Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports.
Project description:Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is a rare cause of lower leg pain incurred during sports activities and typically affects young athletes who need to return to their activity level as quickly as possible. Nonoperative treatments are often unsuccessful and fasciotomy of the involved compartment is the treatment of choice. Endoscopically assisted release of the anterior and deep compartments is proven to be safe and effective. Endoscopically assisted deep posterior compartment release via an incision 1 to 3 cm behind the medial tibial border has high risk of injury to the great saphenous and perforating veins and the saphenous nerve. The purpose of this Technical Note is to describe the details of endoscopic fasciotomy of the superficial and deep posterior compartments of the leg. The operative field of this approach is away from the saphenous vein and nerve. Moreover, the tibial insertion of the soleus muscle does not need to be released to gain access to the proximal part of the deep posterior compartment.
Project description:Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a significant source of lower extremity pain and morbidity in the athletic population. Although endoscopic techniques have been introduced, open fasciotomy remains the mainstay of surgical treatment because of the paucity of evidence in support of an endoscopic approach. The literature on surgical management of CECS is mixed, and overall success rates are modest at best. Optimizing surgical technique, including prevention of neurovascular injury and wound complications, can make a significant impact on the clinical outcome. Here we present our surgical technique, including pearls and pitfalls, for open 4-compartment fasciotomy for treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome.
Project description:Exertional compartment syndrome of the leg is a condition that can cause chronic debilitating pain in active persons during a variety of aerobic activities. Nonoperative treatments using stretching protocols and activity modifications are often unsuccessful, and thus several operative strategies have been used to treat this condition. A novel technique for endoscopically assisted fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome is described. By use of a small laterally based incision and an arthroscope, polydioxanone sutures are passed percutaneously along the anterior and lateral compartments with the Spectrum suture-shuttling device (ConMed Linvatec, Largo, FL). These sutures are used to retract the skin and subcutaneous tissues over the respective compartments. This method allows excellent visualization of the intercompartmental septum, the superficial peroneal nerve, and all perforating vessels. The anterior and lateral compartments can be safely and completely released with this minimally invasive approach. The patient is allowed to return to full activity at 6 weeks postoperatively, because of the decreased soft-tissue disruption.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The aims of this study were to analyze a large national trauma database to determine the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes after a fasciotomy of the lower leg or forearm after fracture.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from the National Trauma Data Bank for the years 2004-2016 were analyzed, and we identified 301,351 patients with forearm fractures and 369,237 patients with tibial fractures. Risk factors, length of stay (LOS), and mortality were assessed to determine associations with an injury that required a fasciotomy.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1.22% of the forearm fractures and 3.79% of the tibial fractures had a fasciotomy. Patients with a fasciotomy were more likely to have invasive procedures (P < 0.0001); have injuries resulting from machinery, motor vehicle collisions, and firearms (P < 0.0001); and smoke, use drugs, and/or alcohol (P < 0.05) compared with patients who did not undergo fasciotomies. Fasciotomy procedures were associated with longer LOS and higher mortality rate (P < 0.05).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The incidence of a fasciotomy is less than 5% in tibia or forearm fractures. Patients who underwent fasciotomy have higher energy injuries, increased alcohol or drug use, higher rates of surgical interventions, and increased LOS. Furthermore, having a fasciotomy is associated with increased mortality rate. When counseling patients and evaluating surgeon/hospital performance, fasciotomies can serve as an indicator and modifier for a more complex trauma pathology.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Project description:Exercise-induced chronic compartment syndrome in the first dorsal compartment is an uncommon entity and relatively rare condition which is not very well understood. It is a usually activity-related condition and is associated with decreased function of muscle with intracompartmental swelling. We present a case with proven exercise-induced raised compartment pressure that responded well to surgical fasciotomy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hoffmann's syndrome is a rare form of hypothyroid myopathy. Only a few cases of fasciotomy in this setting have previously been reported. CASE PRESENTATION:A 41-year-old Caucasian man under treatment for hypothyroidism presented with acute-onset severe pain in his forearm for no obvious reason and was admitted to our emergency room. He eventually developed compartment syndrome which necessitated surgical decompression. Soon after surgery he complained of similar symptoms in his calves. By the time his hypothyroid status was confirmed, conservative treatment and orally administered levothyroxine gradually made the pain from his calves disappear, without further surgical treatment. CONCLUSION:Hoffmann's syndrome may precipitate a compartment syndrome in the absence of trauma.
