Young Age Increases Risk of Lymph Node Positivity in Early-Stage Rectal Cancer.
ABSTRACT: The risk of lymph node positivity (LN+) in rectal cancer is a parameter that impacts therapeutic recommendations. We aimed to quantify the effect of younger age on LN+ in rectal cancer. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 were identified. Patients were stage I-III, without preoperative radiotherapy, at least one lymph node examined, and a standard rectal cancer operation performed. The association of age and LN+ status was examined with logistic regression separately for each T stage, adjusting for multiple covariates. Poisson regression was used to evaluate age and number of positive lymph nodes (LNs). All statistical tests were two-sided. Fifty-six thousand seventy-six patients were identified, including 1194 (2.1%) patients age 20 to 39 years at diagnosis and 4199 (7.5%) patients age 40 to 49 years (defined as young). For each T stage, LN+ was inversely associated with age (all P < .001). For T1, T2, and T3, age remained predictive of LN+ status after adjustment for number of LNs examined and other covariates (P < .001 for each stage). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for LN+ for age 20 to 39 vs 60 to 69 were: T1: 1.97(95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.86); T2: 1.48 (95% CI = 1.13 to 1.95); T3: 1.30 (95% CI = 1.10 to 1.53). Young age was a statistically significant predictor of an increased number of LNs positive for stage T2 (P = .042) and T3 (P = .002). In this large national dataset, young age at diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of LN+. This finding merits further investigation and may ultimately impact treatment decision-making for young early-stage patients.
Project description:Background: Lymph node (LN) positivity is a prognostic indicator in patients with colon cancer regardless of age, and age is an important parameter that impacts therapeutic recommendations. But little is known about the impact of age on LN positivity in patients with colon cancer. Methods: We analyzed 257,334 patients with colon cancer diagnosed from SEER database. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of age and LN positivity. Poisson regression was used to evaluate whether age was associated with the number of positive LNs. Results: LN positivity was inversely associated with age (P < .001 for each T stage). Age was predictive of LN positivity after adjustment for number of LNs examined and other covariates (P < .001 for each T stage). Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for LN positivity for age 20 to 39 vs 80+ were 3.06 for stage T1 (95 % CI, 2.09 to 4.48), 2.46 for stage T2 (95 % CI, 2.00 to 3.02), 1.77 for stage T3 (95 % CI, 1.62 to 1.93), and 1.68 for stage T4 (1.51 to 1.86). Young age was a significant predictor of an increased number of positive LNs (P < .005 for each T stage). Conclusion: Young age at diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of LN positivity. LN examination and resection could aid younger patients more with detection and removal of metastasis. Guidelines that define postdetection interventions may be needed to limit the overtreatment of older patients, who may be vulnerable to unnecessary tests and treatments.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Utility of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in some malignancies has been reported, however, research on that of gallbladder cancer (GBC) is rare. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the concept of SLN is applicable to T2/3 GBC.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 80 patients who underwent resection for gallbladder cancer were enrolled in this study. Patients with GBC were stratified into two groups based on the location of tumor, peritoneal-side (T2p or 3p) and hepatic-side (T2h or 3h) groups. We evaluated the relationship between cystic duct node (CDN) and downstream lymph node (LN) status. CDN was defined as a SLN in this study.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-eight patients were classified into T2, including T2p (n = 18) and T2h (n = 20), and 42 patients into T3, including T3p (n = 22) andT3h (n = 20). The incidence of LN metastasis was significantly higher in hepatic-side than peritoneal-side in both T2 and T3 (P = 0.036 and 0.009, respectively). In T2, 14 T2p had negative CDN and downstream LN, however, three T2h had negative CDN and positive downstream LNs (defined as a skipped LN metastasis) (P = 0.043). In T3, patients with skipped LN metastasis were significantly higher in T3h (n = 11) than those in T3p (n = 2) (P<0.001). There was no recurrence of the local lymph node. Disease-free survival in the T2p and T3p were significantly better than those in the T2h and T3h (P = 0.005 and 0.025, respectively).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The concept of SLN can be applicable to T2p GBC, where the downstream LNs dissection can be omitted.
