Advancement and applications of peptide phage display technology in biomedical science.
ABSTRACT: Combinatorial phage library is a powerful research tool for high-throughput screening of protein interactions. Of all available molecular display techniques, phage display has proven to be the most popular approach. Screening phage-displayed random peptide libraries is an effective means of identifying peptides that can bind target molecules and regulate their function. Phage-displayed peptide libraries can be used for (i) B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping, (ii) selection of bioactive peptides bound to receptors or proteins, disease-specific antigen mimics, peptides bound to non-protein targets, cell-specific peptides, or organ-specific peptides, and (iii) development of peptide-mediated drug delivery systems and other applications. Targeting peptides identified using phage display technology may be useful for basic research and translational medicine. In this review article, we summarize the latest technological advancements in the application of phage-displayed peptide libraries to applied biomedical sciences.
Project description:A quantitative screening method was developed to enable isolation and affinity maturation of peptide ligands specific for a given target from peptide libraries displayed on the outer surface of Escherichia coli using multi-parameter flow cytometry. From a large, random 15-mer peptide library, screening identified a core motif of W-E/D-W-E/D that conferred binding to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). One cycle of affinity maturation resulted in the identification of several families of VEGF-binding peptides having distinct consensus sequences, from which a preferred disulfide constraint emerged. In the second affinity maturation cycle, high affinity peptides were favored by the addition of a decoy protein that bound an adjacent epitope on the display scaffold. The decoy apparently reduced rebinding or avidity effects, and the resulting peptides exhibited consensus at 12 of 19 amino acid positions. Peptides identified and affinity matured using bacterial display were remarkably similar to the best affinity matured using phage display and exhibited comparable dissociation constants (within 2-fold; K(D) = 4.7 x 10(-7) M). Screening of bacterial-displayed peptide libraries using cytometry enabled optimization of screening conditions to favor affinity and specificity and rapid clonal characterization. Bacterial display thus provides a new quantitative tool for the discovery and evolutionary optimization of protein-specific peptide ligands.
Project description:Random peptide libraries are displayed on filamentous bacteriophage as fusions to either the minor coat protein, pIII, or the major coat protein, pVIII. We have devised a means of isolating the peptide displayed on a phage clone by transferring it to the N-terminus of the maltose-binding protein (MBP) of Escherichia coli encoded by malE. Transfer of a peptide sequence to monomeric MBP eliminates phage-encoded amino acids downstream of the insert peptide as well as avidity effects caused by multivalent display on phage. Peptide:MBP fusions are also easily affinity purified on amylose columns. The pMal-p2 vector was engineered to accept phage DNA encoding pIII- and pVIII-displayed peptides fused to their respective leader sequences. Both types of leader sequence were shown to target the peptide:MBP fusions to the periplasm of E. coli. A streamlined procedure for transferring peptides to MBP was applied to clones that had been isolated from a panel of pVIII-displayed peptide libraries by screening with an HIV-1-specific monoclonal antibody (Ab). By enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the Ab bound each of the peptide:MBP fusions and required the presence of a disulfide bridge within each peptide. Some of the peptide:MBP fusions were also analyzed using surface plasmon resonance. Thus, our study shows the value of malE fusion vectors in characterizing phage-displayed peptides.
Project description:High-throughput screening of combinatorial chemical libraries is a powerful approach for identifying targeted molecules. The display of combinatorial peptide libraries on the surface of bacteriophages offers a rapid, economical way to screen billions of peptides for specific binding properties and has impacted fields ranging from cancer to vaccine development. As a modification to this approach, we have previously created a system that enables site-specific insertion of selenocysteine (Sec) residues into peptides displayed pentavalently on M13 phage as pIII coat protein fusions. In this study, we show the utility of selectively derivatizing these Sec residues through the primary amine of small molecules that target a G protein-coupled receptor, the adenosine A1 receptor, leaving the other coat proteins, including the major coat protein pVIII, unmodified. We further demonstrate that modified Sec-phage with multivalent bound agonist binds to cells and elicits downstream signaling with orders of magnitude greater potency than that of unconjugated agonist. Our results provide proof of concept of a system that can create hybrid small molecule-containing peptide libraries and open up new possibilities for phage-drug therapies.
