Ability of Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein, Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1, and S100B To Differentiate Normal and Abnormal Head Computed Tomography Findings in Patients with Suspected Mild or Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury.
ABSTRACT: Head computed tomography (CT) imaging is still a commonly obtained diagnostic test for patients with minor head injury despite availability of clinical decision rules to guide imaging use and recommendations to reduce radiation exposure resulting from unnecessary imaging. This prospective multicenter observational study of 251 patients with suspected mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) evaluated three serum biomarkers' (glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 [UCH-L1] and S100B measured within 6 h of injury) ability to differentiate CT negative and CT positive findings. Of the 251 patients, 60.2% were male and 225 (89.6%) had a presenting Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15. A positive head CT (intracranial injury) was found in 36 (14.3%). UCH-L1 was 100% sensitive and 39% specific at a cutoff value >40 pg/mL. To retain 100% sensitivity, GFAP was 0% specific (cutoff value 0 pg/mL) and S100B had a specificity of only 2% (cutoff value 30 pg/mL). All three biomarkers had similar values for areas under the receiver operator characteristic curve: 0.79 (95% confidence interval; 0.70-0.88) for GFAP, 0.80 (0.71-0.89) for UCH-L1, and 0.75 (0.65-0.85) for S100B. Neither GFAP nor UCH-L1 curve values differed significantly from S100B (p = 0.21 and p = 0.77, respectively). In our patient cohort, UCH-L1 outperformed GFAP and S100B when the goal was to reduce CT use without sacrificing sensitivity. UCH-L1 values <40 pg/mL could potentially have aided in eliminating 83 of the 215 negative CT scans. These results require replication in other studies before the test is used in actual clinical practice.
Project description:Background and Objectives: The annual global incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) is over 10 million. An estimated 29% of TBI patients with negative computed tomography (CT-) have positive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI+) findings. Judicious use of serum biomarkers with MRI may aid in diagnosis of CT-occult TBI. The current manuscript aimed to evaluate the diagnostic, therapeutic and risk-stratification utility of known biomarkers and intracranial MRI pathology. Materials and Methods: The PubMed database was queried with keywords (plasma OR serum) AND (biomarker OR marker OR protein) AND (brain injury/trauma OR head injury/trauma OR concussion) AND (magnetic resonance imaging/MRI) (title/abstract) in English. Seventeen articles on TBI biomarkers and MRI were included: S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B; N = 6), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; N = 3), GFAP/ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1; N = 2), Tau (N = 2), neurofilament-light (NF-L; N = 2), alpha-synuclein (N = 1), and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor peptide (AMPAR; N = 1). Results: Acute GFAP distinguished CT-/MRI+ from CT-/MRI- (AUC = 0.777, 0.852 at 9-16 h). GFAP discriminated CT-/diffuse axonal injury (DAI+) from controls (AUC = 0.903). Tau correlated directly with number of head strikes and inversely with white matter fractional anisotropy (FA), and a cutoff > 1.5 pg/mL discriminated between DAI+ and DAI- (sensitivity = 74%/specificity = 69%). NF-L had 100% discrimination of DAI in severe TBI and correlated with FA. Low alpha-synuclein was associated with poorer functional connectivity. AMPAR cutoff > 0.4 ng/mL had a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 92% for concussion and was associated with minor MRI findings. Low/undetectable S100B had a high negative predictive value for CT/MRI pathology. UCH-L1 showed no notable correlations with MRI. Conclusions: An acute circulating biomarker capable of discriminating intracranial MRI abnormalities is critical to establishing diagnosis for CT-occult TBI and can triage patients who may benefit from outpatient MRI, surveillance and/or follow up with TBI specialists. GFAP has shown diagnostic potential for MRI findings such as DAI and awaits further validation. Tau shows promise in detecting DAI and disrupted functional connectivity. Candidate biomarkers should be evaluated within the context of analytical performance of the assays used, as well as the post-injury timeframe for blood collection relative to MRI abnormalities.
