Conformational Transitions that Enable Histidine Kinase Autophosphorylation and Receptor Array Integration.
ABSTRACT: During bacterial chemotaxis, transmembrane chemoreceptor arrays regulate autophosphorylation of the dimeric histidine kinase CheA. The five domains of CheA (P1-P5) each play a specific role in coupling receptor stimulation to CheA activity. Biochemical and X-ray scattering studies of thermostable CheA from Thermotoga maritima determine that the His-containing substrate domain (P1) is sequestered by interactions that depend upon P1 of the adjacent subunit. Non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs (but not ATP or ADP) release P1 from the protein core (domains P3P4P5) and increase its mobility. Detachment of both P1 domains or removal of one within a dimer increases net autophosphorylation substantially at physiological temperature (55°C). However, nearly all activity is lost without the dimerization domain (P3). The linker length between P1 and P3 dictates intersubunit (trans) versus intrasubunit (cis) autophosphorylation, with the trans reaction requiring a minimum length of 47 residues. A new crystal structure of the most active dimerization-plus-kinase unit (P3P4) reveals trans directing interactions between the tether connecting P3 to P2-P1 and the adjacent ATP-binding (P4) domain. The orientation of P4 relative to P3 in the P3P4 structure supports a planar CheA conformation that is required by membrane array models, and it suggests that the ATP lid of CheA may be poised to interact with receptors and coupling proteins. Collectively, these data suggest that the P1 domains are restrained in the off-state as a result of cross-subunit interactions. Perturbations at the nucleotide-binding pocket increase P1 mobility and access of the substrate His to P4-bound ATP.
Project description:A two-component signal transduction pathway underlies the phenomenon of bacterial chemotaxis that allows bacteria to modulate their swimming behavior in response to environmental stimuli. The dimeric five-domain histidine kinase, CheA, plays a central role in the pathway, converting sensory signals to a chemical signal via trans-autophosphorylation between the P1 and P4 domains. This autophosphorylation is regulated via the networked interactions among the P5 domain of CheA, CheW, and chemoreceptors. Despite a wealth of structural information about these components and their interactions, the key question of how the kinase activity of the catalytic P4 domain is regulated by the signal received from the regulatory P5 domain remains poorly understood. We performed replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations on the CheA kinase core and found that while individual domains maintained their structural fold, these domains exhibited a variety of interdomain orientations due to two interdomain linkers. A partially populated conformation that adopts an interdomain arrangement is suitable for building a functional ternary complex. An allosteric network derived from this structural model implies critical roles for two linkers in CheA's activity. The biochemical and biological functions of these linkers were assigned via a series of biochemical and genetic assays that show the P4-P5 linker controls the activation of CheA and the P3-P4 linker controls both the basal autophosphorylation activity and the activation of CheA. These results reveal the functional dependence between the two linkers and the essential role of the linkers in passing signal information from one domain to another.
Project description:The signaling apparatus that controls bacterial chemotaxis is composed of a core complex containing chemoreceptors, the histidine autokinase CheA, and the coupling protein CheW. Site-specific spin labeling and pulsed dipolar ESR spectroscopy (PDS) have been applied to investigate the structure of a soluble ternary complex formed by Thermotoga maritima CheA (TmCheA), CheW, and receptor signaling domains. Thirty-five symmetric spin-label sites (SLSs) were engineered into the five domains of the CheA dimer and CheW to provide distance restraints within the CheA:CheW complex in the absence and presence of a soluble receptor that inhibits kinase activity (Tm14). Additional PDS restraints among spin-labeled CheA, CheW, and an engineered single-chain receptor labeled at six different sites allow docking of the receptor structure relative to the CheA:CheW complex. Disulfide cross-linking between selectively incorporated Cys residues finds two pairs of positions that provide further constraints within the ternary complex: one involving Tm14 and CheW and another involving Tm14 and CheA. The derived structure of the ternary complex indicates a primary site of interaction between CheW and Tm14 that agrees well with previous biochemical and genetic data for transmembrane chemoreceptors. The PDS distance distributions are most consistent with only one CheW directly engaging one dimeric Tm14. The CheA dimerization domain (P3) aligns roughly antiparallel to the receptor-conserved signaling tip but does not interact strongly with it. The angle of the receptor axis with respect to P3 and the CheW-binding P5 domains is bound by two limits differing by approximately 20 degrees . In one limit, Tm14 aligns roughly along P3 and may interact to some extent with the hinge region near the P3 hairpin loop. In the other limit, Tm14 tilts to interact with the P5 domain of the opposite subunit in an interface that mimics that observed with the P5 homologue CheW. The time domain ESR data can be simulated from the model only if orientational variability is introduced for the P5 and, especially, P3 domains. The Tm14 tip also binds beside one of the CheA kinase domains (P4); however, in both bound and unbound states, P4 samples a broad range of distributions that are only minimally affected by Tm14 binding. The CheA P1 domains that contain the substrate histidine are also broadly distributed in space under all conditions. In the context of the hexagonal lattice formed by trimeric transmembrane chemoreceptors, the PDS structure is best accommodated with the P3 domain in the center of a honeycomb edge.