Project description:Monoclonal antibodies have been successfully utilized as cancer-targeting therapeutics and diagnostics, but the efficacies of these treatments are limited in part by the size of the molecules and non-specific uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. Peptides are much smaller molecules that can specifically target cancer cells and as such may alleviate complications with antibody therapy. Although many endogenous and exogenous peptides have been developed into clinical therapeutics, only a subset of these consists of cancer-targeting peptides. Combinatorial biological libraries such as bacteriophage-displayed peptide libraries are a resource of potential ligands for various cancer-related molecular targets. Target-binding peptides can be affinity selected from complex mixtures of billions of displayed peptides on phage and further enriched through the biopanning process. Various cancer-specific ligands have been isolated by in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo screening methods. As several peptides derived from phage-displayed peptide library screenings have been developed into therapeutics in current clinical trials, which validates peptide-targeting potential, the use of phage display to identify cancer-targeting therapeutics should be further exploited.
Project description:The objective of this work is to use phage display libraries as a screening tool to identify peptides that facilitate transport across the mucus barrier. Mucus is a complex selective barrier to particles and molecules, limiting penetration to the epithelial surface of mucosal tissues. In mucus-associated diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF), mucus has increased viscoelasticity and a higher concentration of covalent and non-covalent physical entanglements compared to healthy tissues, which greatly hinders permeability and transport of drugs and particles across the mucosae for therapeutic delivery. Treatment of CF lung diseases and associated infections must overcome this abnormal mucosal barrier. Critical bottlenecks hindering effective drug penetration remain and while recent studies have shown hydrophilic, net-neutral charge polymers can improve the transport of nanoparticles and minimize interactions with mucus, there is a dearth of alternative carriers available. We hypothesized that the screening of a phage peptide library against a CF mucus model would lead to the identification of phage-displayed peptide sequences able to improve transport in mucus. These combinatorial libraries possess a large diversity of peptide-based formulations (108-109) to achieve unprecedented screening for potential mucus-penetrating peptides. Here, phage clones displaying discovered peptides were shown to have up to 2.6-fold enhanced diffusivity in the CF mucus model. In addition, we demonstrate reduced binding affinities to mucin compared to wild-type control. These findings suggest that phage display libraries can be used as a strategy to improve transmucosal delivery.
Project description:Amino acid sequence diversity is introduced into a phage-displayed peptide library by randomizing library oligonucleotide DNA. We recently evaluated the diversity of peptide libraries displayed on T7 lytic phage and M13 filamentous phage and showed that T7 phage can display a more diverse amino acid sequence repertoire due to differing processes of viral morphogenesis.In this study, we evaluated and compared the diversity of a 12-mer T7 phage-displayed peptide library randomized using codon-corrected trinucleotide cassettes with a T7 and an M13 12-mer phage-displayed peptide library constructed using the degenerate codon randomization method.We herein demonstrate that the combination of trinucleotide cassette amino acid codon randomization and T7 phage display construction methods resulted in a significant enhancement to the functional diversity of a 12-mer peptide library. This novel library exhibited superior amino acid uniformity and order-of-magnitude increases in amino acid sequence diversity as compared to degenerate codon randomized peptide libraries. Comparative analyses of the biophysical characteristics of the 12-mer peptide libraries revealed the trinucleotide cassette-randomized library to be a unique resource.The combination of T7 phage display and trinucleotide cassette randomization resulted in a novel resource for the potential isolation of binding peptides for new and previously studied molecular targets.