Project description:Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), and S100B have been shown to be predictive of patients with brain injury. Kinetics of these biomarkers in injured humans have not been extensively examined. This prospective multi-center study included patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. Blood samples obtained at enrollment and every 6?h up to 24?h post-injury were assayed for GFAP, UCH-L1, and S100B. Random effects models examined changes in the biomarkers' level over time. A total of 167 patients were enrolled; mean age was 46.0?±?17.8, 61.1% were male, 143 (85.6%) had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, and 33 (19.8%) had a positive head computed tomography (CT) scan. Baseline median biomarker concentrations for all three were higher among CT-positive patients (p?<?0.0001) but GFAP was the only biomarker that significantly increased over time among CT-positive patients relative to CT-negative patients (log transformed values 0.037; 95% confidence interval 0.02, 0.05; p?<?0.001), indicating a 3.7% per hour rise in GFAP concentration. There was no significant increase in either UCH-L1 or S100B in CT-positive patients (p?=?0.15 and p?=?0.47, respectively). GFAP concentrations increased 3.7% per hour among CT-positive patients whereas neither UCH-L1 nor S100B increased, compared with CT-negative patients. The kinetics and temporal profile of GFAP suggest it may be a more robust biomarker to detect patients with positive CT findings, particularly at later post-injury times. Further study is needed to determine if GFAP is a useful test to follow throughout a patient's clinical course.
Project description:Brain-enriched protein biomarkers of tissue fate are being introduced clinically to aid in traumatic brain injury (TBI) management. The aim of this study was to determine how concentrations of six different protein biomarkers, measured in samples collected during the first weeks after TBI, relate to injury severity and outcome. We included neurocritical care TBI patients that were prospectively enrolled from 2007 to 2013, all having one to three blood samples drawn during the first 2 weeks. The biomarkers analyzed were S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), tau, and neurofilament-light (NF-L). Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) was assessed at 12 months. In total, 172 patients were included. All serum markers were associated with injury severity as classified on computed tomography scans at admission. Almost all biomarkers outperformed other known outcome predictors with higher levels the first 5 days, correlating with unfavorable outcomes, and UCH-L1 (0.260, pseduo-R2) displaying the best discrimination in univariate analyses. After adjusting for acknowledged TBI outcome predictors, GFAP and NF-L added most independent information to predict favorable/unfavorable GOS, improving the model from 0.38 to 0.51 pseudo-R2. A correlation matrix indicated substantial covariance, with the strongest correlation between UCH-L1, GFAP, and tau (r?=?0.827-0.880). Additionally, the principal component analysis exhibited clustering of UCH-L1 and tau, as well as GFAP, S100B, and NSE, which was separate from NF-L. In summary, a panel of several different protein biomarkers, all associated with injury severity, with different cellular origin and temporal trajectories, improve outcome prediction models.
Project description:Background: Technology platforms that afford biomarker discovery in patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain an unmet medical need. Here, we describe an observational pilot study to explore the utility of an alternating current electrokinetic (ACE) microchip device in this context. Methods: Blood samples were collected from participating subjects with and without minor TBI. Plasma levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Tau, ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were determined in subjects with and without minor TBI using ACE microchip device followed by on-chip immunofluorescent analysis. Post-concussive symptoms were assessed using the Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPCSQ) at one-month follow-up. Results: Highest levels of GFAP, UCH-L1, and Tau were seen in two minor TBI subjects with abnormality on head computed tomography (CT). In patients without abnormal head CT, Tau and GFAP levels discriminated between plasma from minor-TBI and non-TBI patients, with sensitivity and specificity of 64-72 and 50%, respectively. Plasma GFAP, UCH-L1, and Tau strongly correlated with the cumulative RPCSQ score. Plasma UCH-L1 and GFAP exhibited highest correlation to sensitivity to noise and light (r = 0.96 and 0.91, respectively, p < 0.001). Plasma UCH-L1 and Tau showed highest correlation with headache (r = 0.74 and 0.78, respectively, p < 0.001), sleep disturbance (r = 0.69 and 0.84, respectively, p < 0.001), and cognitive symptoms, including forgetfulness (r = 0.76 and 0.74, respectively, p < 0.001), poor concentration (r = 0.68 and 0.76, respectively, p < 0.001), and time required for information processing (r = 0.77 and 0.81, respectively, p < 0.001). cfDNA exhibited a strong correlation with depression (r = 0.79, p < 0.01) and dizziness (r = 0.69, p < 0.01). While cfDNA demonstrated positive correlation with dizziness and depression (r = 0.69 and 0.79, respectively, p < 0.001), no significant correlation was observed between cumulative RPCSQ and cfDNA (r = 0.07, p = 0.81). Conclusion: We provide proof-of-principle results supporting the utility of ACE microchip for plasma biomarker analysis in patients with minor TBI.