Project description:Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a well-recognized cause of leg pain in endurance athletes. Surgical fasciotomy for posterior leg CECS historically has inferior clinical results compared with anterior and lateral compartment release. Poor surgical technique with inadequate release may contribute to less reliable outcomes. In this Technical Note with accompanying video, we describe a mini-open approach for posterior CECS of the leg.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Silver Bullet Wound Closure Device (SBWCD, Boehringer Laboratories, Norristown, PA), a new device for delayed primary closure of fasciotomy wounds. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed over a period of 36 months of all patients with an upper extremity fasciotomy that could not be closed primarily. Cases that underwent fasciotomy closure with the SBWCD were separated from the patients that had a split thickness skin graft (STSG). RESULTS: Seven patients had their wound closed with the SBWCD within 10 days (mean of 7.4 days). The seven patients that underwent STSG had their wound closed in an average of 8.4 days. The average number of days between the day of the fasciotomy incision and the date of the placement of the SBWCD was 1.9 days. STSGs were placed on the fasciotomy wounds on an average of 10.3 days after the date of the fasciotomy incision. We found that the SBWCD allowed for starting to approximate the edges of the fasciotomy wound at an earlier time when compare to STSG (2.1 vs 10.3 days). CONCLUSIONS: We feel that the SBWCD as a one-stage procedure provides a consistent and efficacious way to manage upper extremity fasciotomy wounds while minimizing the morbidity associated with STSG. Elimination of a second-stage procedure reduces hospital costs. Our findings may help to inform surgeons about an available alternative when an upper extremity fasciotomy wound is not amenable to primary closure.
Project description:We present the case of a 44-year-old male with complaints of activity-induced, debilitating bilateral hand pain that had been undiagnosed for approximately six years. After extensive evaluation, intra-compartmental pressure monitoring confirmed the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome of both the adductor pollicis and the thenar compartments (abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, and opponens pollicis). A two-incision decompressive fasciotomy was performed and post-operative intra-compartmental pressure measurements pre- and post-exercise were obtained confirming successful treatment of the condition.
Project description:<h4>Introduction and importance</h4>The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is defined as new-onset organ failure induced by sustained elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Surgical decompression to decrease IAP may be performed in addition to supportive therapy.<h4>Case presentation</h4>A 42-year-old woman with a history of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, alcohol disorder (130 g of daily alcohol intake), and schizophrenia presented to the emergency department with worsening abdominal pain and anorexia for 2 days. On arrival, her Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14 (E3V5M6). Physical examination revealed tachypnea with a respiratory rate of 26 breaths/min; other vital signs were stable. She was diagnosed with severe acute pancreatitis and required massive transfusions to stabilize her hemodynamic status from the time of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Acute blood purification was initiated. Bilateral pleural effusions increased from the second day, and despite the evacuation of the intraluminal contents, muscle relaxation was initiated because her IAP had increased to 52 mmHg and remained the same. Therefore, midline fasciotomy was performed instead of a midline incision through the linea alba on day 4, and the patient was managed with negative pressure wound therapy thereafter. Blood purification was completed on day 15, extubation was performed on day 17, and the patient was discharged from the ICU on day 29.<h4>Clinical discussion and conclusion</h4>Midline fasciotomy can have a decompressive effect in patients with primary ACS. This technique may be an alternative to decompressive laparotomy because of its less invasive nature.