD8+ T-cell responses were detected after peptide-pool stimulation. T-cell responses were mostly directed to DENV nonstructural proteins 3 and 5. Memory B-cell responses were tetravalent, of low-to-moderate magnitudes (medians ?0.25%), and mainly observed post-dose 2 in unprimed subjects and post-dose 1 in primed subjects. A third dose did not boost CMI responses. In conclusion, both formulations of the live-attenuated TDEN vaccine candidate were poorly to moderately immunogenic with respect to B-cell and T-cell responses, irrespective of the priming status of the participants. Abbreviation ATP: according-to-protocol; ICS: Intracellular Cytokine Staining; NS3: Nonstructural protein 3; ELISPOT: Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSpot; JEV: Japanese encephalitis virus; PBMC: peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Project description:The pandemic potential of avian influenza A/H5N1 should not be overlooked, and the continued development of vaccines against these highly pathogenic viruses is a public health priority.This open-label extension booster study followed a Phase III study of 1206 adults who had received two 3.75 ?g doses of primary AS03A-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted H5N1 split-virus vaccine (A/Vietnam/1194/2004; clade 1) (NCT00449670). The aim of the extension study was to evaluate different timings for heterologous AS03A-adjuvanted booster vaccination (A/Indonesia/5/2005; clade 2.1) given at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. Immunogenicity was assessed 21 days after each booster vaccination and the persistence of immune responses against the primary vaccine strain (A/Vietnam) and the booster strain (A/Indonesia) was evaluated up to Month 48 post-primary vaccination. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed.After booster vaccination given at Month 6, HI antibody responses to primary vaccine, and booster vaccine strains were markedly higher with one dose of AS03A-H5N1 booster vaccine in the AS03A-adjuvanted primary vaccine group compared with two doses of booster vaccine in the non-adjuvanted primary vaccine group. HI antibody responses were robust against the primary and booster vaccine strains 21 days after boosting at Month 12 or 36. At Month 48, in subjects boosted at Month 6, 12, or 36, HI antibody titers of ?1:40 against the booster strain persisted in 39.2%, 61.2%, and 95.6% of subjects, respectively. Neutralizing antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses also showed that AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccination elicited robust immune responses within 21 days of boosting at Month 6, 12, or 36 post-primary vaccination. The booster vaccine was well tolerated, and no safety concerns were raised.In Asian adults primed with two doses of AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, strong cross-clade anamnestic antibody responses were observed after one dose of AS03A-H5N1 heterologous booster vaccine given at Month 6, 12, or 36 after priming, suggesting that AS03A-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccines may provide highly flexible prime-boost schedules. Although immunogenicity decreased with time, vaccinated populations could potentially be protected for up to three years after vaccination, which is likely to far exceed the peak of the a pandemic.
Project description:A Phase I trial conducted in 2009-2010 demonstrated that oral vaccination with a replication competent Ad4-H5 (A/Vietnam) vector with dosages ranging from 107-1011 viral particles was well tolerated. HA-specific T-cell responses were efficiently induced, but very limited hemagglutination-inhibiting (HI) humoral responses were measured. However, a single boost of Ad4-H5-Vtn vaccinated individuals with a unadjuvanted licensed H5N1 (A/Vietnam) subunit vaccine resulted in superior HI titers compared with unprimed subjects. In the current study, the impact of Ad4-H5 priming on the quality of the polyclonal humoral immune response was evaluated using a real-time kinetics assay by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Total binding of serum polyclonal antibodies from the Ad4-H5-Vtn primed groups against both homologous H5N1-A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (clade 1) and heterologous A/Indonesia-5/2005 (clade 2.1) HA1 head domain was significantly higher compared with sera from individuals that received subunit H5N1 vaccination alone. SPR measurements also demonstrated that the antigen-antibody complex dissociation rates (a surrogate for antibody affinity) of serum antibodies against the HA1 of H5N1-A/Vietnam were significantly higher in the Ad4-H5 primed groups compared with those from the unprimed group. Furthermore, strong correlations were observed between the antibody affinities for HA1 (but not HA2) and the virus neutralization titers against the homologous strain and a panel of heterologous clade 2 H5N1 strains. These findings support the concept of oral prime-boost vaccine approaches against pandemic influenza to elicit long-term memory B cells with high affinity capable of rapid response to variant pandemic viruses likely to emerge and adapt to human transmissions.