Project description:Objectives:To evaluate the ability of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCH-L1) to detect concussion in children and adult trauma patients with a normal mental status and assess biomarker concentrations over time as gradients of injury in concussive and non-concussive head and body trauma. Design:Large prospective cohort study. Setting:Three level I trauma centres in the USA. Participants:Paediatric and adult trauma patients of all ages, with and without head trauma, presenting with a normal mental status (Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15) within 4?hours of injury. Rigorous screening for concussive symptoms was conducted. Of 3462 trauma patients screened, 751 were enrolled and 712 had biomarker data. Repeated blood sampling was conducted at 4, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, 132, 144, 156, 168 and 180?hours postinjury in adults. Main outcomes:Detection of concussion and gradients of injury in children versus adults by comparing three groups of patients: (1) those with concussion; (2) those with head trauma without overt signs of concussion (non-concussive head trauma controls) and (3) those with peripheral (body) trauma without head trauma or concussion (non-concussive body trauma controls). Results:A total of 1904 samples from 712 trauma patients were analysed. Within 4?hours of injury, there were incremental increases in levels of both GFAP and UCH-L1 from non-concussive body trauma (lowest), to mild elevations in non-concussive head trauma, to highest levels in patients with concussion. In concussion patients, GFAP concentrations were significantly higher compared with body trauma controls (p<0.001) and with head trauma controls (p<0.001) in both children and adults, after controlling for multiple comparisons. However, for UCH-L1, there were no significant differences between concussion patients and head trauma controls (p=0.894) and between body trauma and head trauma controls in children. The AUC for initial GFAP levels to detect concussion was 0.80 (0.73-0.87) in children and 0.76 (0.71-0.80) in adults. This differed significantly from UCH-L1 with AUCs of 0.62 (0.53-0.72) in children and 0.69 (0.64-0.74) in adults. Conclusions:In a cohort of trauma patients with normal mental status, GFAP outperformed UCH-L1 in detecting concussion in both children and adults. Blood levels of GFAP and UCH-L1 showed incremental elevations across three injury groups: from non-concussive body trauma, to non-concussive head trauma, to concussion. However, UCH-L1 was expressed at much higher levels than GFAP in those with non-concussive trauma, particularly in children. Elevations in both biomarkers in patients with non-concussive head trauma may be reflective of a subconcussive brain injury. This will require further study.
Project description:Importance:There is potential scientific and clinical value in validation of objective biomarkers for sport-related concussion (SRC). Objective:To investigate the association of acute-phase blood biomarker levels with SRC in collegiate athletes. Design, Setting, and Participants:This multicenter, prospective, case-control study was conducted by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the US Department of Defense Concussion Assessment, Research, and Education (CARE) Consortium from February 20, 2015, to May 31, 2018, at 6 CARE Advanced Research Core sites. A total of 504 collegiate athletes with concussion, contact sport control athletes, and non-contact sport control athletes completed clinical testing and blood collection at preseason baseline, the acute postinjury period, 24 to 48 hours after injury, the point of reporting being asymptomatic, and 7 days after return to play. Data analysis was conducted from March 1 to November 30, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1), neurofilament light chain, and tau were quantified using the Quanterix Simoa multiplex assay. Clinical outcome measures included the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool-Third Edition (SCAT-3) symptom evaluation, Standardized Assessment of Concussion, Balance Error Scoring System, and Brief Symptom Inventory 18. Results:A total of 264 athletes with concussion (mean [SD] age, 19.08 [1.24] years; 211 [79.9%] male), 138 contact sport controls (mean [SD] age, 19.03 [1.27] years; 107 [77.5%] male), and 102 non-contact sport controls (mean [SD] age, 19.39 [1.25] years; 82 [80.4%] male) were included in the study. Athletes with concussion had significant elevation in GFAP (mean difference, 0.430 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.339-0.521 pg/mL; P?