Project description:Object: The risk of lymph node positivity (LN+) in gastric cancer (GC) impacts therapeutic recommendations. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of younger age on LN+. Methods: Data from a Chinese multi-institutional database and the US SEER database on stage I to III resected GC were analyzed for the relationship between age and LN+ status. The association of age and LN+ status was examined with logistic regression separately for each T stage, adjusting for multiple covariates. Poisson regression was used to evaluate age and number of LN+. Results: 4,905 and 14,877 patients were identified in the China and SEER datasets respectively. 479 (9.8%) patients were under age 40 years, with 768 (15.7%) between age 40 and 49 years in China dataset, and 416 (2.8%) patients were under age 40 years, with 1176 (7.9%) between age 40 and 49 years in SEER dataset. Both datasets exhibited significantly proportional decreases of N3a and N3b LN+ with age increasing. Patients younger than age 40 years were more likely to show LN+ compared with the reference age 60 to 69 years. The youngest patients had the highest ORs of N1, N2, N3a, and N3b vs N0 LN+ within T4 stage of China dataset and T3 stage of SEER dataset, the values of ORs decreased with increasing age. Young age was a predictor of an increased number of LNs positive for each T stage. Conclusion: In the two large datasets, young age at diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of LN+.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4> Preoperative identification of rectal cancer lymph node status is crucial for patient prognosis and treatment decisions. Rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in the preoperative staging of rectal cancer, but its ability to predict lymph node metastasis (LNM) is insufficient. This study explored the value of histogram features of primary lesions on multi-parametric MRI for predicting LNM of stage T3 rectal carcinoma. <h4>Methods</h4> We retrospectively analyzed 175 patients with stage T3 rectal cancer who underwent preoperative MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) before surgery. 62 patients were included in the LNM group, and 113 patients were included in the non-LNM group. Texture features were calculated from histograms derived from T2 weighted imaging (T2WI), DWI, ADC, and T2 maps. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to screen independent predictors of LNM from clinical features, imaging features, and histogram features. Predictive performance was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Finally, a nomogram was established for predicting the risk of LNM. <h4>Results</h4> The clinical, imaging and histogram features were analyzed by stepwise logistic regression. Preoperative carbohydrate antigen 199 level (p = 0.009), MRN stage (p < 0.001), T2WIKurtosis (p = 0.010), DWIMode (p = 0.038), DWICV (p = 0.038), and T2-mapP5 (p = 0.007) were independent predictors of LNM. These factors were combined to form the best predictive model. The model reached an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.860, with a sensitivity of 72.8% and a specificity of 85.5%. <h4>Conclusion</h4> The histogram features on multi-parametric MRI of the primary tumor in rectal cancer were related to LN status, which is helpful for improving the ability to predict LNM of stage T3 rectal cancer. <h4>Supplementary Information</h4> The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12880-021-00706-0.
