A potent immunotoxin targeting fibroblast activation protein for treatment of breast cancer in mice.
ABSTRACT: Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) is highly expressed in the tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs) of most human epithelial cancers. FAP plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, which makes it a promising target for novel anticancer therapy. However, mere abrogation of FAP enzymatic activity by small molecules is not very effective in inhibiting tumor growth. In this study, we have evaluated a novel immune-based approach to specifically deplete FAP-expressing TAFs in a mouse 4T1 metastatic breast cancer model. Depletion of FAP-positive stromal cells by FAP-targeting immunotoxin ?FAP-PE38 altered levels of various growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases, decreased the recruitment of tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the tumor microenvironment and suppressed tumor growth. In addition, combined treatment with ?FAP-PE38 and paclitaxel potently inhibited tumor growth in vivo. Our findings highlight the potential use of immunotoxin ?FAP-PE38 to deplete FAP-expressing TAFs and thus provide a rationale for the use of this immunotoxin in cancer therapy.
Project description:A therapeutically effective cancer vaccine must generate potent antitumor immune responses and be able to overcome tolerance mechanisms mediated by the progressing tumor itself. Previous studies showed that glycoprotein 100 (gp100), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP1), and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) are promising immunogens for melanoma immunotherapy. In this study, we administered these three melanoma-associated antigens via lentiviral vectors (termed LV-3Ag) and found that this multi-antigen vaccine strategy markedly increased functional T-cell infiltration into tumors and generated protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity. We also engineered a novel immunotoxin, αFAP-PE38, capable of targeting fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-expressing fibroblasts within the tumor stroma. When combined with αFAP-PE38, LV-3Ag exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor effects on tumor growth in an established B16 melanoma model. The mechanism of action underlying this combination treatment likely modulates the immune suppressive tumor microenvironment and, consequently, activates cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells capable of specifically recognizing and destroying tumor cells. Taken together, these results provide a strong rationale for combining an immunotoxin with cancer vaccines for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer.
Project description:The anticancer strategy underlying the use of immunotoxins is as follows: the cancer-binding domain delivers the toxin to a cancer cell, after which the toxin enters and kills the cell. TGF?-PE38 is an immunotoxin comprising transforming growth factor alpha (TGF?), a natural ligand of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and a modified Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) lacking N terminal cell-binding domain, a highly potent cytotoxic protein moiety. Tumor cells with high level of EGFR undergo apoptosis upon treatment with TGF?-PE38. However, clinical trials demonstrated that this immunotoxin delivered by an intracerebral infusion technique has only a limited inhibitory effect on intracranial tumors mainly due to inconsistent drug delivery. To circumvent this problem, we turned to tumor-seeking bacterial system. Here, we engineered Salmonella typhimurium to selectively express and release TGF?-PE38. Engineered bacteria were administered to mice implanted with mouse colon or breast tumor cells expressing high level of EGFR. We observed that controlled expression and release of TGF?-PE38 from intra-tumoral Salmonellae by either an engineered phage lysis system or by a bacterial membrane transport signal led to significant inhibition of solid tumor growth. These results demonstrated that delivery by tumor-seeking bacteria would greatly augment efficacy of immunotoxin in cancer therapeutics.
Project description:The tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in controlling tumor progression and immune surveillance. We produced an immunotoxin (2E4-PE38) that kills mouse cells expressing CD25 by attaching the Fv portion of monoclonal antibody 2E4 (anti-mouse CD25) to a 38-kDa portion of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. We employed three mouse cancer tumor models (AB1 mesothelioma, 66c14 breast cancer, and CT26M colon cancer). Tumors were implanted at two sites on BALB/c mice. On days 5 and 9, one tumor was directly injected with 2E4-PE38, and the other was not treated; 2E4-PE38 produced complete regressions of 85% of injected AB1 tumors, 100% of 66c14 tumors, and 100% of CT26M tumors. It also produced complete regressions of 77% of uninjected AB1 tumors, 47% of 66c14 tumors, and 92% of CT26M tumors. Mice with complete regressions of 66c14 tumors were immune to rechallenge with 66c14 cells. Mice with complete regressions of AB1 or CT26M tumors developed cross-tumor immunity rejecting both tumor types. Injection of anti-CD25 antibody or a mutant inactive immunotoxin were generally ineffective. Tumors were analyzed 3 days after 2E4-PE38 injection. The number of regulatory T cells (Tregs) was significantly reduced in the injected tumor but not in the spleen. Injected tumors contained an increase in CD8 T cells expressing IFN-γ, the activation markers CD69 and CD25, and macrophages and conventional dendritic cells. Treatment with antibodies to CD8 abolished the antitumor effect. Selective depletion of Tregs in tumors facilitates the development of a CD8 T cell-dependent antitumor effect in three mouse models.