<?.001), UCH-L1 (mean difference, 0.449 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.167-0.732 pg/mL; P?<?.001), and tau levels (mean difference, 0.221 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.046-0.396 pg/mL; P?=?.004) at the acute postinjury time point compared with preseason baseline. Longitudinally, a significant interaction (group?×?visit) was found for GFAP (F7,1507.36?=?16.18, P?<?.001), UCH-L1 (F7,1153.09?=?5.71, P?<?.001), and tau (F7,1480.55?=?6.81, P?<?.001); the interaction for neurofilament light chain was not significant (F7,1506.90?=?1.33, P?=?.23). The area under the curve for the combination of GFAP and UCH-L1 in differentiating athletes with concussion from contact sport controls at the acute postinjury period was 0.71 (95% CI,?0.64-0.78; P?<?.001); the acute postinjury area under the curve for all 4 biomarkers combined was 0.72 (95% CI,?0.65-0.79; P?<?.001). Beyond SCAT-3 symptom score, GFAP at the acute postinjury time point was associated with the classification of athletes with concussion from contact controls (??=?12.298; 95% CI, 2.776-54.481; P?=?.001) and non-contact sport controls (??=?5.438; 95% CI, 1.676-17.645; P?=?.005). Athletes with concussion with loss of consciousness or posttraumatic amnesia had significantly higher levels of GFAP than athletes with concussion with neither loss of consciousness nor posttraumatic amnesia at the acute postinjury time point (mean difference, 0.583 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.369-0.797 pg/mL; P?<?.001). Conclusions and Relevance:The results suggest that blood biomarkers can be used as research tools to inform the underlying pathophysiological mechanism of concussion and provide additional support for future studies to optimize and validate biomarkers for potential clinical use in SRC.
Project description:Rapid risk-stratification of patients with acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) would inform management decisions and prognostication. The objective of this serum biomarker study (Biomarkers of Injury and Outcome [BIO]-Progesterone for Traumatic Brain Injury, Experimental Clinical Treatment [ProTECT]) was to test the hypothesis that serum biomarkers of structural brain injury, measured at a single, very early time-point, add value beyond relevant clinical covariates when predicting unfavorable outcome 6 months after moderate-to-severe acute TBI. BIO-ProTECT utilized prospectively collected samples obtained from subjects with moderate-to-severe TBI enrolled in the ProTECT III clinical trial of progesterone. Serum samples were obtained within 4?h after injury. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100B, ?II-spectrin breakdown product of molecular weight 150 (SBDP150), and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) were measured. The association between log-transformed biomarker levels and poor outcome, defined by a Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) score of 1-4 at 6 months post-injury, were estimated via logistic regression. Prognostic models and a biomarker risk score were developed using bootstrapping techniques. Of 882 ProTECT III subjects, samples were available for 566. Each biomarker was associated with 6-month GOS-E (p?<?0.001). Compared with a model containing baseline patient variables/characteristics, inclusion of S100B and GFAP significantly improved prognostic capacity (p???0.05 both comparisons); conversely, UCH-L1 and SBDP did not. A final predictive model incorporating baseline patient variables/characteristics and biomarker data (S100B and GFAP) had the best prognostic capability (area under the curve [AUC]?=?0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: CI 0.81-0.89). Very early measurements of brain-specific biomarkers are independently associated with 6-month outcome after moderate-to-severe TBI and enhance outcome prediction.
