Serum Amyloid A Induces Toll-Like Receptor 2-Dependent Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Atrophy in C2C12 Skeletal Muscle Myotubes.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle wasting is an important comorbidity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is strongly correlated with morbidity and mortality. Patients who experience frequent acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) have more severe muscle wasting and reduced recovery of muscle mass and function after each exacerbation. Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A (SAA) can rise more than 1000-fold in AECOPD and are predictively correlated with exacerbation severity. The direct effects of SAA on skeletal muscle are poorly understood. Here we have examined SAA effects on pro-inflammatory cachectic cytokine expression (IL-6 and TNF?) and atrophy in C2C12 myotubes. RESULTS:SAA increased IL-6 (31-fold) and TNF? (6.5-fold) mRNA levels compared to control untreated cells after 3h of SAA treatment, and increased secreted IL-6 protein at 24h. OxPAPC, a dual TLR2 and TLR4 inhibitor, reduced the response to SAA by approximately 84% compared to SAA alone, and the TLR2 neutralising antibody T2.5 abolished SAA-induced expression of IL-6, indicating that SAA signalling in C2C12 myotubes is primarily via TLR2. SAA also reduced myotube width by 10-13% and induced a 2.5-fold increase in the expression of the muscle atrophy gene Atrogin-1, suggesting direct effects of SAA on muscle wasting. Blocking of TLR2 inhibited the SAA-induced decrease in myotube width and Atrogin-1 gene expression, indicating that SAA induces atrophy through TLR2. CONCLUSIONS:These data demonstrate that SAA stimulates a robust pro-inflammatory response in skeletal muscle myotubes via the TLR2-dependent release of IL-6 and TNF?. Furthermore, the observed atrophy effects indicate that SAA could also be directly contributing to the wasting and poor recovery of muscle mass. Therapeutic strategies targeting this SAA-TLR2 axis may therefore ameliorate muscle wasting in AECOPD and a range of other inflammatory conditions associated with loss of muscle mass.
Project description:Circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) concentrations are often elevated in patients with sepsis or various endogenous diseases related to bacterial translocation from the gut. Systemic inflammatory responses induced by endotoxemia induce severe involuntary loss of skeletal muscle, termed muscle wasting, which adversely affects the survival and functional outcomes of these patients. Currently, no drugs are available for the treatment of endotoxemia-induced skeletal muscle wasting. Here, we tested the effects of TAK-242, a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-specific signalling inhibitor, on myotube atrophy in vitro and muscle wasting in vivo induced by endotoxin. LPS treatment of murine C2C12 myotubes induced an inflammatory response (increased nuclear factor-?B activity and interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-? expression) and activated the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy proteolytic pathways (increased atrogin-1/MAFbx, MuRF1, and LC-II expression), resulting in myotube atrophy. In mice, LPS injection increased the same inflammatory and proteolytic pathways in skeletal muscle and induced atrophy, resulting in reduced grip strength. Notably, pretreatment of cells or mice with TAK-242 reduced or reversed all the detrimental effects of LPS in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our results indicate that pharmacological inhibition of TLR4 signalling may be a novel therapeutic intervention for endotoxemia-induced muscle wasting.
Project description:mTOR is a major actor of skeletal muscle mass regulation in situations of atrophy or hypertrophy. It is established that Phospholipase D (PLD) activates mTOR signaling, through the binding of its product phosphatidic acid (PA) to mTOR protein. An influence of PLD on muscle cell size could thus be suspected. We explored the consequences of altered expression and activity of PLD isoforms in differentiated L6 myotubes. Inhibition or down-regulation of the PLD1 isoform markedly decreased myotube size and muscle specific protein content. Conversely, PLD1 overexpression induced muscle cell hypertrophy, both in vitro in myotubes and in vivo in mouse gastrocnemius. In the presence of atrophy-promoting dexamethasone, PLD1 overexpression or addition of exogenous PA protected myotubes against atrophy. Similarly, exogenous PA protected myotubes against TNF?-induced atrophy. Moreover, the modulation of PLD expression or activity in myotubes showed that PLD1 negatively regulates the expression of factors involved in muscle protein degradation, such as the E3-ubiquitin ligases Murf1 and Atrogin-1, and the Foxo3 transcription factor. Inhibition of mTOR by PP242 abolished the positive effects of PLD1 on myotubes, whereas modulating PLD influenced the phosphorylation of both S6K1 and Akt, which are respectively substrates of mTORC1 and mTORC2 complexes. These observations suggest that PLD1 acts through the activation of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 to induce positive trophic effects on muscle cells. This pathway may offer interesting therapeutic potentialities in the treatment of muscle wasting.