Project description:The hemagglutinination inhibition (HI) response remains the gold standard used for the licensure of influenza vaccines. However, cell-mediated immunity (CMI) deserves more attention, especially when evaluating H5N1 influenza vaccines that tend to induce poor HI response. In this study, we measured the humoral response (HI) and CMI (flow cytometry) during a Phase II dose-ranging clinical trial (NCT01991561). Subjects received two intramuscular doses, 21 days apart, of plant-derived virus-like particles (VLP) presenting the A/Indonesia/05/2005 H5N1 influenza hemagglutinin protein (H5) at the surface of the VLP (H5VLP). The vaccine was co-administrated with Alhydrogel® or with a glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant-stable emulsion (GLA-SE). We demonstrated that low doses (3.75 or 7.5??g H5VLP) of GLA-SE-adjuvanted vaccines induced HI responses that met criteria for licensure at both antigen doses tested. Alhydrogel adjuvanted vaccines induced readily detectable HI response that however failed to meet licensure criteria at any of three doses (10, 15 and 20??g) tested. The H5VLP also induced a sustained (up to 6 months) polyfunctional and cross-reactive HA-specific CD4+ T cell response in all vaccinated groups. Interestingly, the frequency of central memory Th1-primed precursor cells before the boost significantly correlated with HI titers 21 days after the boost. The ability of the low dose GLA-SE-adjuvanted H5VLP to elicit both humoral response and a sustained cross-reactive CMI in healthy adults is very attractive and could result in significant dose-sparing in a pandemic situation.
Project description:To enhance the immunogenicity of the Influenza H5N1 vaccine, we developed an oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant. NE displayed good temperature stability and maintained particle size. More importantly, it significantly enhanced IL-6 and MCP-1 production to recruit innate cells, including neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells to the local environment. Furthermore, NE enhanced dendritic cell function to induce robust antigen-specific T and B cell immune responses. NE-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine not only elicited significantly higher and long-lasting antibody responses, but also conferred enhanced protection against homologous clade 1 as well as heterologous clade 2 H5N1 virus challenge in young as well as in aged mice. The pre-existing immunity to seasonal influenza did not affect the immunogenicity of NE-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccine.
Project description:Long-term persistence of immune response and safety of an H5N1 prepandemic influenza vaccine adjuvanted with AS03 (an ?-tocopherol oil-in-water emulsion-based adjuvant system) was evaluated using various prime-boost schedules that mimicked potential pandemic scenarios (NCT00430521).Five hundred and twelve healthy adults aged 18-60 years received primary vaccination with one or two doses (0, 21 days schedule) of the A/Vietnam/1194/2004 H5N1 vaccine followed by a booster dose (A/Vietnam/1194/2004 or A/Indonesia/05/2005 strain) six or twelve months later across eight randomized groups. Immunogenicity results by hemagglutination inhibition [HI] assay, microneutralization assay, and the cell-mediated immune response (CMI) are reported here for the four groups boosted at Month 12.A one-dose-adjuvanted primary administration followed 12 months later by a single-adjuvanted booster dose containing a heterologous vaccine strain met or exceeded all US and European criteria for both strains. Increasing the interval between the first and second dose (from 21 days to 12 months) resulted in stronger cross-reactive immune responses against the A/Indonesia/05/2005 strain. The HI antibody response against the two strains persisted for 6 months after the booster dose irrespective of the booster vaccine's strain. The neutralizing antibody responses and the CMI observed in the study population paralleled the HI immune response. Overall, the vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile.The H5N1 vaccine in this study allowed for flexibility in the time interval between primary and booster vaccination and the use of a heterologous strain without impacting the strength of the humoral and cellular immune response to both vaccine strains.