Project description:The purpose of this work was to quantify 3.0 T (i) T1 and T2 relaxation times of in vivo human lymph nodes (LNs) and (ii) LN relaxometry differences between healthy LNs and LNs from patients with lymphatic insufficiency secondary to breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema (BCRL). MR relaxometry was performed over bilateral axillary regions at 3.0 T in healthy female controls (105 LNs from 20 participants) and patients with BCRL (108 LNs from 20 participants). Quantitative T1 maps were calculated using a multi-flip-angle (20, 40, 60°) method with B1 correction (dual-TR method, TR1 /TR2 = 30/130 ms), and T2 maps using a multi-echo (TE = 9-189 ms; 12 ms intervals) method. T1 and T2 were quantified in the LN cortex and hilum. A Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare LN relaxometry values between patients and controls (significance, two sided, p < 0.05). Linear regression was applied to evaluate how LN relaxometry varied with age, BMI, and clinical indicators of disease. LN substructure relaxation times (mean ± standard deviation) in healthy controls were T1 cortex, 1435 ± 391 ms; T1 hilum, 714 ± 123 ms; T2 cortex, 102 ± 12 ms, and T2 hilum, 119 ± 21 ms. T1 of the LN cortex was significantly reduced in the contralateral axilla of BCRL patients compared with the axilla on the surgical side (p < 0.001) and compared with bilateral control values (p < 0.01). The LN cortex T1 asymmetry discriminated cases from controls (p = 0.004) in a multiple linear regression, accounting for age and BMI. Human 3.0 T T1 and T2 relaxation times in axillary LNs were quantified for the first time in vivo. Measured values are relevant for optimizing acquisition parameters in anatomical lymphatic imaging sequences, and can serve as a reference for novel functional and molecular LN imaging methods that require quantitative knowledge of LN relaxation times.
Project description:Lymph node (LN) status after surgery for rectal cancer is affected by preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to perform a population-based evaluation of the impact of pathologic LN status after neoadjuvant radiotherapy on survival. A total of 1,650 patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER)-registered ypIII stage rectal cancer was analyzed. We identified the optimal cutoff for retrieved LNs as 10 (χ2 = 14.006, P < 0.001), which was validated as an independent prognosis factors in a Cox regression model. Further analysis showed that the LN count was only a prognosis factor with the number from 8 to 16(except for 13).After the number 16, the 5-year survival rate decreased gradually. Collectively, our results confirmed that the number of LNs in yp III stage rectal patients was a prognosis factor only with the numbers from 8 to 16(except for 13). Using the total mesorectal excision technique with an adequate pathologic examination, a large number of LNs retrieved (≥17) might indicate worse tumor response grade and poorer survival.
Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. Data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2010-2012) were used to identify 10,771 patients with TNBC, and we assessed the effects of lymph node (LN) status on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS). In our study, a Kaplan-Meier plot showed that LN-negative patients (N0) had better survival outcomes than LN-positive patients and that patients with ?10 positive LNs (N3) exhibited the worst survival outcomes regardless of tumor size. A pairwise comparison showed no difference in survival outcomes among each group stratified by tumor size. Further, for LN-positive patients with a tumor size ?2 cm (T1) or >5 cm (T3), there were similar outcomes between patients with one to three LNs (N1) and those with four to nine LNs (N2), whereas N1 patients experienced significantly better survival outcomes than N3 patients (P<0.001). Therefore, ten metastatic lymph nodes was the cut-off value for poor prognosis. Nevertheless, for patients with a tumor size of 2-5 cm (T2), the extent of LN involvement contributed prognostic value to OS but not BCSS. In summary, we found that nodal status and tumor size exhibited distinct interaction patterns for predicting the outcomes of TNBC. These results provide deeper insight into the prognostic value of nodal status in TNBC.