Project description:Tumor-derived cytokines are known to drive the catabolism of host tissues, including skeletal muscle. However, our understanding of the specific cytokines that initiate this process remains incomplete. In the current study, we conducted multiplex analyte profiling of cytokines in conditioned medium (CM) collected from human pancreatic cancer (PC) cells, human tumor-associated stromal (TAS) cells, and their co-culture. Of the factors identified, interleukin-8 (IL-8) is released at high levels from PC cells and PC/TAS co-culture and has previously been associated with low muscle mass in cancer patients. We, therefore, treated C2C12 myotubes with IL-8 which led to the activation of ERK1/2, STAT, and Smad signaling, and induced myotube atrophy. Moreover, the treatment of mice with IL-8 also induced significant muscle wasting, confirming the in vivo relevance of IL-8 on muscle. Mechanistically, IL-8-induced myotube atrophy is inhibited by treatment with the CXCR2 antagonist, SB225002, or by treatment with the ERK1/2 inhibitor, U0126. We further demonstrate that this axis mediates muscle atrophy induced by pancreatic cancer cell CM, as neutralization of IL-8 or treatment with SB225002 or U0126 significantly inhibit CM-induced myotube atrophy. Thus, these data support a key role of IL-8 released from human PC cells in initiating atrophy of muscle cells via CXCR2-ERK1/2.?.
Project description:Specialized contractile function and increased mitochondrial number and oxidative capacity are hallmark features of myocyte differentiation. The estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) can regulate mitochondrial biogenesis or mitochondrial enzyme expression in skeletal muscle, suggesting that ERRs may have a role in promoting myogenesis. Therefore, we characterized myogenic programs in primary myocytes isolated from wild-type (M-ERR?WT) and muscle-specific ERR?(-/-) (M-ERR?(-/-)) mice. Myotube maturation and number were decreased throughout differentiation in M-ERR?(-/-) primary myocytes, resulting in myotubes with reduced mitochondrial content and sarcomere assembly. Compared with M-ERR?WT myocytes at the same differentiation stage, the glucose oxidation rate was reduced by 30% in M-ERR?(-/-) myotubes, while medium-chain fatty acid oxidation was increased by 34% in M-ERR?(-/-) myoblasts and 36% in M-ERR?(-/-) myotubes. Concomitant with increased reliance on mitochondrial ?-oxidation, H(2)O(2) production was significantly increased by 40% in M-ERR?(-/-) myoblasts and 70% in M-ERR?(-/-) myotubes compared to M-ERR?WT myocytes. ROS activation of FoxO and NF-?B and their downstream targets, atrogin-1 and MuRF1, was observed in M-ERR?(-/-) myocytes. The antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine rescued myotube formation and atrophy gene induction in M-ERR?(-/-) myocytes. These results suggest that loss of ERR? causes metabolic defects and oxidative stress that impair myotube formation through activation of skeletal muscle atrophy pathways.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skeletal muscle atrophy is a pathological condition that contributes to morbidity in a variety of conditions including denervation, cachexia, and aging. Muscle atrophy is characterized as decreased muscle fiber cross-sectional area and protein content due, in part, to the proteolytic activities of two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases: muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx or Atrogin-1). The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway has emerged as a critical signaling network in skeletal muscle atrophy and has become a prime therapeutic target for the treatment of muscle diseases. Unfortunately, none of the NF-?B targeting drugs are currently being used to treat these diseases, likely because of our limited knowledge and specificity, for muscle biology and disease. The cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1 (cIAP1) protein is a positive regulator of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?)-mediated classical NF-?B signaling, and cIAP1 loss has been shown to enhance muscle regeneration during acute and chronic injury.<h4>Methods</h4>Sciatic nerve transection in wild-type, cIAP1-null and Smac mimetic compound (SMC)-treated mice was performed to investigate the role of cIAP1 in denervation-induced atrophy. Genetic in vitro models of C2C12 myoblasts and primary myoblasts were also used to examine the role of classical NF-?B activity in cIAP1-induced myotube atrophy.