Project description:Biomarkers are important for accurate diagnosis of complex disorders such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). For a complex and multifaceted condition such as TBI, it is likely that a single biomarker will not reflect the full spectrum of the response of brain tissue to injury. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are among of the most widely studied biomarkers for TBI. Because UCH-L1 and GFAP measure distinct molecular events, we hypothesized that analysis of both biomarkers would be superior to analysis of each alone for the diagnosis and prognosis of TBI. Serum levels of UCH-L1 and GFAP were measured in a cohort of 206 patients with TBI enrolled in a multicenter observational study (Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury [TRACK-TBI]). Levels of the two biomarkers were weakly correlated to each other (r=0.364). Each biomarker in isolation had good sensitivity and sensitivity for discriminating between TBI patients and healthy controls (area under the curve [AUC] 0.87 and 0.91 for UCH-L1 and GFAP, respectively). When biomarkers were combined, superior sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing TBI was obtained (AUC 0.94). Both biomarkers discriminated between TBI patients with intracranial lesions on CT scan and those without such lesions, but GFAP measures were significantly more sensitive and specific (AUC 0.88 vs. 0.71 for UCH-L1). For association with outcome 3 months after injury, neither biomarker had adequate sensitivity and specificity (AUC 0.65-0.74, for GFAP, and 0.59-0.80 for UCH-L1, depending upon Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended [GOS-E] threshold used). Our results support a role for multiple biomarker measurements in TBI research. ( ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01565551).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum biomarkers may inform and improve care in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We aimed to correlate serum biomarkers with clinical severity, care path and imaging abnormalities in TBI, and explore their incremental value over clinical characteristics in predicting computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities. METHODS:We analyzed six serum biomarkers (S100B, NSE, GFAP, UCH-L1, NFL and t-tau) obtained <24 h post-injury from 2867 patients with any severity of TBI in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research (CENTER-TBI) Core Study, a prospective, multicenter, cohort study. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Discrimination was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals. FINDINGS:All biomarkers scaled with clinical severity and care path (ER only, ward admission, or ICU), and with presence of CT abnormalities. GFAP achieved the highest discrimination for predicting CT abnormalities (AUC 0•89 [95%CI: 0•87-0•90]), with a 99% likelihood of better discriminating CT-positive patients than clinical characteristics used in contemporary decision rules. In patients with mild TBI, GFAP also showed incremental diagnostic value: discrimination increased from 0•84 [95%CI: 0•83-0•86] to 0•89 [95%CI: 0•87-0•90] when GFAP was included. Results were consistent across strata, and injury severity. Combinations of biomarkers did not improve discrimination compared to GFAP alone. INTERPRETATION:Currently available biomarkers reflect injury severity, and serum GFAP, measured within 24 h after injury, outperforms clinical characteristics in predicting CT abnormalities. Our results support the further development of serum GFAP assays towards implementation in clinical practice, for which robust clinical assay platforms are required. FUNDING:CENTER-TBI study was supported by the European Union 7th Framework program (EC grant 602150).
Project description:BACKGROUND:The proteins S100B, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), and neurofilament light (NF-L) have been serially sampled in serum of patients suffering from traumatic brain injury (TBI) in order to assess injury severity and tissue fate. We review the current literature of serum level dynamics of these proteins following TBI and used the term "effective half-life" (t1/2) in order to describe the "fall" rate in serum. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Through searches on EMBASE, Medline, and Scopus, we looked for articles where these proteins had been serially sampled in serum in human TBI. We excluded animal studies, studies with only one presented sample and studies without neuroradiological examinations. RESULTS:Following screening (10,389 papers), n?=?122 papers were included. The proteins S100B (n?=?66) and NSE (n?=?27) were the two most frequent biomarkers that were serially sampled. For S100B in severe TBI, a majority of studies indicate a t1/2 of about 24?h, even if very early sampling in these patients reveals rapid decreases (1-2?h) though possibly of non-cerebral origin. In contrast, the t1/2 for NSE is comparably longer, ranging from 48 to 72?h in severe TBI cases. The protein GFAP (n?=?18) appears to have t1/2 of about 24-48?h in severe TBI. The protein UCH-L1 (n?=?9) presents a t1/2 around 7?h in mild TBI and about 10?h in severe. Frequent sampling of these proteins revealed different trajectories with persisting high serum levels, or secondary peaks, in patients with unfavorable outcome or in patients developing secondary detrimental events. Finally, NF-L (n?=?2) only increased in the few studies available, suggesting a serum availability of >10?days. To date, automated assays are available for S100B and NSE making them faster and more practical to use. CONCLUSION:Serial sampling of brain-specific proteins in serum reveals different temporal trajectories that should be acknowledged. Proteins with shorter serum availability, like S100B, may be superior to proteins such as NF-L in detection of secondary harmful events when monitoring patients with TBI.