Project description:Bla g 2, one of the major cockroach allergens, induces a strong IgE response against conformational epitopes, and on reexposure, sensitized individuals often display symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of the current study was to perform a test of the efficacy of a modified phage display screening, characterization of selected phages and an automated algorithm, EpiSearch, in locating an important conformational epitope.The monoclonal antibody 7C11, which partially inhibits the binding of patient IgE antibodies to Bla g 2, was used to screen a random peptide phage library. After 3 rounds of panning, 32 phage clones were isolated and the amino acid sequences of their peptides were determined. The relative affinity and specificity of the binding of these peptides to 7C11 were tested in ELISAs. The amino acid composition of these peptides was then matched with clusters of residues on the surface of the 3-dimensional (3D) structure of Bla g 2, using our EpiSearch algorithm.The amino acid sequences of the peptides on selected phages differed at only one position, occupied by 1 of 2 negatively charged residues. The two 12-mer sequences bound to 7C11 with similar avidity and specificity. There was good concordance between the residues in the 3D clusters identified from our phage display/computational method with the co-crystal structural analysis.Conformational epitopes may be mapped through screening of clones from random peptide phage display libraries and EpiSearch.
Project description:Ligands selected from phage-displayed random peptide libraries tend to be directed to biologically relevant sites on the surface of the target protein. Consequently, peptides derived from library screenings often modulate the target protein's activity in vitro and in vivo and can be used as lead compounds in drug design and as alternatives to antibodies for target validation in both genomics and drug discovery. This review discusses the use of phage display to identify membrane receptor modulators with agonistic or antagonistic activities. Because isolating or producing recombinant membrane proteins for use as target molecules in library screening is often impossible, innovative selection strategies such as panning against whole cells or tissues, recombinant receptor ectodomains, or neutralizing antibodies to endogenous binding partners were devised. Prominent examples from a two-decade history of peptide phage display will be presented, focusing on the design of affinity selection experiments, methods for improving the initial hits, and applications of the identified peptides.
Project description:Peptide-displayed phage libraries are billion-clone collections of diverse chimeric bacteriophage particles, decorated by genetically fused peptides built from a random combination of natural amino acids. Studying the molecular evolution of peptide-displayed libraries in mammalian model systems, using in vivo phage display techniques, can provide invaluable knowledge about the underlying physiology of the vasculature system, allow recognition of organ- and tissue-specific networks of protein-protein interactions, and provide ligands for targeted diagnostics and therapeutics. Recently, we discovered that landscape phage libraries, a specific type of multivalent peptide phage display library, expose on their surface comprehensive collections of elementary binding units (EBUs), which can form short linear motifs (SLiMs) that interact with functional domains of physiologically relevant proteins. Because of their unique structural and functional features, landscape phages can use an alternative mechanism of directed molecular evolution, i.e., combinatorial avidity selection. These discoveries fueled our interest in revisiting the in vivo evolution of phage displayed libraries using another format of display, i.e., landscape phages. In this study, we monitored the evolution of a landscape phage library in a mouse model with and without an implanted human breast cancer tumor xenograft. As expected, the multivalent architecture of landscape phage displayed proteins provided strong tissue selectivity and resulted in a huge diversity of tissue penetrating, chimeric phage particles. We identified several types of EBU interactions that evolved during the course of tissue distribution, which included interactions of EBUs with all tissue types, those EBUs that interacted selectively with specific organs or tissues with shared gene expression profiles or functionalities, and other EBUs that interacted in a tissue-selective manner. We demonstrated that landscape phage libraries are a rich collection of unique nanobioparticles that can be used to identify functional organ and tissue-binding elements after the evolution of a phage display library in vivo.
Project description:Phage display screening allows the study of functional protein-protein interactions at the cell surface, but investigating intracellular organelles remains a challenge. Here we introduce internalizing-phage libraries to identify clones that enter mammalian cells through a receptor-independent mechanism and target-specific organelles as a tool to select ligand peptides and identify their intracellular receptors. We demonstrate that penetratin, an antennapedia-derived peptide, can be displayed on the phage envelope and mediate receptor-independent uptake of internalizing phage into cells. We also show that an internalizing-phage construct displaying an established mitochondria-specific localization signal targets mitochondria, and that an internalizing-phage random peptide library selects for peptide motifs that localize to different intracellular compartments. As a proof-of-concept, we demonstrate that one such peptide, if chemically fused to penetratin, is internalized receptor-independently, localizes to mitochondria, and promotes cell death. This combinatorial platform technology has potential applications in cell biology and drug development.