Project description:Glypican-3 is a cell surface glycoprotein that associates with Wnt in liver cancer. We develop two antibodies targeting glypican-3, HN3 and YP7. The first antibody recognizes a functional epitope and inhibits Wnt signalling, whereas the second antibody recognizes a C-terminal epitope but does not inhibit Wnt signalling. Both are fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) to create immunotoxins. Interestingly, the immunotoxin based on HN3 (HN3-PE38) has superior antitumor activity as compared with YP7 (YP7-PE38) both in vitro and in vivo. Intravenous administration of HN3-PE38 alone, or in combination with chemotherapy, induces regression of Hep3B and HepG2 liver tumour xenografts in mice. This study establishes glypican-3 as a promising candidate for immunotoxin-based liver cancer therapy. Our results demonstrate immunotoxin-induced tumour regression via dual mechanisms: inactivation of cancer signalling via the antibody and inhibition of protein synthesis via the toxin.
Project description:Moxetumomab pasudotox (HA22) is a recombinant immunotoxin, now in clinical trials, that combines an anti-CD22-Fv with a 38-kDa fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A. To produce a less immunogenic molecule without reducing the half-life in circulation, we constructed LMB11 combining an anti-CD22 Fab with a less immunogenic version of PE38. We found that LMB11 retains full activity toward CD22-expressing cells. In mice, the half-life of LMB11 is 29 min and the antitumor activity of LMB11 is better than that of HA22. Because it can be safely given at much higher doses, LMB11 produced complete tumor remissions in 7/7 mice.
Project description:Immunotoxins are antibody-toxin fusion proteins under development as cancer therapeutics. In early clinical trials, immunotoxins constructed with domains II and III of Pseudomonas exotoxin (termed PE38), have produced a high rate of complete remissions in Hairy Cell Leukemia and objective responses in other malignancies. Cholera exotoxin (also known as cholix toxin) has a very similar three-dimensional structure to Pseudomonas exotoxin (PE) and when domains II and III of each are compared at the primary sequence level, they are 36% identical and 50% similar. Here we report on the construction and activity of an immunotoxin made with domains II and III of cholera exotoxin (here termed CET40). In cell viability assays, the CET40 immunotoxin was equipotent to tenfold less active compared to a PE-based immunotoxin made with the same single-chain Fv. A major limitation of toxin-based immunotoxins is the development of neutralizing antibodies to the toxin portion of the immunotoxin. Because of structure and sequence similarities, we evaluated a CET40 immunotoxin for the presence of PE-related epitopes. In western blots, three-of-three anti-PE antibody preparations failed to react with the CET40 immunotoxin. More importantly, in neutralization studies neither these antibodies nor those from patients with neutralizing titers to PE38, neutralized the CET40-immunotoxin. We propose that the use of modular components such as antibody Fvs and toxin domains will allow a greater flexibility in how these agents are designed and deployed including the sequential administration of a second immunotoxin after patients have developed neutralizing antibodies to the first.
Project description:Using strepavidin as a scaffold, we have assembled a composite immunotoxin that consists of recombinant Pseudomonas exotoxin A subunit (PE38) and recombinant 25-D1.16 Fab fragment which recognizes the SIINFEKL (pOV8) peptide from ovalbumin in association with H-2K(b) MHC class I protein. The composite immunotoxin exercises cytotoxicity against H-2K(b+) cells sensitized with pOV8 peptide but not with irrelevant peptide. Specific binding of the immunotoxin to H-2K(b+) cells infected with recombinant rabies virus (RV) expressing pOV8 epitope (RV-pOV8) resulted in the suppression of the production of virus particles by the infected cells. This strategy allows readily produce different immunotoxins with desired specificity by combining various targeting and toxin molecules. The results provide a proof of concept that composite immunotoxins can be utilized as novel immunotherapeutics to stop virus spread in the acute phase of the infection allowing winning time for the development of protective immune response.