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Influenza A/H7N9 viruses are undergoing antigenic drift since their emergence in 2013, and vaccination strategies are needed for pandemic preparedness. Two doses of adjuvanted monovalent inactivated influenza A/H7N9 vaccine (IIV1 A/H7N9) are needed for optimal serological responses. However, administering 2 doses in a pandemic setting might be challenging. We evaluated the immunogenicity of "boosting" with IIV1 A/H7N9 in subjects "primed" 8?years previously with IIV1 A/H7N7. METHODS:We administered 1 booster dose containing 45?mcg of IIV1 A/H7N9 hemagglutinin to 17 recipients of 2 prior doses of IIV1 A/H7N7, and to 10 influenza A/H7-naïve subjects. We tested their post-boosting sera for antibodies (Ab) against homologous influenza A/H7N9 using a hemagglutination inhibition assay; and compared their Ab titers to those in stored sera from recipients of AS03-adjuvanted IIV1 A/H7N9 against 9 strains of influenza A/H7N9 viruses. RESULTS:The percentage of subjects with Ab titers ?40 on Days 9 and 29 post boosting, respectively, was 65% and 41% in primed subjects and 10% and 0% in unprimed subjects. The Ab titers in recipients of AS03-adjuvanted IIV1 A/H7N9 were higher than those in the prime-boost group against a panel of influenza A/H7N9 viruses, except for 2 highly pathogenic strains. CONCLUSIONS:Priming with IIV1 A/H7 results in serological responses following a delayed boost with 1 dose of unadjuvanted IIV1 A/H7N9, despite lack of antibody response after the prime. Optimizing prime-boost approaches would benefit pandemic preparedness. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02586792.
Project description:Promising clinical data and significant antigen-sparing have been demonstrated for a pandemic H5N1 influenza split-virion vaccine adjuvanted with AS03A, an α-tocopherol-containing oil-in-water emulsion-based Adjuvant System. Although studies using this formulation have been reported, there have been no data for Japanese populations. This study therefore aimed to assess the immunogenicity and tolerability of a prepandemic (H5N1) influenza vaccine adjuvanted with AS03A in Japanese adults.This open-label, single-group study was conducted at two centres in Japan in healthy Japanese males and females aged 20-64 years (n = 100). Subjects received two doses of vaccine, containing 3.75 μg haemagglutinin of the A/Indonesia/5/2005-like IBCDC-RG2 Clade 2.1 (H5N1) strain adjuvanted with AS03A, 21 days apart. The primary endpoint evaluated the humoral immune response in terms of H5N1 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titres against the vaccine strain (Clade 2.1) 21 days after the second dose. Ninety five percent confidence intervals for geometric mean titres, seroprotection, seroconversion and seropositivity rates were calculated. Secondary and exploratory endpoints included the assessment of the humoral response in terms of neutralising antibody titres, the response against additional H5N1 strains (Clade 1 and Clade 2.2), as well as the evaluation of safety and reactogenicity.Robust immune responses were elicited after two doses of the prepandemic influenza vaccine adjuvanted with AS03A. Overall, vaccine HI seroconversion rates and seroprotection rates were 91% 21 days after the second vaccination. This fulfilled all regulatory acceptance criteria for the vaccine-homologous HI antibody level. A substantial cross-reactive humoral immune response was also observed against the virus strains A/turkey/Turkey/1/2005 (Clade 2.2) and A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (Clade 1) after the second vaccine administration. A marked post-vaccination response in terms of neutralising antibody titres was demonstrated and persistence of the immune response was observed 6 months after the first dose. The vaccine was generally well tolerated and there were no serious adverse events reported.The H5N1 candidate vaccine adjuvanted with AS03A elicited a strong and persistent immune response against the vaccine strain A/Indonesia/5/2005 in Japanese adults. Vaccination with this formulation demonstrated a clinically acceptable reactogenicity profile and did not raise any safety concerns in this population.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00742885.