Project description:Chemoreceptor arrays are supramolecular transmembrane machines of unknown structure that allow bacteria to sense their surroundings and respond by chemotaxis. We have combined X-ray crystallography of purified proteins with electron cryotomography of native arrays inside cells to reveal the arrangement of the component transmembrane receptors, histidine kinases (CheA) and CheW coupling proteins. Trimers of receptor dimers lie at the vertices of a hexagonal lattice in a "two-facing-two" configuration surrounding a ring of alternating CheA regulatory domains (P5) and CheW couplers. Whereas the CheA kinase domains (P4) project downward below the ring, the CheA dimerization domains (P3) link neighboring rings to form an extended, stable array. This highly interconnected protein architecture underlies the remarkable sensitivity and cooperative nature of transmembrane signaling in bacterial chemotaxis.
Project description:In bacterial chemotaxis, chemoreceptors in signaling complexes modulate the activity of two-component histidine kinase CheA in response to chemical stimuli. CheA catalyzes phosphoryl transfer from ATP to a histidinyl residue of its P1 domain. That phosphoryl group is transferred to two response regulators. Receptor control is almost exclusively at autophosphorylation, but the aspect of enzyme action on which that control acts is unclear. We investigated this by a kinetic analysis of activated kinase in signaling complexes. We found that phosphoryl transfer from ATP to P1 is an ordered sequential reaction in which the binding of ATP to CheA is the necessary first step; the second substrate, the CheA P1 domain, binds only to an ATP-occupied enzyme; and phosphorylated P1 is released prior to the second product, namely, ADP. We confirmed the crucial features of this kinetically deduced ordered mechanism by assaying P1 binding to the enzyme. In the absence of a bound nucleotide, there was no physiologically significant binding, but the enzyme occupied with a nonhydrolyzable ATP analog bound P1. Previous structural and computational analyses indicated that ATP binding creates the P1-binding site by ordering the "ATP lid." This process identifies the structural basis for the ordered kinetic mechanism. Recent mathematical modeling of kinetic data identified ATP binding as a focus of receptor-mediated kinase control. The ordered kinetic mechanism provides the biochemical logic of that control. We conclude that chemoreceptors modulate kinase by controlling ATP binding. Structural similarities among two-component kinases, particularly the ATP lid, suggest that ordered mechanisms and control of ATP binding are general features of two-component signaling.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Our work provides important new insights into the action of the chemotaxis signaling kinase CheA by identifying the kinetic mechanism of its autophosphorylation as an ordered sequential reaction, in which the required first step is binding of ATP. These insights provide a framework for integrating previous kinetic, mathematical modeling, structural, simulation, and docking observations to conclude that chemoreceptors control the activity of the chemotaxis kinase by regulating binding of the autophosphorylation substrate ATP. Previously observed conformational changes in the ATP lid of the enzyme active site provide a structural basis for the ordered mechanism. Such lids are characteristic of two-component histidine kinases in general, suggesting that ordered sequential mechanisms and regulation by controlling ATP binding are common features of these kinases.
Project description:The histidine kinase, CheA, couples environmental stimuli to changes in bacterial swimming behavior, converting a sensory signal to a chemical signal in the cytosol via autophosphorylation. The kinase activity is regulated in the platform of chemotaxis signaling complexes formed by CheW, chemoreceptors, and the regulatory domain of CheA. Our previous computational and mutational studies have revealed that two interdomain linkers play important roles in CheA's enzymatic activity. Of the two linkers, one that connects the dimerization and ATP binding domains is essential for both basal autophosphorylation and activation of the kinase. However, the mechanistic role of this linker remains unclear, given that it is far from the autophosphorylation reaction center (the ATP binding site). Here we investigate how this interdomain linker is coupled to CheA's enzymatic activity. Using modern nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques, we find that by interacting with the catalytic domain, the interdomain linker initiates long-range structural and dynamic changes directed toward the catalytic center of the autophosphorylation reaction. Subsequent biochemical assays define the functional relevance of these NMR-based observations. These findings extend our understanding of the chemotaxis signal transduction pathway.
Project description:In the bacterial chemotaxis two-component signaling system, the histidine-containing phosphotransfer domain (the "P1" domain) of CheA receives a phosphoryl group from the catalytic domain (P4) of CheA and transfers it to the cognate response regulator (RR) CheY, which is docked by the P2 domain of CheA. Phosphorylated CheY then diffuses into the cytoplasm and interacts with the FliM moiety of the flagellar motors, thereby modulating the direction of flagellar rotation. Structures of various histidine phosphotransfer domains (HPt) complexed with their cognate RR domains have been reported. Unlike the Escherichia coli chemotaxis system, however, these systems lack the additional domains dedicated to binding to the response regulators, and the interaction of an HPt domain with an RR domain in the presence of such a domain has not been examined on a structural basis. In this study, we used modern nuclear magnetic resonance techniques to construct a model for the interaction of the E. coli CheA P1 domain (HPt) and CheY (RR) in the presence of the CheY-binding domain, P2. Our results indicate that the presence of P2 may lead to a slightly different relative orientation of the HPt and RR domains versus those seen in such complex structures previously reported.