Project description:Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is a highly contagious viral pathogen which causes infectious bovine rhinotracheitis in cattle worldwide. Currently, there is no antiviral prophylactic treatment available capable of mitigating the disease impact and facilitating recovery from latent infection. In this study, we have engineered a novel recombinant anti-BoHV-1 immunotoxin construct termed "BoScFv-PE38" that consists of a single-chain monoclonal antibody fragment (scFv) fused with an active domain of Pseudomonas exotoxin A as a toxic effector (PE38). The recombinant BoScFv-PE38 immunotoxin expressed in a prokaryotic expression system has specific binding affinity for BoHV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 12.81 nM and for BoHV-1 virus particles with a Kd value of 97.63 nM. We demonstrate that the recombinant BoScFv-PE38 is internalized into MDBK cell compartments that inhibit BoHV-1 replication with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 4.95 ± 0.33 nM and a selective index (SI) of 456 ± 31. Furthermore, the BoScFv-PE38 exerted a cytotoxic effect through the induction of ATP and ammonia, leading to apoptosis of BoHV-1-infected cells and the inhibition of BoHV-1 replication in MDBK cells. Collectively, we show that BoScFv-PE38 can potentially be employed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of BoHV-1 infection.
Project description:Previously, we developed a novel EGFR-targeted antibody (denoted as Pan), which has superior antitumor activity against EGFR-overexpressed tumors. However, it shows marginal effect on the growth of esophageal cancers. Therefore, the variable region of Pan was fused to a fragment of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38) to create the immunotoxin, denoted as Ptoxin (PT). Results indicated that PT shows more effective antitumor activity as compared with Pan both on EGFR-overexpressed KYSE-450 and KYSE-150 esophageal cancer cells, especially on KYSE-450 cells. Moreover, treatment of PT induces regression of KYSE-450 tumor xenografts in nude mice. Furthermore, we investigated the potential mechanism involved in the enhanced antitumor effects of PT. Data showed that PT was more potent in reducing the phosphorylation of EGFR and ERK1/2. More importantly, we for the first time found that PT was more effective than Pan in inducing ROS accumulation by suppression of the Nrf2-Keap1 antioxidant pathway, and then induced apoptosis in KYSE-450 esophageal cancer cells, which may partly explain the more sensitive response of KYSE-450 to PT treatment. To conclude, our study provides a promising therapeutic approach for immunotoxin-based esophageal cancer treatment.
Project description:PURPOSE:Many solid tumors express cell surface mesothelin making them attractive targets for antibody-based therapies of cancer. SS1P [antimesothelin(Fv)PE38] is a recombinant immunotoxin (RIT) that has potent cytotoxic activity on several cancer cell lines and clinical activity in mesothelioma patients. Pancreatic cancers express mesothelin and are known to be resistant to most chemotherapeutic agents. The goal of this study is to treat pancreatic cancer with RIT by targeting mesothelin. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We measured the cytotoxic activity of an antimesothelin immunotoxin on pancreatic cancer cells. We also measured the levels of several pro- and antiapoptotic proteins, as well as the ability of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or the anti-TRAIL receptor 2 agonist antibody (HGS-ETR2) to kill pancreatic cells, and the cytotoxic activity of the two agents together in cell culture and against tumors in mice. RESULTS:In two pancreatic cancer cell lines, immunotoxin treatment inhibited protein synthesis but did not produce significant cell death. The resistant lines had low levels of the proapoptotic protein Bak. Increasing Bak expression enhanced the sensitivity to immunotoxins, whereas Bak knockdown diminished it. We also found that combining immunotoxin with TRAIL or HGS-ETR2 caused synergistic cell death, and together triggered caspase-8 recruitment and activation, Bid cleavage and Bax activation. Combining SS1P with HGS-ETR2 also acted synergistically to decrease tumor burden in a mouse model. CONCLUSION:Our data show that low Bak can cause cancer cells to be resistant to immunotoxin treatment and that combining immunotoxin with TRAIL or a TRAIL agonist antibody can overcome resistance.