The ABBA motif binds APC/C activators and is shared by APC/C substrates and regulators.
ABSTRACT: The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is the ubiquitin ligase that regulates mitosis by targeting specific proteins for degradation at specific times under the control of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). How the APC/C recognizes its different substrates is a key problem in the control of cell division. Here, we have identified the ABBA motif in cyclin A, BUBR1, BUB1, and Acm1, and we show that it binds to the APC/C coactivator CDC20. The ABBA motif in cyclin A is required for its proper degradation in prometaphase through competing with BUBR1 for the same site on CDC20. Moreover, the ABBA motifs in BUBR1 and BUB1 are necessary for the SAC to work at full strength and to recruit CDC20 to kinetochores. Thus, we have identified a conserved motif integral to the proper control of mitosis that connects APC/C substrate recognition with the SAC.
Project description:The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) ensures genomic stability by preventing sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are attached to the spindle. It catalyzes the production of the Mitotic Checkpoint Complex (MCC), which inhibits Cdc20 to inactivate the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). Here we show that two Cdc20-binding motifs in BubR1 of the recently identified ABBA motif class are crucial for the MCC to recognize active APC/C-Cdc20. Mutating these motifs eliminates MCC binding to the APC/C, thereby abolishing the SAC and preventing cells from arresting in response to microtubule poisons. These ABBA motifs flank a KEN box to form a cassette that is highly conserved through evolution, both in the arrangement and spacing of the ABBA-KEN-ABBA motifs, and association with the amino-terminal KEN box required to form the MCC. We propose that the ABBA-KEN-ABBA cassette holds the MCC onto the APC/C by binding the two Cdc20 molecules in the MCC-APC/C complex.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) maintains genomic integrity by preventing progression of mitotic cell division until all chromosomes are stably attached to spindle microtubules. The SAC critically relies on the paralogues Bub1 and BubR1/Mad3, which integrate kinetochore-spindle attachment status with generation of the anaphase inhibitory complex MCC. We previously reported on the widespread occurrences of independent gene duplications of an ancestral 'MadBub' gene in eukaryotic evolution and the striking parallel subfunctionalization that lead to loss of kinase function in BubR1/Mad3-like paralogues. Here, we present an elaborate subfunctionalization analysis of the Bub1/BubR1 gene family and perform de novo sequence discovery in a comparative phylogenomics framework to trace the distribution of ancestral sequence features to extant paralogues throughout the eukaryotic tree of life. We show that known ancestral sequence features are consistently retained in the same functional paralogue: GLEBS/CMI/CDII/kinase in the Bub1-like and KEN1/KEN2/D-Box in the BubR1/Mad3-like. The recently described ABBA motif can be found in either or both paralogues. We however discovered two additional ABBA motifs that flank KEN2. This cassette of ABBA1-KEN2-ABBA2 forms a strictly conserved module in all ancestral and BubR1/Mad3-like proteins, suggestive of a specific and crucial SAC function. Indeed, deletion of the ABBA motifs in human BUBR1 abrogates the SAC and affects APC/C-Cdc20 interactions. Our detailed comparative genomics analyses thus enabled discovery of a conserved cassette of motifs essential for the SAC and shows how this approach can be used to uncover hitherto unrecognized functional protein features.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) prevents premature sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Phosphorylation of unattached kinetochores by the Mps1 kinase promotes recruitment of SAC machinery that catalyzes assembly of the SAC effector mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The SAC protein Bub3 is a phospho-amino acid adaptor that forms structurally related stable complexes with functionally distinct paralogs named Bub1 and BubR1. A short motif ("loop") of Bub1, but not the equivalent loop of BubR1, enhances binding of Bub3 to kinetochore phospho-targets. Here, we asked whether the BubR1 loop directs Bub3 to different phospho-targets. The BubR1 loop is essential for SAC function and cannot be removed or replaced with the Bub1 loop. BubR1 loop mutants bind Bub3 and are normally incorporated in MCC in vitro but have reduced ability to inhibit the MCC target anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), suggesting that BubR1:Bub3 recognition and inhibition of APC/C requires phosphorylation. Thus, small sequence differences in Bub1 and BubR1 direct Bub3 to different phosphorylated targets in the SAC signaling cascade.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) delays progression into anaphase until all chromosomes have aligned on the metaphase plate by inhibiting Cdc20, the mitotic co-activator of the APC/C. Mad2 and BubR1 bind and inhibit Cdc20, thereby forming the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which can bind stably to the APC/C. Whether MCC formation per se is sufficient for a functional SAC or MCC association with the APC/C is required remains unclear. Here, we analyze the role of two conserved motifs in Cdc20, IR and C-Box, in binding of the MCC to the APC/C. Mutants in both motifs assemble the MCC normally, but IR motif integrity is particularly important for stable binding to the APC/C. Cells expressing Cdc20 with a mutated IR motif have a compromised SAC, as uninhibited Cdc20 can compete with the MCC for APC/C binding and activate it. We thus show that stable MCC association with the APC/C is critical for a functional SAC.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is the major surveillance system that ensures that sister chromatids do not separate until all chromosomes are correctly bioriented during mitosis. Components of the checkpoint include Mad1, Mad2, Mad3 (BubR1), Bub3, and the kinases Bub1, Mph1 (Mps1), and Aurora B. Checkpoint proteins are recruited to kinetochores when individual kinetochores are not bound to spindle microtubules or not under tension. Kinetochore association of Mad2 causes it to undergo a conformational change, which promotes its association to Mad3 and Cdc20 to form the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The MCC inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) until the checkpoint is satisfied. SAC silencing derepresses Cdc20-APC/C activity. This triggers the polyubiquitination of securin and cyclin, which promotes the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion and mitotic progression. We, and others, recently showed that association of PP1 to the Spc7/Spc105/KNL1 family of kinetochore proteins is necessary to stabilize microtubule-kinetochore attachments and silence the SAC. We now report that phosphorylation of the conserved MELT motifs in Spc7 by Mph1 (Mps1) recruits Bub1 and Bub3 to the kinetochore and that this is required to maintain the SAC signal.