Project description:Background:Management of rectal cancer with involved lateral pelvic lymph nodes (LPLNs) at the time of diagnosis-the stage we refer institutionally to as Stage 3.5-is controversial. The American Joint Committee on Cancer's 7th edition classifies internal iliac lymph nodes (LNs) as regional (Stage III), but both external and common iliac LNs as metastatic (Stage IV). However, in many Asian countries all LPLNs are considered regional and patients are treated with curative intent, with literature supporting improved outcomes with LPLN dissection. Management patterns of these patients by US radiation oncologists (ROs) are unknown. Methods:American ROs completed an anonymous institutional review board-approved online questionnaire regarding rectal cancer management. Results:Among the 220 completed responses, 45% treat more than 10 patients annually and 39% work in academia. We found 10.5% and 34.2% recommend biopsy of clinically involved internal and common iliac LNs, respectively. The vast majority of responders-98.6% and 94.5%-treat involved internal and common iliac LNs with curative intent, respectively. Respondents recommend treatment intensification to involved internal iliac LNs by dissection of the nodal basin (88.2%) and radiation therapy (RT) boost (59.1%), and treatment intensification to involved common iliac LNs by LN dissection (76.4%) and RT boost (63.6%). Conclusions:Our analysis reveals that the vast majority of US ROs approach patients with involved LPLNs, both regional (internal iliac) and metastatic (common iliac), with curative intent. They recommend treatment intensification with surgical resection and/or RT boost to involved nodes. Prospective clinical trials need to determine the appropriate management of patients with Stage 3.5 rectal cancer.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the technical feasibility of high-resolution USPIO-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) at ultrahigh magnetic field strength. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The ethics review board approved this study and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. Three patients with rectal cancer and three selected patients with (recurrent) prostate cancer were examined at 7-T 24-36 h after intravenous ferumoxtran-10 administration; rectal cancer patients also received a 3-T MRI. Pelvic LN imaging was performed using the TIAMO technique in combination with water-selective multi-GRE imaging and lipid-selective GRE imaging with a spatial resolution of 0.66?×?0.66?×?0.66mm3. T2*-weighted images of the water-selective imaging were computed from the multi-GRE images at TE?=?0, 8, and 14 ms and used for the assessment of USPIO uptake. RESULTS:High-resolution 7-T MR gradient-echo imaging was obtained robustly in all patients without suffering from RF-related signal voids. USPIO signal decay in LNs was visualized using computed TE imaging at TE?=?8 ms and an R2* map derived from water-selective imaging. Anatomically, LNs were identified on a combined reading of computed TE?=?0 ms images from water-selective scans and images from lipid-selective scans. A range of 3-48 LNs without USPIO signal decay was found per patient. These LNs showed high signal intensity on computed TE?=?8 and 14 ms imaging and low R2* (corresponding to high T2*) values on the R2* map. CONCLUSION:USPIO-enhanced MRI of the pelvis at 7-T is technically feasible and offers opportunities for detecting USPIO uptake in normal-sized LNs, due to its high intrinsic signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution. KEY POINTS:• USPIO-enhanced MRI at 7-T can indicate USPIO uptake in lymph nodes based on computed TE images. • Our method promises a high spatial resolution for pelvic lymph node imaging.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ampulla of Vater cancer (AoV Ca) is a rare tumor, and its adjuvant treatment has not been established. The purpose of this study was to find out prognostic factors including host immunity and role of adjuvant treatment in AoV Ca.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>We reviewed 227 AoV Ca patients with curative resection. Clinical characteristics, adjuvant treatment, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Among all patients, 63.9, 36.1 and 33.9% had T1/T2, T3/T4 stage and lymph node-positive disease (LN+), respectively. OS of all patients was 90.9 months (95% CI: 52.9-129.0). OS was different according to neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.651, 95% CI: 1.11-2.47), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (HR 1.488, 95% CI: 1.00-2.21) and systemic inflammatory index (HR 1.669, 95% CI: 1.13-2.47). In multivariate analysis, adverse prognostic factors for OS included vascular invasion (HR 2.571, 95% CI: 1.20-5.53) and elevated CA 19-9 (HR 1.794, 95% CI: 1.07-3.05). A total of 104 patients (46.3%) received adjuvant treatment (25 out of 111of T1/T2 & LN (-), 79 out of 116 of T3/T4 or LN (+)). In T3/T4 or LN (+) stage, adjuvant CCRT with maintenance chemotherapy provided the longest OS (5-year OS rate: 47.0 vs. 41.4%).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Vascular invasion and elevated CA 19-9 were adverse prognostic factors in resected AoV Ca. In T3/T4 or LN (+) stage, adjuvant CCRT with maintenance chemotherapy provided the best survival outcome. Adjuvant treatment should be further defined in AoV Ca, especially with poor prognostic factors.