<h4>Results</h4>We found that cIAP1 expression was upregulated in denervated muscles compared to non-denervated controls 14?days after denervation. Genetic and pharmacological loss of cIAP1 attenuated denervation-induced muscle atrophy and overexpression of cIAP1 in myotubes was sufficient to induce atrophy. The induction of myotube atrophy by cIAP1 was attenuated when the classical NF-?B signaling pathway was inhibited.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These results demonstrate the cIAP1 is an important mediator of NF-?B/MuRF1 signaling in skeletal muscle atrophy and is a promising therapeutic target for muscle wasting diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle is characterized by an efficient regeneration potential that is often impaired during myopathies. Understanding the molecular players involved in muscle homeostasis and regeneration could help to find new therapies against muscle degenerative disorders. Previous studies revealed that the Ser/Thr kinase p21 protein-activated kinase 1 (Pak1) was specifically down-regulated in the atrophying gastrocnemius of Yoshida hepatoma-bearing rats. In this study, we evaluated the role of group I Paks during cancer-related atrophy and muscle regeneration. METHODS:We examined Pak1 expression levels in the mouse Tibialis Anterior muscles during cancer cachexia induced by grafting colon adenocarcinoma C26 cells and in vitro by dexamethasone treatment. We investigated whether the overexpression of Pak1 counteracts muscle wasting in C26-bearing mice and in vitro also during interleukin-6 (IL6)-induced or dexamethasone-induced C2C12 atrophy. Moreover, we analysed the involvement of group I Paks on myogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro using the group I chemical inhibitor IPA-3. RESULTS:We found that Pak1 expression levels are reduced during cancer-induced cachexia in the Tibialis Anterior muscles of colon adenocarcinoma C26-bearing mice and in vitro during dexamethasone-induced myotube atrophy. Electroporation of muscles of C26-bearing mice with plasmids directing the synthesis of PAK1 preserves fiber size in cachectic muscles by restraining the expression of atrogin-1 and MuRF1 and possibly by inducing myogenin expression. Consistently, the overexpression of PAK1 reduces the dexamethasone-induced expression of MuRF1 in myotubes and increases the phospho-FOXO3/FOXO3 ratio. Interestingly, the ectopic expression of PAK1 counteracts atrophy in vitro by restraining the IL6-Stat3 signalling pathway measured in luciferase-based assays and by reducing rates of protein degradation in atrophying myotubes exposed to IL6. On the other hand, we observed that the inhibition of group I Paks has no effect on myotube atrophy in vitro and is associated with impaired muscle regeneration in vivo and in vitro. In fact, we found that mice treated with the group I inhibitor IPA-3 display a delayed recovery from cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. This is consistent with in vitro experiments showing that IPA-3 impairs myogenin expression and myotube formation in vessel-associated myogenic progenitors, C2C12 myoblasts, and satellite cells. Finally, we observed that IPA-3 reduces p38?/? phosphorylation that is required to proceed through various stages of satellite cells differentiation: activation, asymmetric division, and ultimately myotube formation. CONCLUSIONS:Our data provide novel evidence that is consistent with group I Paks playing a central role in the regulation of muscle homeostasis, atrophy and myogenesis.
Project description:Irisin is a myokine secreted mainly from skeletal muscle that is known for having beneficial metabolic effects via enhancement of energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. Studies show that irisin also acts as an autocrine/paracrine to promote myogenesis and muscle growth. However, the protective role of irisin against muscular wasting remains unclear. We confirmed that irisin secretion was upregulated by electrical pulse stimulation an in vitro exercise mimetic model. Next, we tested if irisin exerted an anti-atrophic effect on cultured C2C12 myotubes treated with dexamethasone (DEX), a representative inducer of muscular atrophy. Treatment of cultured myotubes with DEX reduced myotube size and increased proteasome activity, which were attenuated by irisin. Also, irisin effectively prevented dephosphorylation of forkhead box O (FoxO) 3? and upregulation of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases in DEX-treated myotubes. The protective effect of irisin on DEX-mediated myotube atrophy was partially regulated by insulin-like growth factor-1-dependent signaling. These results suggested that irisin may prevent glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy by inhibiting FoxO-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome overactivity.