Project description:By use of the autophosphorylated epidermal-growth-factor receptor and the synthetic peptide RRLIE-DAEY(P)AARG, representing an autophosphorylation site of the transforming protein of Rous-sarcoma virus, it is demonstrated that the phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity of the polycation-stimulated phosphatases is substantially increased by an enzyme-directed effect of ATP or PPi. Concomitant with this increase in phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity, the phosphorylase phosphatase activity is decreased, thus dramatically changing the substrate specificity of these enzymes. The dephosphorylation of four different phosphotyrosyl sites of the epidermal-growth-factor receptor is neither consecutive nor at random, but a preferred dephosphorylation of the P1 site over the P3 greater than P2 greater than P4 sites is observed. This phosphatase activity represents a substantial fraction of the total phosphotyrosyl phosphatase activity in the post-mitochondrial supernatant of Xenopus laevis oocytes.
Project description:Phosphorylation-based signaling pathways employ dephosphorylation mechanisms for signal termination. Histidine to aspartate phosphosignaling in the two-component system that controls bacterial chemotaxis has been studied extensively. Rhodobacter sphaeroides has a complex chemosensory pathway with multiple homologues of the Escherichia coli chemosensory proteins, although it lacks homologues of known signal-terminating CheY-P phosphatases, such as CheZ, CheC, FliY or CheX. Here, we demonstrate that an unusual CheA homologue, CheA(3), is not only a phosphodonor for the principal CheY protein, CheY(6), but is also is a specific phosphatase for CheY(6)-P. This phosphatase activity accelerates CheY(6)-P dephosphorylation to a rate that is comparable with the measured stimulus response time of approximately 1 s. CheA(3) possesses only two of the five domains found in classical CheAs, the Hpt (P1) and regulatory (P5) domains, which are joined by a 794-amino acid sequence that is required for phosphatase activity. The P1 domain of CheA(3) is phosphorylated by CheA(4), and it subsequently acts as a phosphodonor for the response regulators. A CheA(3) mutant protein without the 794-amino acid region lacked phosphatase activity, retained phosphotransfer function, but did not support chemotaxis, suggesting that the phosphatase activity may be required for chemotaxis. Using a nested deletion approach, we showed that a 200-amino acid segment of CheA(3) is required for phosphatase activity. The phosphatase activity of previously identified nonhybrid histidine protein kinases depends on the dimerization and histidine phosphorylation (DHp) domains. However, CheA(3) lacks a DHp domain, suggesting that its phosphatase mechanism is different from that of other histidine protein kinases.
Project description:We investigated the kinetics of 4N-acetyl-pentapeptides, Ac-P1, Ac-P2, Ac-P3, and Ac-P4, regarding inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity. The peptides sequences of Ac-P1, Ac-P2, Ac-P3, and Ac-P4 were Ac-RSRFK, Ac-KSRFR, Ac-KSSFR, and Ac-RSRFS, respectively. The 4N-acetyl-pentapeptides were able to reduce the oxidation of l-DOPA by tyrosinase in a dose-dependent manner. Of the 4N-acetyl-pentapeptides, only Ac-P4 exhibited lag time (80 s) at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The tyrosinase inhibitory effects of Ac-P4 (IC50 0.29 mg/mL) were more effective than those of Ac-P1, Ac-P2, and Ac-P3, in which IC50s were 0.75 mg/mL, 0.78 mg/mL, and 0.81 mg/mL, respectively. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that all 4N-acetyl-pentapeptides were mixed-type tyrosinase inhibitors. Furthermore, 0.1 mg/mL of Ac-P4 exhibited significant melanogenesis inhibition on B16F10 melanoma cells and was more effective than kojic acid. The melanogenesis inhibition of Ac-P4 was dose-dependent and did not induce any cytotoxicity on B16F10 melanoma cells.
Project description:We have identified and purified six subforms of peroxisomes, designated P1 to P6, from the yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica. An analysis of trafficking of peroxisomal proteins in vivo suggests the existence of a multistep peroxisome assembly pathway in Y. lipolytica. This pathway operates by conversion of peroxisomal subforms in the direction P1, P2-->P3-->P4-->P5-->P6 and involves the import of various peroxisomal proteins into distinct vesicular intermediates. We have also reconstituted in vitro the fusion of the earliest intermediates in the pathway, small peroxisomal vesicles P1 and P2. Their fusion leads to the formation of a larger and more dense peroxisomal vesicle, P3. Fusion of P1 and P2 in vitro requires cytosol and ATP hydrolysis and is inhibited by antibodies to two membrane-associated ATPases of the AAA family, Pex1p and Pex6p. We provide evidence that the fusion in vitro of P1 and P2 peroxisomes reconstructs an actual early step in the peroxisome assembly pathway operating in vivo in Y. lipolytica.