Project description:The ubiquitin protein ligase anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) controls mitosis by promoting ordered degradation of securin, cyclins, and other proteins. The mechanisms underlying the timing of APC/C substrate degradation are poorly understood. We explored these mechanisms using quantitative fluorescence microscopy of GFP-tagged APC/C(Cdc20) substrates in living budding yeast cells. Degradation of the S cyclin, Clb5, begins early in mitosis, followed 6 min later by the degradation of securin and Dbf4. Anaphase begins when less than half of securin is degraded. The spindle assembly checkpoint delays the onset of Clb5 degradation but does not influence securin degradation. Early Clb5 degradation depends on its interaction with the Cdk1-Cks1 complex and the presence of a Cdc20-binding "ABBA motif" in its N-terminal region. The degradation of securin and Dbf4 is delayed by Cdk1-dependent phosphorylation near their Cdc20-binding sites. Thus, a remarkably diverse array of mechanisms generates robust ordering of APC/C(Cdc20) substrate destruction.
Project description:In the dividing eukaryotic cell, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) ensures that each daughter cell inherits an identical set of chromosomes. The SAC coordinates the correct attachment of sister chromatid kinetochores to the mitotic spindle with activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C), the E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for initiating chromosome separation. In response to unattached kinetochores, the SAC generates the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which inhibits the APC/C and delays chromosome segregation. By cryo-electron microscopy, here we determine the near-atomic resolution structure of a human APC/C–MCC complex (APC/C(MCC)). Degron-like sequences of the MCC subunit BubR1 block degron recognition sites on Cdc20, the APC/C coactivator subunit responsible for substrate interactions. BubR1 also obstructs binding of the initiating E2 enzyme UbcH10 to repress APC/C ubiquitination activity. Conformational variability of the complex enables UbcH10 association, and structural analysis shows how the Cdc20 subunit intrinsic to the MCC (Cdc20(MCC)) is ubiquitinated, a process that results in APC/C reactivation when the SAC is silenced.
Project description:To prevent aneuploidy, cells require a mitotic surveillance mechanism, the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). The SAC prevents metaphase/anaphase transition by blocking the ubiquitylation and destruction of cyclin B and securin via the Cdc20-activated anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C)-mediated proteolysis pathway. This checkpoint involves the kinetochore proteins Mad2, BubR1, and Cdc20. Mad2 and BubR1 are inhibitors of the APC/C, but Cdc20 is an activator. Exactly how the SAC regulates Cdc20 via unattached kinetochores remains unclear; in vertebrates, most current models suggest that kinetochore-bound Mad2 is required for initial binding to Cdc20 to form a stable complex that includes BubR1. Here, we show that the Mad2 kinetochore dimerization recruitment mechanism is conserved and that the recruitment of Cdc20 to kinetochores in Drosophila requires BubR1 but not Mad2. BubR1 and Mad2 can bind to Cdc20 independently, and the interactions are enhanced after cells are arrested at mitosis by the depletion of Cdc27 using RNA interference (RNAi) in S2 cells or by MG132 treatment in syncytial embryos. These findings offer an explanation of why BubR1 is more important than Mad2 for SAC function in flies. These findings could lead to a better understanding of vertebrate SAC mechanisms.
Project description:The fidelity of chromosome segregation depends on the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). In the presence of unattached kinetochores, anaphase is delayed when three SAC components (Mad2, Mad3/BubR1, and Bub3) inhibit Cdc20, the activating subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). We analyzed the role of Cdc20 autoubiquitination in the SAC of budding yeast. Reconstitution with purified components revealed that a Mad3-Bub3 complex synergizes with Mad2 to lock Cdc20 on the APC/C and stimulate Cdc20 autoubiquitination, while inhibiting ubiquitination of substrates. SAC-dependent Cdc20 autoubiquitination required the Mnd2/Apc15 subunit of the APC/C. General inhibition of Cdc20 ubiquitination in vivo resulted in high Cdc20 levels and a failure to establish a SAC arrest, suggesting that SAC establishment depends on low Cdc20 levels. Specific inhibition of SAC-dependent ubiquitination, by deletion of Mnd2, allowed establishment of a SAC arrest but delayed release from the arrest, suggesting that Cdc20 ubiquitination is also required for SAC inactivation.
Project description:The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is required to block sister chromatid separation until all chromosomes are properly attached to the mitotic apparatus. The SAC prevents cells from entering anaphase by inhibiting the ubiquitylation of cyclin B1 and securin by the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. The target of the SAC is the essential APC/C activator Cdc20. It is unclear how the SAC inactivates Cdc20 but most current models suggest that Cdc20 forms a stable complex with the Mad2 checkpoint protein. Here we show that most Cdc20 is not in a complex with Mad2; instead Mad2 is required for Cdc20 to form a complex with another checkpoint protein, BubR1. We further show that during the SAC, the APC/C ubiquitylates Cdc20 to target it for degradation. Thus, ubiquitylation of human Cdc20 is not required to release it from the checkpoint complex, but to degrade it to maintain mitotic arrest.