Project description:Standard in vitro myotube culture conditions are nonphysiological and there is increasing evidence that this may distort adaptations to both catabolic and anabolic stimuli and hamper preclinical research into mechanisms and treatments for muscle atrophy in cancer and other chronic diseases. We tested a new model of myotube culture which mimics more accurately the basal conditions for muscle tissue in patients with chronic disease, such as cancer. Myotubes derived from C2C12 myoblasts, cultured under the modified conditions were thinner, more numerous, with more uniform morphology and an increased proportion of mature myotubes. Furthermore, modified conditions led to increased expression of mir-210-3p, genes related to slow-twitch, oxidative phenotype and resistance to commonly used experimental atrophy-inducing treatments. However, treatment with a combination of drugs used in anti-cancer treatment (doxorubicin and dexamethasone) under the modified culture conditions did lead to myotube atrophy which was only partially prevented by co-administration of curcumin. The results underline the importance and potential advantages of using physiological conditions for in vivo experiments investigating mechanisms of muscle atrophy and especially for preclinical screening of therapies for cancer-related muscle wasting.
Project description:Humoral and tumoral factors collectively promote cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting by increasing protein degradation. Although several humoral proteins, namely TNF? (tumour necrosis factor ?) and IL (interleukin)-6, have been shown to induce skeletal muscle wasting, there is a lack of information regarding the tumoral factors that contribute to the atrophy of muscle during cancer cachexia. Therefore, in the present study, we have characterized the secretome of C26 colon cancer cells to identify the tumoral factors involved in cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting. In the present study, we show that myostatin, a procachectic TGF? (transforming growth factor ?) superfamily member, is abundantly secreted by C26 cells. Consistent with myostatin signalling during cachexia, treating differentiated C2C12 myotubes with C26 CM (conditioned medium) resulted in myotubular atrophy due to the up-regulation of muscle-specific E3 ligases, atrogin-1 and MuRF1 (muscle RING-finger protein 1), and enhanced activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Furthermore, the C26 CM also activated ActRIIB (activin receptor type II B)/Smad and NF-?B (nuclear factor ?B) signalling, and reduced the activity of the IGF-I (insulin-like growth factor 1)/PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt pathway, three salient molecular features of myostatin action in skeletal muscles. Antagonists to myostatin prevented C26 CM-induced wasting in muscle cell cultures, further confirming that tumoral myostatin may be a key contributor in the pathogenesis of cancer cachexia. Finally, we show that treatment with C26 CM induced the autophagy-lysosome pathway and reduced the number of mitochondria in myotubes. These two previously unreported observations were recapitulated in skeletal muscles collected from C26 tumour-bearing mice.
Project description:Skeletal muscle wasting is a feature of cancer cachexia that increases patient morbidity and mortality. Matrine, the main bioactive component of Sophora flavescens, has been approved for the prevention and therapy of cancer cachexia in China. However, to the best of our knowledge, its mechanism in improving muscle wasting remains unknown. The present study demonstrated that matrine increases muscle fiber size and muscle mass in an in vivo CT26 colon adenocarcinoma cachexia mouse model. Concurrently, other cachexia symptoms, including body and organ weight loss, were alleviated. In in vitro experiments, matrine substantially improved C2C12 myoblast differentiation with or without dexamethasone treatment. In addition, matrine reduced C2C12 myotube atrophy and apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, tumor necrosis factor ? and conditioned medium. Two E3 ubiquitin ligases, muscle RING?finger containing protein?1 and muscle atrophy F-box protein, which are specifically expressed in wasting skeletal muscle, were also significantly downregulated (P<0.05) by matrine both in C2C12 myotubes and skeletal muscle. Furthermore, matrine increased the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR and FoxO3? in the atrophying C2C12 myotube induced by dexamethasone. In conclusion, matrine can alleviate muscle atrophy and improve myoblast differentiation possibly by inhibiting E3 ubiquitin ligases and activating the Akt/mTOR/FoxO3? signaling pathway.